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* FEB 24 1906
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Volume V

1800- 1901 A. D.




With this volume the endeavor to trace the un-
folding of the drama of Christian life, Christian teach-
ing, and Christian society through the Christian cen-
turies reaches our day. As nothing else the illumin-
ation of the action of this drama lights the pathway
of the Christian peoples, and gives a mighty impulse
toward the evangelization of the world in this genera-
tion. If our eyes do not, or shall not, behold the con-
summation of the drama, they see enough to make
sure that our Lord "shall see of the travail of his soul
and be satisfied."

This volume is the record of the mightiest of the
centuries. The political changes were stupendous.
The advance in the mastery of the physical world and
in the weal of the peoples was immeasurable. Not
less potent or transforming was the life of the Chris-
tian Church. The establishing of Christianity in
North America, the founding of those missionary
agencies which are to subdue the heathen world, and
the grand successes of the first onset, are of the vast-
est significance of any changes which mark the chron-
icle of the century. In Christendom itself, the con-
sciousness of the value of the Church, and the neces-
sity of understanding her history, first awakened by
the Oxford movement, has been felt to its farthest
bounds. Beside this awakening consciousness has
gone on the unfolding of the drama of the Roman

iv Preface.

Catholic Church until it culminated in the dogma of
papal infallibility. In parallel development has been
the progress of the life of the Evangelical Churches
into a consciousness of essential unity and practical
co-operation. In all lands the Christian faith has
been strengthened. As never in history before, Chris-
tendom has been made ready for the great conquest
of the world.

At the end of this record the Man of Calvary is
not only the unique figure in the history of the world,
not only the Savior of the individual soul, and the
Head of his Church, but he stands before our vision
as the Revelator saw him, *'the King of the Ages."
If the work of these years shall aid in showing that
there is a Divine plan in the unfolding life of the Chris-
tian Church, which should command our attention in
order that thought and life and work may be at their
best; if it shall make clear that the history of the
Church is not an inextricable maze of contradictions,
or a revolting record of crimes against our race, but
that the labors of the Christian Church, humble and
full of sacrifice, yet have cut deep the places for the feet
of our humanity in the upward march toward purer
heights of moral progress and of spiritual vision and
communion, then the work of the author's life shall not
have been in vain. If this record shall in any wise aid
to a more intelligent faith, a better guided, more earnest
and successful endeavor for the union of the Churches
of Jesus Christ, and a victorious attack upon heathen-
ism both at home and abroad, his prayer shall be an-
swered. May these volumes cheer those who work,
and those who can only wait, for the coming Kingdom
of God!

Preface. v

To the author the work of these ten years has
been a delight and the inspiration of his life. He has
spared no pains, but he knows that the best eflforts
leave many imperfections. He has written every line,
and has read the text five times to eliminate errors.
Knowing that some have escaped him, he will esteem
any correction a favor.

The author's warmest thanks are due to a crowd
of as faithful friends as ever blessed a man's life. If
their names may not be recorded here, their work is ;
for without their unfaltering aid these volumes could
not have been. Their names are engraven here in
living tables of the heart, and there in the Book of
God's Remembrance.


l^axt Itrst

The Characteristics of the Century.
The People's Century— Intellectual Life — Popular Govern-
ment—Social Consciousness— Humane Effort— The Moral
Life— The Spiritual Life— The Conquest of Nature— The
Christian Church — Great Factors in the Life of the
Century, ^3-i8


The French Revolution— The National Assembly— The Work
of the National Assembly— The Legislative Assembly—
The Convention— The Directory— Work of the Directory—
The Consulate— The Men of the Revolution— Mirabeau—
Carnot— Talleyrand— Napoleon Bonaparte— The Christian
Religion and the Revolution— The Civil Constitution of
the Clergy— The Persecution and the Non-juring Clergy
Law of November 29, 1791— Law of May 27, 1792— The
New Oath— Law of August 26, 1792— September Massacre,
September 2, 3, 1792— The Laws of March 17 and 21, and
October 23, 1793 -The Efforts to Extirpate Christianity in
France— Antichristian Orders of Fouche, October, 1793—
Shameless Scenes in the Convention, November 7, I793—
Worship of the Goddess of Reason, November 10, 1793—
The Terror and the Constitutional Bishops — Ferocious

Vol. s vii

viii Table of Contents.

Law of tiie Convention, March, 1794 — Festival of the
Supreme Being, June 8, 1794 — Return to Toleration, Law
of February 21, 1795 — Reopening of Churches, Law of
May, 1795 — The Renewed Persecution, Law of October 24,
1795— Penal Acts Against Priests Repealed, July 18, 1797 —
The New Oath — First National Council, August 15 to No-
vember 12, 1797 — The Bitter Law of November, 1798 — The
Directory and Pope Pius VI — The Directory and the Chris-
tian Sabbath — The Consulate, November, 1799, to Decem-
ber, 1S04 — The Relaxation and Repeal of Persecution —
Theo-philanthropists — Second National Council — Sum-
mary, 19-52

The Reaction.
The Irreconcilables — Other Parties in the Emigration — Char-
acter of the Emigrants — Moderate Royalists — The Con-
gress of Vienna, 1815 — The Reaction in France — The Re-
action in Germany — The Reaction in England— Progress
of the Revolution — The Revolution of 1830 — The Re-
action, 1830-1848— The Revolution of 1848— The Revolu-
tion in Austria — The Revolution in Germany — The Revo-
lution in Italy — France under Louis Napoleon — Sum-
mary, 53-64

The Romantic Movement.
Political Influence of the Movement — Influence on Church —
The Characteristic Features of the Romantic Movement —
The Romantic Movement in England — The Romantic
Movement in France — The Romantic Movement in Ger-
many — The Romantic Movement in Other Lands — The
Romantic Movement and Historical Learning — Sum-
mary, 65-76


The Roman Cathoi.ic Church.
The Church of Rome at the Outbreak of the French Revolu-
tion—The Other Side, the Fruitful Mother of Revolu-

VOL. 5

Table of Contents. ix

tions — The Revolution and the Church — The Papacy —
The Conclave of 1800— Consalvi— Pius VII— Leo XII—
Pius VIII — Gregory XVI — Pius IX — The Church in
France — The Concordats — Loss to the Pope — Gain to the
Pope — The Organic Articles — Pius VII and Napoleon —
The Concordat of Fontainebleau, 18 13 — The Refounding
of the Jesuits, and the Restoration of the States of the
Church — Roman Catholic Church in France after the
Restoration — Roman Catholic Church in Germany — Great
Britain — Spain and Portugal — The General Policy of the
Roman Catholic Church— The Concordats— The Jesuits-
Summary, 77-111


EvANGEWCAL Christendom.
In Continental Europe — The Evangelical Church in Ger-
many — Schleiermacher — Neander — DeWette — The En-
forced Liturgy — Tholuck — Hengstenberg — Adolf Har-
less — David Frederick Strauss — Christian Ferdinand
Baur — Feuerbach — Richard Rothe — Gustavus Adolphus
Verein or Union — Deaconesses — Fliedner — Inner Mis-
sion; John Henry Wichern— The Rauhe Haus— Johannes
Stift — The Inner Missions — Last Days of Wichern — The
Evangelical Church in Switzerland and France — Jean
Monod — Frederick Monod — Adolphe Monod — Caesar
Malan — D'Aubigne — Alexander Rodolphe Vinet, . 1 12-140


The Evangewcai, Church in Engi^and.

The Archbishops of Canterbury — Archbishop Sutton — Arch-
bishop Hov^rley — Archbishop Sumner — Preaching — Evan-
gelism and Missions — Education — The Religious Press —
Bible Societies — Charities — Reforms— John Newton and
Rowland Hill — Richard Cecil — Charles Simeon— John
Venn and Henry Venn — William Wilberforce — Henry
Thornton— James Stephen — Zachary Macaulay — Hannah
More — Elizabeth Fry — The Presbyterians — The Congrega-
tionalists — The Baptists — Andrew Fuller — William Carey
—Missions, England— Robert Hall— John Foster— The

Vol. 5

X Table of Contents.

Methodists — Adam Clarke — Richard Watson — Robert
Newton— Jabez Bunting — Nonconformists and Educa-
tion—Scope of the Evangelical Movement— Elements of
Decay in the Evangelical Movement — Static, not Dy-
namic—Pastoral Neglect — Intellectual Barrenness— Par-
— " tial View of Life— Perversions— The Broad Church Move-
ment—Samuel Taylor Coleridge— Thomas Arnold— Julius
Charles Hare — Frederick William Robertson— Richard
Whately — Connop Thirlwall — Radicals — The Oxford
Movement — Oriel College— John H. Newman —John
Keble— Richard William Church— The Causes of the Ox-
ford Movement ; Political — Theological — Religious —
Moral— Historic— The Romantic Tendency— The Aims of
the Movement— The Defects of the Oxford Movement—
Extravagances— Course of the Oxford Movement— Plym-
outh Brethren, 141-210

The EVANGE1.1CA1, Church in Scoti^and.
Thomas Erskine — Robert Haldane— James Alexander Hal.
dane— Thomas Chalmers— The Disruption and Founding
of the Free Church of Scotland— The Free Church of
Scotland— Chalmers's Parish Work— Thomas Guthrie—
Alexander Duff— Norman McLeod, 211-220

The Christian Church in America.

In the United States.
The Era of Settlement, 1800-1850— Plastic Social Condition—
Hopefulness — American Characteristics — Literary Devel-
opment — Education — Politics — Emigration — The Work of
the Christian Church— Planting in the Wilderness — Re-
ligious Conditions— Revivals— The Enlarged Activities of
the Church— The Sunday-school— Missions— Bible Socie-
ties—Tract Societies— Church Publication Houses— Edu-
cation — Reforms; Dueling; Temperance; Slavery — Sec-
tarian Divisions — Perversions — Doctrinal Change — The
Leading Clergy— Timothy Dwight— Lyman Beecher—
Charles G. Finney — Adoniram Judson — Francis Way-

VOL. 5

Table of Contents. xi

land — William Ellery Channiug— Ralph Waldo Emerson—
Theodore Parker — John M. Mason — Eliphalet Nott —
William White — Charles P. Mcllvaine — Francis Asbury —
Peter Cartwright— John Summerfield — George G. Cook-
man — Thomas H. Stockton — The Congregational Church
— The Plan of Union — The Unitarian Schism — The Amer-
ican Board — Education — Theological Schools — Theo-
logians — lyconard Woods — Moses Stuart — Nathaniel Tay-
lor — Statistics — The Unitarians; Influence — The Univer-
salists — The Baptists — Missions — Education — Free-Will
Baptists — Seventh-Day Baptists — Richard Furman — Spen-
cer Cone — Asahel C. Kendrick — Statistics — The Disci-
ples — The Christians — The Presbyterians — Old and New
School Presbyterians — Reformed and Associate Presby-
terians — The Cumberland Presbyterians — Charles Hodge
— Albert Barnes — Gardiner Spring — Edward G. Robin-
son — Dutch Reformed — George W. Bethune — The German
Reformed Church— Philip Schafif— The Lutherans— Buf-
falo Synod — The Missouri Synod — Samuel S. Schmucker —
Statistics — The Moravians — The Friends — The Protestant
Episcopal Church — John Henry Hobart — Alexander V.
Griswold — Richard Channing Moore — John Stark Ra-
venscroft — Philander Chase — The Methodist Episcopal
Church — Slavery — African Methodist Churches — Tem-
perance — Extension of the Church — The Change in
1820 — The Election of Presiding Elders — Methodist
Protestants — Growth, 1830-1840 — Methodist Press — Mis-
sions — Slavery — General Conference, 1844 — Methodist
Episcopal Church Education, 1840-1850 — Mission Work of
the Methodist Episcopal Church — The United Brethren —
The Evangelical Association — Statistics— Joshua Soule —
Elijah Hedding — Nathan Bangs — Wilbur Fisk — Stephen
Olin — William Capers — Henry B. Bascom — The Roman
Catholic Church — Bishop England — Schisms — Anti-Roman
Catholic Riots — New Archiepiscopal Sees — Councils —
John Hughes — Statistics — Work of the Men of this
Time— The Spirit of this Era— Adventists— The Oneida
Community — The Mormons — Spiritualism — Churches in
Canada — Roman Catholic — The Evangelical Churches —


xii Table of Contents.

Spanish America — Independence of Spanish American Re-
publics — Mexico — Venezuela — Chili and Peru — Ecuador —
Bolivia and Uruguay — Colombia — Paraguay — Chili and
Argentine — Brazil — The Roman Catholic Episcopate in
Spanish America, 221-343

The Orientai. or Greek Cathoi^ic Church.
Evangelical Missions — Greek Independence — The Church in
Russia — Other Oriental Christians, 344-349




The Characteristics of the Period.
The Political Development — The Mohammedan States — The
Heathen States — America — In Europe — The Social Prog-
ress — Literature — The Scientific Movement, . . . 351-359



The Crimean War— The Union of Italy— The Civil War in
the United States — The Polish Insurrection — The New
German Empire — Progress of the Cause — Turkish Affairs
— Russian Advance — England and France in the East —
International Alliance, 360-376


The Political and Social Progress of Great Britain.

Political Reforms — Social Reform — The Conditions of the In-
dustrial Classes — Pauper Apprentices — Remedial Legisla-
tion — Report of Commission on Factory Labor, July 13,
1833— The Earl of Shaftesbury — The Cripples at Brad-
ford — Labor in the Collieries — Child Labor and Women in
the Collieries — Legislation, Act of 1843 — Obstacles — Agri-
cultural Gangs, 377-395

Vol. 5

Table of Contents. xiii


The Scientific Movement.
Astronomy — Geology — Physics — Chemistry — The Human
Body — Medicine — Invention — Light — Photography —
Transportation— Industrial Inventions— In Agriculture-
Mining— Wood Working— Metal Manufactures— Textile
Manufactures— The Press— Electrical Progress— The Tele-
phone—Inventions for Defense— The Scientific Movement
and the Christian Faith— The Attack Repulsed, . 396-420

The Papacy.

The Jesuits— The Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of
the Virgin— The Cultus of the Sacred Heart of Jesus—
Intolerance— The Papal Government— The Papal Army—
The Syllabus— The Vatican Council— Vatican Decrees—
Dollinger — The Old Catholic Movement — The Kultur-
kampf— The Falk Laws — Leo XIII and the Kultur-
kampf— Results of the Kulturkampf— Death of Pius IX—
Leo XIII— Policy of Leo XIII— The Encyclical, 1885—
Form of Government — Religious Toleration— Scientific
Research— Political Action— Failures of Papal Diplomacy
—The Results of the Vatican Council— Results of this In-
terpretation of the Dogma unfinished, 421-481

Vol. 5



HE books here mentioned, as in the lists accompany-
ing the other volumes, have been used in the prep-
aration for this work.

The French Revolution and Reaction, i 789-1 850.


Pius VI, Pont. Max. ; ** Acta quibus ecclesise Cathol-
icae Calamitatibus in Gallia Consultum est," 2 vols.;
"Memoirs of Talleyrand," 3 vols., Eng. trans.;
"Memoirs of Madame de Remusat;" "History of
Europe, 1789-1815," A. Alison, 4 vols., 1850; "His-
toire de la Revolution Fran9aise," Eng. trans., A.
Thiers, 2 vols., 1862; "Histoire de la Revolution
Fran9aise," F. A. Mignet, 1836 ; — best in one volume.
"The Revolution," H. A. Taine, Eng. trans., 2 vols.,
1878-1888; "History of the French Revolution," H.
von Sybel, 4 vols., Eng. trans., 1868; — indispensable.
"Geschichte Franzosischen Revolution, 1789-1799,"
Eudwig Hausser, 1867 ; — valuable. Same, " Lectures,"
Max Lenz, Berlin ; " History of the French Revolu-
tion," T. Carlyle, 2 vols. ; " The Flight to Varennes,"
Oscar Browning; — a searching criticism of Carlyle's
methods and statements. " The French Revolution,"
H. Morse Stephens, 2 vols. ; " The Era of the Revo-
lution," H. Morse Stephens;— in "Periods of Euro-
pean History;" — the best modern study. "The Gal-
ilean Church : a History of the Church of France,"
1516-1789; "The Church and the Revolution," W.
Vol. 5 XV

xvi The Literature.

H. Jervis, Vol. Ill, 2 vols., 1872; "Religion and the
"Reign of Terror," E. D. Pressense ; " The Consulate
and Empire," A. Thiers, 20 vols., Eng. trans.; "His-
toire de Napoleon I," P. Lanfrey, 4 vols., 1S79, Eng.
trans. ; " Bonaparte et son Temps," T. Jung, 2 vols. ;
" Life of Napoleon Bonaparte," W. H. Sloane,[3 vols. : —
the best work on Napoleon. "E'Eglise Romaine et le
Premier Empire, 1 800-1814," Comte D'Haussonville,
5 vols., 1868; "Memoirs du Cardinal Consalvi,"
Cretin Eau-Jely, 2 vols., 1864; "Vermischten Schrif-
ten," L. von Ranke; "The Administration of Car-
dinal Consalvi ;" " Histoire des Deux Concordats," A.
Thiers, 2 vols., 1869; "Histoire du Pape Pius VII,"
Chevalier Artand, 2 vols., 1836; " Memoire Storiche,"
Cardinal Pacca, 1830; " Storia d'ltalia," C. Botta, 14
vols.; "Annali d'ltalia," Coppi, 6 vols.; "Manuale
del Sacerdozio ad uno principalmente de' Semina-
risti," Guy de Cressi, 1838; "Histoire Civile du Roy-
aume de Naples " (from the time of the Roman Em-
pire to 1723), Pierre Giannone, 4 vols., 1742; French
trans.; "Storia del Reame di Napoli," 1734-1823, P.
Colletta, 2 vols., 1834; " The Life and Times of Stein,
or Germany and Prussia in the Napoleonic Age," J.
R. Seeley, 2 vols., 1879; " Histoire General de Traites
de Paix, 1648-1815," Comte de Garden, 14 vols.; " Le
Congres de Vienne," M. Capefigue, 2 vols., 1863 ;
"History of Ten Years, 1830-1840," Louis Blanc, 2
vols., 1844, Eng. trans.; "Vic de Monseigneur Du-
panloup," Le Grange, 3 vols., 1883; " Lo Stato Ro-
mano, 1815-1850," Luigi C. Farni, 4 vols., 1853;
" Moto Proprio della Santita di nostro Signore Papa
Pio Settimo Sulla organizzazione dell' Amministra-
tion Pubblica, July 6, 1816," 1816; "Storia Docu-
menta della Diplomazia Europea in Italia, 1814-1861,"
Nicomede Biandchi, 8 vols.; " La Corte e la Societa
Romana nei Secoli XVIII e XIX," David Salvagni, 3

Vol 5

The Literature. xvii

vols.; "Roba di Roma," W. W. Story; "Walks in
Rome " and "Days near Rome," A. J. C. Have ; " Mad-
emoiselle Mori," a story of the Revolution of 1849; —
good for Italian manners. " Handbuch der Neuesten
Kirchengeschichte," F. Nippold, 3 vols.; — valuable
for facts, theory all wrong. " History of Protestant
" Theology," J. A. Dorner, 2 vols. ; " I^ife and I^etters
of Schleiermacher," 2 vols., Eng. trans. ; " Begrunding
der Deutschen Reichs," H. von Sybel, 7 vols. ; now
in Eng. trans. " The lycading Currents in the His-
tory of the Literature in the Nineteenth Centur3^"
George Brandes, 6 vols. ; also the leading works on
the Romantic Movement.

Secular and Ecclesiastical History, i 850-1901.


" Development of Theology," Otto Pfleiderer, 1893,
Eng. trans. ; " Economic Interpretation of History,"
Thorold Rogers, 1888; " History of Modern Europe,"
A. C. Fyfie, 3 vols., 1880-1890; "Political History of
Recent Times, 1816-1875," W. Miiller, 1882, Eng.
trans. ; " The Nineteenth Century," Robert Macken-
zie ; " The History of Our Own Times," Justin Ma-
carty, 2 vols.; "Periods of European History, 1815-
1899," Alison Phillipsi, 1901 ; " History of the English
Parliament," G. Barnett Smith, 2 vols., 1892; "Es-
says," T. B. Macaulay, 3 vols., 1876 ; " Life and Let-
ters of Macaulay," G. O. Trevelyan, 2 vols., 1876;
"Life of Stratford-Canning," S. Lane-Poole, 2 vols.,
1888; William Wilberforce," John Stoughton, 1880;
" Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography," James Stephen,
1867; "Theological Institutes," Richard Watson, 2
vols. ; " Life of Jabez Bunting," Percival Bunting :
"The Christian Year," John Keble; "Apologia pro
Vita Sua," John H. Newman, 1867; "John H. New-
man's Letters and Correspondence to 1845," 2 vols.;

Vol 5

xviii The Literature.

" Life of Edward B. Pusey," H. P. Liddon and others,
4 vols,, 1897; "Spiritual Letters," E. B. Pusey, 1897;
" Ireniconos," E. B. Pusey ; " Life of Cardinal Man-
ning," E. S. Purcell, 2 vols., 1896; " William George
Ward and the Oxford Movement," Wilfrid Ward,
1889 ; " Reminiscences chiefly of Oriel College and
the Oxford Movement," T. Mozeley, 2 vols.; "Histor-
ical and Theological Essays," J. B. Mozeley, 2 vols,,
1882 ; " The Oxford Movement for Twelve Years,
1833-1845," R. W. Church, 1891. Five great Oxford
leaders — Keble, Newman, Pusey, Liddon, Church.
These last two best, brief accounts, but they are
partial, "The Secret History of the Oxford Move-
ment," Walter Walsh, 1899; "Works of S. T. Cole-
ridge," 7 vols.; " Life of Frederick D. Maurice," A. G.
Donaldson, 1900 ; " The Memorials of a Quiet Life,"
A. J. C. Hare ; " Life and Correspondence of Arthur P.
Stanley," R. E. Pothero, 2 vols, ; "Life of Bishop Sam-
uel Wilberforce," R. Wilberforce, 1883; " Life of Archi-
bald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury," R, T.
Davidson, 2 vols., 1891 ; "Life of Edward White Ben-
son, sometime Archbishop of Canterbury," A. C.
Benson, 2 vols., 1900; " Life and Work of the Seventh
Earl of Shaftesbury, K. G.," E. Hodder, 3 vols., 1886;
" Sermons," H. P. Liddon ; " The Divinity of Our
Lord Jesus Christ: Bampton Lectures, 1866," H. P.
Liddon ; " The Tongue of Fire," W. Arthur ; " Ser-
mons," C. H. Spurgeon; "Sermons," Joseph Parker;
" Come to Jesus." Newman Hall ; " Biblical Essays "
and "Essays on Supernatural Religion," J. B. Light-
foot; "Life of Charles H. Spurgeon," 4 vols.; "The
Story of Nineteenth Century Science," H. S. Williams ;
" The Wonderful Century," Alfred R. Wallace.

Vol 5

The Literature. xix

American Church History Series, i8go-i8g6.

"Religious Forces in the United States," H. W.
Carroll : Baptists, A. H. Newman ; Congregationalists,
W. Walker ; IvUtherans, G. E. Jacobs ; Methodists, J.
M. Buckley ; Protestant Episcopalians, C. C. Tiffany ;
Dutch and German Reformed and Moravians, Corwin
Dubbs ; Roman Catholics, T. O'Gorman ; Unitarians
and Universalists, Allen and Eddy ; Methodist Epis-
copal South, United Presbyterians, Cumberland Pres-
byterians, Presbyterians South, Disciples, Friends,
United Brethren, Evangelical Association. "Relig-
ious Progress in the United States," D. Dorchester;
" History of American Churches," E. W. Bacon ; '♦ The
Founder of Mormonism," T. W. Riley, 1902; "Ser-
mons for the New Life," Horace Bushnell, 1858;
"Nature and the Supernatural," Horace Bushnell,
1858; **Eife and Letters of Horace Bushnell," Mary
B. Cheney, 1880; "Faith and Philosophy," H. B.
Smith; " System of Christian Theology," H. B. Smith,
1884; "Henry Boynton Smith, His Life and Work,"
Mrs. H. B. Smith, 1880; "Systematic Theology,"
Charles Hodge, 3 vols., 1871 ; "Pastoral Sketches,"
I. Spencer, 2 vols.; "Revival Lectures," Charles G.
Finney; "Life of Charles G. Finney;" "The Life of
Dwight L. Moody," W. R. Moody, 1900; "Martin B,
Anderson; A Biography," A. C. Kendrick, 1895:
"Ezekiel G. Robinson: An Autobiography," E. H.
Johnson, 1896; " Adoniram Judson," Edward Judson,
1883; "The Life of Alexander Duff," George Smith,
2 vols. ; " The Personal Life of David Livingstone,"
W. G. Blaikie, 1881 ; " Life of John Coleridge Patte-

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