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after the battle of Jena, leaving there in 1807, as he
did not wish to remain under Napoleon. Before going
to Halle, in 1799, he had published his "Reden" or
"Discourses Concerning Religion," in which he vindi-
cated religion as a necessary part of man's nature.

In 1800 he published his ''Monologues," and in
1803 his " Criticism of Existing Systems of Ethics,"
a work of profound learning and reflection and of pen-
etrating judgment. In 1807 he returned to Berlin as
pastor of the Trinity Church. In October of that
year his warm friend Eberhard Von Willich died, leav-
ing a widow twenty-one years old and two children.
In May, 1809, Schleiermacher married Henrietta Von
Willich, he being then forty-one years of age. Few
men have developed more in the family circle than
this man of great intellect and profound feeling, and
few men have had a happier married life. He had
three children, two daughters who survived him, and
a son, Nathaniel, who died aged nine, in 1829. Be-
sides these he brought up in his house the two chil-
dren of his wife by her former husband, and two
adopted children, one the child of his half-sister, and
the other of a friend. His sister lived with him until
her marriage to the poet Arndt in 1817.

In 1 810, Schleiermacher was called as Professor of

Evangelical Christendom. n;

Philosophy to the newly-founded University of Ber-
lin, which chair he filled until his death. He also
preached regularly in the Trinity Church, and was the
most celebrated preacher in Germany. From his
Moravian training, his personal experience, and his
value of the emotional life, there came from his pulpit
a warmth of devotion, with thoughts of scope and
power, and a penetrating spiritual insight. There
were no gifts of the orator; in person he was like
Paul, small and slightly deformed ; nor was there the
charm of a finished literary style, for nothing was
written but the text, the topic, and a few leading divis-
ions. But in his sermons a great soul made great
truths live for men, so that their strength and power
entered into the spiritual being. In that circular
church, with its five tiers of galleries, the great
preacher's presence seems potent still, while Dryander
crowds every foot of space, and, in simplicity and
power, recalls the throngs and might of the Word of
the century's early days.

Schleiermacher was great as a philosopher and
teacher of ethics. He learned much from Plato and
Spinoza, though I^eibnitz and Kant were his masters.
The latter system he largely recast, accepting elements
from Fichte and Jacobi. His great work in theology
was his "Christian Faith According to the Funda-
mental Principles of the Evangelical Church," 1821-2,
and 1831-2.

The fundamental position of Schleiermacher was,
that religious feeling is the highest form of thought
and life ; in it we are conscious of our unity with the
world and God. This lies at the basis of all knowl-
edge. Christianity is specifically the mediatorial re-

ii8 History of the Christian Church.

ligion uniting the individual with the infinite whole in
God, and this mediation is by Jesus Christ. Thus he
transcends the difference between rationalists and
supernaturalists in a higher conception, and renders
religion superior to changing systems of metaphysics.
In his work, in his influence as a preacher, in his
devotion as an enlightened patriot, above all in his
character as a man, as much as by the comprehen-
siveness, the penetration and value of his thought, he
may well be called the restorer of the Christian faith
in Germany. Like Origen fifteen hundred years be-
fore, he made Christianity the religion of the educated
men as well as of the people. The value of that work,
even now, can scarcel}^ be estimated. His defects
were a pantheistic influence, which affected his con-
ception of the Trinity and of human immortality.

Great as was Schleiermacher in his endowments
and service, he was greater in himself His was a
rich, a deep, and a harmoniously-developed nature,
trained through severe trial as well as profound study.
His " Letters " may well be called the mirror of a noble
soul. His passion for truth, his high, warm, and true
affections, the elevation and scope of his thoughts, are
apparent on every page. To read them is to realize
something of the possibilities of communion with the
saints and of the truthfulness of the human spirit.

February 12, 1834, Schleiermacher lay dying in his
home in Berlin. He suffered greatly. Then he said :
" I have never clung to the dead letter, and we have the
atoning death of Jesus Christ, his body, and his blood,
I have ever believed, and still believe, that the Lord
Jesus Christ gave the communion in water and wine."
He then raised himself up, consecrated the elements,

Evangelical Christendom. 119

and administered the communion to his household,
and said: "On these words of the Scripture ['take,
eat,' etc.] I rely. They are the foundation of my
faith." Then, after the blessing, with a look full of
love he said, "In this love and communion we are, and
ever will remain, united." In a few minutes he was

The most influential and truest scholar of Schleier-
macher was David Mendel, the son of a Jewish ped-
ler, born at Gottingen, January 17, 1789,

< f • 1 • I r K Neander.

who took at his baptism the name of August
Neander (i 789-1 850). He derived his talents and dis-
position from his mother. When quite young his
parents removed to Hamburg. In the Johaneum and
gymnasium of that city he prepared for the univer-
sity. While so engaged he became absorbed in Plato,
and Plato led him to Christ. He was baptized at
Hamburg, February 25, 1806. The same year he
went to Halle, and heard and came to know Schleier-
macher. When Schleiermacher left, Neander went to
Gottingen, where he studied under Planck, the Church
hivStorian. There finishing his course, he was ordained
at Hamburg, but rarely preached. In 1811 he was
called to Heidelberg, asTrofessor of Theology. In
1 8 13 he was called to Berlin, where, with Schleier-
macher and De Wette, he formed a brilliant trio, teach-
ing until his death.

Thus was trained the man whose massive erudi-
tion, profound philosophic insight into the genetic
relations of opinion, whose catholic spirit and depth
of personal piety, made him the founder of the new
science of Church history. Recognizing all that others
have done, and his limitations, the work of no other

I20 History of the Christian Church.

man so revolutionized the study and laid such deep
and broad foundations on which, since, all have built.
His monographs on **The Emperor Julian," 1812,
"St. Bernard," 1813, ''Gnosticism," 1818, "Chrysos-
tom," and ** Tertullian," gave him fame for their learn-
ing and use of original sources, and their Christian
spirit. In 1832 appeared his ** Planting and Training
of the Christian Church," and in 1837 his "Life of
Jesus Christ " in answer to Strauss, the ablest contem-
porary reply. In 1822 he published his interesting
and valuable " Memorabilia of the Christian Life."
But his great work was his " History of the Christian
Religion and Church," in five volumes, 1 826-1845.
The sixth volume, published after his death, carried
the great work down to 1438. In 1857 appeared his
" Lectures on History of Dogma."

Whatever else the student of Church history reads,
he must read Neander. His heavy style and lack of
conception of the value of the institutional, or artistic
in Christendom, may repel ; but there is a power of
thought, a grasp of the essential elements in character,
situation, the development of opinion and of the per-
manent in Christian history, which will never lose
their value or cease to inspire. No other German
theologian of the century has probably been more
widely read in English-speaking lands, with the pos-
sible and doubtful exception of Tholuck.

Neander never married. His dress and personal
oddities made him often appear to the stranger ridicu-
lous; but to those who knew him, the subtlety and
comprehension of his thought, the simplicity of his
character, and his unselfish and affectionate disposi-

Evangelical Christendom.


tion, made him loved, as his iron industry and im-
mense learning made him revered.

The third in this famous trio of Berlin theologians
was William Martin Lieberecht DeWette(i 780-1 849).
He, Hke the other two, produced a new
and most important science, and laid foun- '^*^^"*-
dations on which all the world builds. DeWette is the
founder of modern Biblical criticism and Biblical the-
ology. DeWette was born in a parsonage-house near
Weimar, January 12, 1780. He entered the Univer-
sity of Jena in 1799, and there heard Griesbach, Gab-
ler, and Paulus, taking his degree in 1805. In 1807
he was Professor of Exegesis at Heidelberg, and was
called to the same chair in Berlin in 18 10. DeWette
did not have the same warm religious experience as
Schleiermacher or Neander, and was more rational-
istic in his opinions. Schleiermacher said of him, * ' De-
Wette is, of course, very neological, but he is an ear-
nest, profound, truth-loving man, whose researches
will lead to real results, and perhaps he will also for
himself yet come to another outlook."

In March, 18 19, DeWette wrote a confidential
letter of consolation to the mother of Karl Sand, who
was executed for the~ assassination of Kotzebue.
There are some imprudent sentences in it, and the
act is compared to that of Charlotte Corday; but if
its character, as written to a heart-broken mother
whose guest he had been, is taken into account, there
is little that is blameworthy. But hatred and fear of
the Revolution predominated over every other mo-
tive, and Baron von Kottwitz, one of the noblest
Christians of that generation, denounced DeWette to

122 History of the Christian Church,

the government. In September he was deprived of
his professorship. For the next two years he was
near his birthplace at Weimar, and to these years we
owe his unrivaled collection of Luther's "Letters," in
six volumes. From 1821 until his death in 1849 he
was professor at Basel.

He was a diligent student and author. His most
noted works are " Introduction to the New Testa-
ment," 1826, and " Kxegetical Handbook of the New
Testament," 1838-1848.

As Schleiermacher predicted, he grew less ration-
alistic, and died in earnest Christian faith, giving his
final confession in these words: "This I know, that
in no other is salvation but in the name of Jesus
Christ the crucified, and that for mankind there is
nothing higher than the in-him-realized God-humanity,
and the in-him-planted kingdom of God."

No man had had so great influence in forming the

United Church as Schleiermacher, but Schleiermacher

wished it to have independence and liberty

'^ ufJl-gy""* ^^ ^^^^ ^^ VixAon. He desired a Presby-
terian constitution, with regular assemblies
of elders and clergy. Schleiermacher deeply sympa-
thized with the liberal movement in politics of which
Arndt and Stein were the exponents. The dismissal
of DeWette affected them all, and in 1820, and again
in 1823, Schleiermacher expected to be dismissed for
his political opinions. But this did not prevent him
from speaking out against the enforced use of the
liturgy prepared by the royal commission and made
obligatory, first in 1824, and throughout the kingdom
in 1 828-1 839. Nothing else so hurt the cause of

Evangelical Christendom.


But finally there came some recognition of Schleier-
macher's work. The king conferred upon him the
order of the Black Eagle in 183 1. At his funeral
thirty-six students took turns in bearing the body to
the cemetery. Then came the mourners on foot, ex-
tending a mile; and then one hundred carriages, led
by those of the king and the crown princes. Thus
was borne to his burial the man, who with Generals
Scharnhorst and Guersenau in the army, and Stein in
the State, ranks as the restorer of Germany.

One of the most attractive characters in the history
of the Church in the century, and a potent force for the
ennobling and extension of the Christian
life, was Frederick August Gottlieb Tho- '^**"'"^''-
luck (1799-1877), who, like Schleiermacher, was born
in Breslau, where he first saw the light, March 30,
1799. He was the son of a goldsmith, and the son
was a remarkable boy. At thirteen he had read two
thousand volumes, and at seventeen he knew nineteen
languages. At eighteen he resolved to go to Berlin
and study Arabic. He had no introduction, and re-
solved, if he failed, to commit suicide. He went to
Dietz, the most famous Arabic scholar in the univer-
sity. Dietz took him to his own house, and Tholuck
had at once friends in the leading men of the univer-
sity. Soon after, Dietz died in his student's arms.
Tholuck was greatly influenced by Schleiermacher
and Neander, and, through Baron Von Kottwitz, came
to a personal experience of the forgiveness of sins.
In 1820 he determined to be a theologian rather than
a missionary in the East, as he at first planned. He
began teaching at Berlin, 1821-1825, but was called
to Halle in 1825, and began his duties there the next

124 History of the Christian Church.

Easter. There he taught until his death in 1877. He
traveled in Holland and England, and spent the years
1 827-1 829 in Rome with Bunsen, as chaplain of the
Prussian embassy. From 1833 ^^ served as univer-
sity preacher, and from 1842 was in charge of Church
affairs as a member of the Magdeburg Consistory.
Tholuck lectured on Old and New Testament exege-
ses, and in 1838 wrote against Strauss on the "Credi-
bility of the Gospel History." In his later years he
wrote a "History of Rationalism," which he left un-

No work he left behind gives an adequate idea of
his powers, though his Commentary on the Epistle to
the Romans was translated into English, and still has
high rank. He married in 1829, but his wife died
within the j^ear. After eight years he married again,
and the union was a most happy one, but proved
childless. In part, perhaps, for this reason, Tholuck's
home was a resort for students, and one or more ac-
companied him on his daily walks. Tholuck spoke
English fluently, and delighted in the company of
English and American students.

No German professor had more friends, or loved
them more. He built no theological system, but
warm and evangelistic in his sympathies, he con-
quered persons and warmly attached them to himself,
and won them to his Lord. Eminent as a philologist
and exegete, and more so as a theologian, he excelled
as a preacher. His great impress on his generation
was as a seeker after the souls of men. He is an ex-
ample of what, by personal influence, a university
professor can accomplish.

Evangelical Christendom. 125

With these men labored, but on very dififerent
lines, Ernest Wilhelm Hengstenberg (i 802-1 869),
who was born in the house of a Reformed

„^ .... -^ Hengstenberg.

pastor m Westphalia, in 1802. He was
educated at Bonn, and began his work in Berlin Uni-
versity in 1824, where he taught in the Theological
Faculty until his death in 1869. In 1827 he founded
the "Kirchenzeitung," which he made the organ of
the most rigid orthodoxy, and edited it until his de-
cease. In 1830 he caused the denunciation of two
rationalistic professors on the ground of the lecture
notes of some students. The act was not counte-
nanced by either Schleiermacher or Tholuck, and
aroused great indignation. The professors kept their
places. He sympathized with the efforts to enforce a
common liturgy in Prussia. His lectures and his
periodical were devoted to combating rationalistic
and infidel critics, of which, after Strauss's attack,
there were always plenty. He also kept an eye on
all ecclesiastical appointments in the same interest.
He was narrow and dogmatic, and his published
works represent very little value to-day ; but as it was
a time when Germany seemed to see the foundation
of the faith dissolving in the fires of criticism, doubt-
less there was room and need of a sturdy fighter*
though the cause must be won by other men and
other means.

What Hengstenberg did in the United Evangel-
ical Church, Gottlieb Christoff Adolph Harless (1806-
1879) sought to accomplish by reviving

, Adolf Harless.

a strict confessional Lutheranism. He was

born at Nuremberg, November 21, 1806. He taught at

126 History of the Christian Church.

Erlangen and Leipzig, 1 828-1 850. He published his
" Jesuit's Mirror " in 1839, but his " Christian Ethics"
is his most important work. He had charge of the
affairs of the Evangelical Church of Bavaria for many
years. After a two years' residence in Dresden he
was made, in 1852, the president of the Supreme Con-
sistorial Council of Bavaria, which position he held
for twenty-six years. He was the leader of the Lu-
theran movement in Germany, and the ablest and
most influential of its theologians.

The course of the recall to the Christian faith
under men like Schleiermacher, Neander, and Tholuck
was grievously interrupted by the attack of the left
wing of the Hegelian philosophy, led by Strauss,
Baur, and Feuerbach. Hegel was personally a devout
Christian, according to the testimony of his wife.
But his teaching, that all human development and
history is but the unfolding of the idea through the
realization of contrary tendencies which are recon-
ciled in the synthesis of a higher principle, led men to
interpret history in the terms of philosophy, to the
detriment of both.

David Frederick Strauss (i 808-1 874) graduated in
Tiibingen in 1830, and studied for a time in Berlin.

He began his career as a teacher in 1832.
crick strlSss. In 1 835 appeared, with a very insufficient

foundation of scholarship, his epoch-mak-
ing, " Life of Jesus." He held that we knew very little
of the historical Jesus. The Christ of the Gospels is
the product of the unconscious deception caused by
the growth of myth; Jesus Christ is an idea for hu-
manity; as an historical person he is myth. The
theory was well worked out, and the work was writ-

Evangelical Christendom. 127

ten in vigorous German. It compelled a critical
examination of the sources of the New Testament
history, but as an historical hypothesis it has been com-
pletely discredited by a better knowledge of the facts.

A much abler attack was that of another Hegelian,
and a thorough historical student. Christian Ferdi-
nand Baur, (i 792-1 860). Though Baur Christian
gave himself to a study of the sources, Ferdinand
and was no mere theorist like Strauss, yet ^*"'"*
his theories so controlled his investigations as to
make it necessary to reject them almost entire. His
teaching is the application of the Hegelian theory to
the history of the Christian Scriptures and the Chris-
tian Church. As he said, *' Without philosophy, his-
tory remained to me eternally dead and dumb."

Baur was an indefatigable worker and a prolific
writer. Able men, like his son-in-law Zeller, and
Schwegler, with, at one time, Kostlin and Ritschl,
and later Hilgenfeld and Pfleiderer, formed his school.
They taught that the New Testament is the result of
the conflicting parties of Paul and the Judaizing
Christians, and an effort to reconcile them repre-
sented by Peter and John. Baur held that the Epistles
to the Galatians, those to the Corinthians, and to the
Romans, alone were genuine. The other New Testa-
ment books were from the latter part of the second
century. The impartial historic criticism of the last
fifty years has made Baur's standpoint like that of
Strauss, one entirely overcome. Historical study and
investigation have passed forever beyond them. Nei-
ther Strauss nor Baur knew Christianity except on its
intellectual side, and both died in unbelief, Strauss
even denying the immortality of the soul.

128 History of the Christian Church.

This stage was quickly reached by Anton Feuer-

bach in his "Essence of Christianity, 1842, which is a

complete rejection of historic Christianity,

Feuerbach. , . , , . , , . , -r^

which has its value only as idea. From
this it was but a step to the pessimism of Schopen-
hauer and Hartmann and the materialism of Biichner
and Haeckel. Unbelief won a great hold on the edu-
cated and middle classes from 1840 to 1880; but all
these theories and hypotheses have lost standing at
the bar of history, of philosophy, and of the com-
mon reason. The Hegelian attack is as dead as the
overestimate of the philosophy on which it was
founded. Christianity was never stronger than to-day
in spite of Nietsche and the Social Democracy. Edu-
cated opinion stands more unitedly than at any time
since Schleiermacher's day on the side of the Chris-
tian faith.

In refreshing contrast with these ephemeral crea-
tions, which so quickly pass, is the career and work
of Richard Rothe (1799-1867), who, as a

Richard , . . , ; , '

Rothe. speculative theologian, has not been sur-
passed in the century. He was born at
Posen, January 28, 1799, and was educated at Breslau.
In 1 819-1820 he was at Berlin as a teacher, and 1820-
1822 at Wittenberg, where he came under decidedly
Pietistic influences, which markedly deepened his re-
ligious experience. He spent five fruitful years in
Rome, 1 823-1 828, with Bunsen as chaplain to the
Prussian embassy. Returning, he taught at Witten-
berg, 1828-1839. In the latter year he was called to
Heidelberg, where he spent the rest of his life, except
for a five years' stay at Bonn, 1 849-1 854. Rothe was
simple, modest, and pure, with a singularly harmo-

Evangelical Christendom. 129

nious intellectual and spiritual development. In 1837
he published his " Christian Church," but his great
work was his "Theological Ethics," 1845-1848, 1872,
in five volumes.

Rothe was not so versatile as Schleiermacher, nor
had he the like talent for society, the pulpit, or lead-
ership ; but he was the most profound and compre-
hensive theological thinker of the century. Yet no
man was more truly or humbly Christian.

In 1845, in the midst of the commotion raised by
Strauss and Baur, he could write: ''The ground of
all my thinking, I can truly say, is the simple faith of
Christ, not yet a dogma, much less a theology, which
for eighteen hundred years has overcome the world.
It is my highest joy to oppose constantly and de-
terminedly every other pretended knowledge which
asserts itself against the faith. I know no other firm
ground on which I could anchor my whole being, and
particularly my speculations, except that historical
phenomenon, Jesus Christ. He is to me the unim-
peachable Holy of Holies of humanity, the highest
Being known to man, and a sun rising in history,
whence has come the light by which we see the

Charitabi^b Work in Evangki^icai, Germany.

The labors of Evangelical Germany marked an
epoch in these years in the history of Christian the-
ology. Scarcely less remarkable was its
leadership in Christian charity. After for- Adoiphus
eign missions, the first organized work of Verein,
the Churches of Evangelical Germany was
to provide for its brethren of like common faith and

I30 History of the Christian Church.

language in Roman Catholic countries. This union
was called into being on the two hundreth anniversary
of the death of Gustavus Adolphus, November 6,
1832. On the ninth of the following December, it
was organized. The Saxon administration approved
of it in 1 834. It received the patronage of Charles
XIV of Sweden, and of Frederick William III, and
of Frederick William IV, of Prussia. In 1841 its
funded capital was 12,850 thalers. In 1842, aroused
by the work of the preachers, Le Grand and Zimmer-
mann, it took on new life. The Union has a Central
Committee at Leipzig, and Chief Committees in each
of the principal German States, with Branch Com-
mittees in each diocese. Once in three years is con-
vened an Assembly of Deputies. In 1844 the Union
was excluded from Bavaria, but in 1849 the prohibi-
tion was withdrawn. The chief objects of the Gusta-
vus Adolphus Verein are to assist in building Evan-
gelical churches, schools, parsonages, and orphan-
houses, and to secure Evangelical Christians from in-
tolerance and oppression in Roman Catholic lands.
In this period it had scarcely begun its work, but be-
fore the century's end it had spent on these objects
nearly $10,000,000, and given a sense of Evangelical
Union and protection before unknown.

The Evangelical Order of Deaconesses in modern
Church life owes its revival to Theodore

Deaconesses. ^,. , , ^ „^ \

Fhedner (1798-1864).

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