George Hickes.

Two treatises, on the Christian priesthood, and on the dignity of the Episcopal order: with a prefatory discourse in answer to a book entitled, The rights of the Christian church, &c., and an appendix online

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Online LibraryGeorge HickesTwo treatises, on the Christian priesthood, and on the dignity of the Episcopal order: with a prefatory discourse in answer to a book entitled, The rights of the Christian church, &c., and an appendix → online text (page 1 of 43)
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CHURCH, &c.,









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The first edition of this work was published in one volume
8vo. in 1707. The volume consisted of the Letter to the
Author of the Rights, the Prefatory Discourse, the Two Trea-
tises (on the Christian Priesthood, and on the Dignity of
the Episcopal Order), and an Appendix containing the first
three numbers of the present Appendix, (namely, the Com-
munion Service of King Edward VI/s first Book, that of the
Scottish Prayer-Book of 1637, and the representation of a
medal of King Henry VIII.) The Two Treatises, which
were originally Letters, as they are often called by the
Author", had been written in or soon after the year 1695.
The circumstances which led to their composition will be
found detailed at the opening of the Prefatory Discourse,
pp. 59 — 63 of this volume, and in the notes. They were at
first intended only for private perusal. The publication of
TindaPs work, The Rights of the Christian Church asserted,
in 1706, led Hickes to publish them, with the Discourse in
answer to that work prefixed ; see p. 67 of this volume. A
second edition, with some slight alterations, also in one
volume 8vo., came out in the same year, and was issued with
a new title-page in 1709. The second edition, whether of
1707 or 1709, is rarely met with.

A third edition was published in 1711, in which the work
was enlarged to two volumes, by considerable additions to
the first Discourse, on the subject of the Eucharistic Sacri-
fice ; additions throughout the second Discourse ; and nearly
the whole of the present Appendix, (namely. No. IV. to No.

■ [He also calls them Discourses, and that name is generally used by the


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IX. inclusive) : an Account of these Additions vras prefixed,
which was designed as a reply to the Primary Charge of
Dr. Trimnel, bishop of Norwich, published in 1709.

In 1715, the year in which Hickes died (Dec. 16), a Sup-
plement was sent out, containing the Letter to the Author of
the Rights, which had been omitted by mistake in the third
edition ; several passages to be inserted in different places of
the work ; another tract, (No. X. see p. 35 of this volume,) to
be added to the Appendix, and two letters on the subject of
the Christian Priesthood ; with a title-page to be prefixed as
a new title-page to the third edition, with which the Supple-
ment was bound up. Copies of this Supplement are very
rare. In the present edition these additions have been in-
serted in their proper places, enclosed within brackets, with
notices of their being derived from the Supplement of 1715.

This edition has also the advantage of a few still later
materials, prepared by Hickes with a view to a fourth edi-
tion. They are contained in his own copy of the third
edition, in which it seems to have been his practice to make
additions and corrections from 'time to time. Most of these
he printed in the Supplement of 1715 ; which was afterwards
bound up with this copy, and the additions continued to be
made till the time of his death. The following account of
this copy, with transcripts of the MS. notes, has been re-
ceived through the kindness of George May Forbes, Esq., of

" This copy of Bishop Hickes^ Christian Priesthood was
formerly in the possession of Bishop Walker, of Edinburgh,
by whom it was given to Bishop Jolly, in whose hand there
is on the title-page the following note : ' A copy of singular
value and high estimation, given by the Rev. Mr. Walker to
Alexander Jolly.* And on the previous page, 'This was
the author's own copy, and hath some corrections and addi-
tions in his own hand or that of his amanuensis, which he

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designed to be observed in a fourth edition, as the title-page
shews. Most of these additions are in the printed Supple-
ment/ On the title-page 'the third edition' is altered into
* the fourth edition/ The corrections are all written in the
same hand, but at diflPerent times, as appears by the varied
colour of the ink. A copy of the Supplement has been bound
up with it, and some corrections are on it. The printed Sup-
plement sometimes varies from the MS. in being incorrectly
printed. E.g. Supp. No. 11, p. 10, 1. 16,i» for Eel. ii. read
Eel. iii. ; 1. 20, facere vel idem ; a<f>parfl<ov, a^a^Uav, All the
corrections printed in the Supplement are marked on the
margin of this copy.^*

We are thus brought down to the latest alterations made
during the Author^s lifetime. The additions derived from
this source have been inserted in the present edition, within
brackets, with notices of their being taken from the MS.
additions in Hickes' copy.

It only remains to state what has been done in the present

The text and notes of the third edition have been preserved
entire, except in the case of antiquated spelling, of references,
for which others to later editions have been substituted, or
of obvious errata ; and when the latter were at all important,
the corrections have been noticed. All additions, whether
derived from the Supplement and the Author's MS., or
made by the editor, have been enclosed within brackets.

The unsystematic character of the composition of the
Prefatory Discourse, (of which see pp. 48, 49, and 319,) in-
duced the editor to adopt a division into sections, for which
a provision had been made by the Author in the Table of
Contents; in which such a division was virtually made by
the different type in which the chief heads of the Discourse
were printed. The words of the Author have been, as far as

^ [See veil. ii. p. 69. note b.]

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possible^ adhered to in the heading of the sections^ as well as
his divisions, as will be seen from the Table of Contents;
and, as the sections are only noted in the margin, the text
has been preserved without alteration.

The Table of Contents prefixed to the Prefatory Discourse
has been retained as in the third edition ] that of the Ac-
count of Additions, &c. has been added by the editor.

The editor is also responsible for the headings to the
pages, which he hopes will be found fairly to represent the
meaning of the Author, whose words he has endeavoured, as
far as possible, to retain.

Some apology may be requisite for the length of the
notes in the present volume; they seemed called for by
its controversial character, and by the circumstance that
it assumed the reader to be familiar with persons, events,
and books which are now almost forgotten. Besides this,
passages from works only referred to by the Author, and not
generally accessible, have been given in full or abridged, in
accordance with his own suggestion ; see p. 327.

The division into three volumes, adopted in the present
edition, was also suggested by the Author's observation,
(Letter to Author of Bights, p. 49,) that the Prefatory Dis-
course " should be considered rather as another book than a
preface,'^ and that " if he could have foreseen it would have
been so long he would have made it a book by itself Its
main subject too is distinct from those of the Two Dis-
courses. The Discourses themselves will most naturally
form a second volume; and the Appendix, which again is
distinct, a third. Thus the tracts of the first volume will
tend to remove the common objections against the doctrines
which are systematically treated and maintained in the
second, and the third will consist chiefly of writings of other
, authors expanding and supporting them.

It ought to be added that the editor in whose hands the

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work was originally placed^ had proceeded as far as p. 141 of
this volume in verifying the references and transcribing the
originals of the quotations, when ill health obliged him to
relinquish the work. He had also prepared other materials
for the edition, which have been of great service in com-
pleting his undertaking.


Qtieen's College, Jwm 4, 1847.

The references have bee^. made to the following editions,
except when otherwise specified : —

AinswoTtfa's Annotations on the five

books of Moses, fol. London, 1639.
Alcuinus, B., Op., ed. Frobenius, fol.

Ratisbon. 1777.
Ambrosius, S., Op., ed. Ben. fol. Par.

Aquinas, S. Thorn., Summa Tbeol. fol.

Duaci. 1614.
Aristoteles, Op., ed. Bekker. 4to. Be-

rol. 1831.
Assemani Codex Liturgicus Ecclesis

Universalis, 4to. Romae, 1749-67.
Augustinus, S., Op., ed. Ben. fol. Par.

Balsamon, Comment in Canones, ap.

Beveregii Pandect.
Barnabas, S., ap. Patres Apost, tom. i.
Baronius, Annales,fol. Lucae, 1738-59.
Basilius, S., Op., ed. Beu. fol. Par.

Beda, Op., fol. CoL Agrip. 1612.
Bernardus, S., Op., ed. Ben. fol. Par.

Bellarminus, Opera, foLVenet. 1721-28.
Beveregii 2vvo5(fc^i/ sen Pandectse Ca-

nonum, fol. Oxon. 1672.
Biblia Sacra, Castalionis Vers. Basil.

— — — Pagnini et Montani foL

Antw. 1584.
Polyglotta. Walton. foL

Lond. 1657.
Bibliotheca Patrum, Gallandii, fo]«

Venet 1765-81.
Biographia Britannica, fol. London,

1747.— 66.
Biographical Dictionary, 8vo. London,

Bona, Card, de Rebus Liturgicis,

2 tom. foL Aug. Taur. 1747.
BriBsonios, Bam. de Formulis, &c. 4to.

Franeof. 1592.

Brissonius de significatione Verborum,

4to. Franeof. 1683.
Bud£us,CommentariaLingus Ghraecae,

fol. Paris. 1548.
Bull's Works, 8vo. Oxford, 1827.
Burnet's History of bis Own Times,

fol. Lond. 1724-34.
Buxtorf, Lexicon Chald. Rabb. Tal-

mudicum. foL Basil. 1639.
Canones Apostolici, ap. Concilia,

tom. i.
Chrysostomus, S., Op., ed. Ben. fol.

Paris. 1718-38.
Clemens Alexandrinus, S., Op., Potter,

foL Oxon. 1715.
Clemens Romanus, S., v^, Patres

Apost, tom. i.
Conciliorum Collectio, Labbe et

Coissart, ed. Colet foL Venet.

Constantini Lexicon, Oenev. 1592.
Coustitutiones Apostolicae, ap. Con*

cilia, tom. i.
Corpus Juris Canonici, ed. Gibert fol.

Lugd. 1737.
Corpus Juris Civilis, ed. Gothofred.

fol. Amst 1663.
Critic! Sacri, fol. Amst 1698.
Cyprianus, S., Op., ed. Ben. foL Paris,

Cyrillus Alexandr. S., Op., fol. Paris,

Cyrillus Hierosolym. S., Op., fol.

Paris, 1720.
Damascenus, S. Joan., Op., Lequien,

fol. Paris. 1712.
Damianus, Petrus, Op., ed. Caietan.

fol. Par. 1743.
Dionysius Areopagita, S., (Pseudo)

Op., ed. Corderius, Venet 1755.
Ecclesiast Hist Scriptores, ed. Read-
ing, fol. Cantab. 1720.

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Ephrem Syms, S., Op., foL Romse,

Epiphanins, S., Op., ed. Petav. foL

Colon. 1682.
Evagrius, ap. Eccles. Hist Script
Eusebius Cxsariensis (Pamphili)

Hist Eccles. ap. Hist Eccles.

— ^— Demonstratio E^angelica,

fol. Paris, 1628.
Comment in Psalmos, ap.

Montfaucon, Nov. Collect Patrum,

torn. L

. Comment in Esaiam, ibid.,

tom. ii.
General Dictionary, fol. London, 1 734-

Goarj Euchologium Graecoram, fol.

Par. 1647.
Gregorius Magnus, S., Op., ed. Ben.

fol. Par. 1705.

fol. Par. tom. i. 1778. torn. ii. 1840.
Gregorius Nyssenus, S., Op., foL Paris,

Grotius, Op. TheoL, fol. Lond. 1679,

et ap. Crit Sacr.
Habertus, Liber Pontificalis Eccl.

Graec. fol Paris, 1643.
Hennas, S., ap. Patres Apostolicos.
Hesychii Lexicon, fol. Lugd. Bat 1668.
Hieronymus, S., Op., ed. Vallarsius,

foL Veron. 1734-42.
Ignatius, S., ap. Patres Apostolicos.
Innocentius III., Op., ed. Baluz. Par.

1682. fol.
Josephus, Qp., ed. Havercamp. fol.

Amst 1726.
Irenaeus, S., Op., ed. Ben. Par. 1710.
.Isidorus Hispalensis, S., Op., 4to.

Romae, 1797-1803.
Isidorus Pelusiota, S., Epist fol. Par.

Julianas Imp., Op., fol. Lips. 1696.
Justinus Martyr, S., Op., fol. Par. 1742.
Leo Magnus, S., Op., ed. Ballerin. fol.

Venet 1753.
Leslie's Theological Works, fol. Lond.

Maimonides, de cultu divino, 4to. Paris.

Martenc de Antiquis Ecclesiae Ritibus,

2 tom. fol. Antw. 1763.
Martinii Lexicon Latin. Philol. et

EtymoL fol. Franc 1655.
Mede's Works, fol. London, 1664.
Montfaucon, Nova Collectio Patrum,

fol. Par. 1706.
(Ecumenius, Op., fol. Par. 1630-1.
Optatus, S., de Schism. Donatist ed.

Dupin,fol. Par. 1700.
Origenes, Op., ed. Ben. Par. 1733-

Patres Apostolici, ed. Cotelerius, fol.

Amst. 1724.
Petrus de Marca, Dissertationes Post-

humae, ed. Baluz, 8vo. Par. 1669.
Phavorinus, Lexicon Graecum. foL

Rom. 1523.
Philo Judaeus, Op., ed. Mangey, fol.

London, 1742.
Plutarchus, Op., ed. Reiske, 8vo.

Lips. 1776.
Pollux, Julius, Onomasticon, ed. Din-

dorf Lips. 1824.
Polybius, Op., ed. Schweighauser, 8vo.

Lips. 1789.
Polycarpus, S., apud Patres Apost,

tom. ii.
Rabanus Maurus, Op., fol. Col. Agrip.

Renaudot, Liturgiarum Orientaliam

Collectio. 4to. Par. 1716.
Ruflinus, Opuscula, fol. Par. 1580.
Socrates, apud EccL Hist Scriptt.,

tom. ii.
Sozomenus, ibid.
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fol. Lond. 1818-26.
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Suicer, Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus, foL

Amst. 1728.
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vius, fol. Par. J 631.
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1642. vol. v. Auctarium, 1684.
Hist. Eccles. ap. Hist

Eccl. Script
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Zonaras, Comment in Canones, apud

Beveregii Pandectas.

' [By mistake this edition has been several times referred to in the notes as a
Benedictine edition.]

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The additions made to the Christian Priesthood asserted - - - 1

State of the controversy arising from the publication of the work - - 2

Bishop Trimnel's general charge of strangeness in clergy of a reformed

Church advocating those doctrines, answered - - - - 3

And retorted, in the instance of resistance - - - .4

The parallel of our episcopacy - - - - - 16.

I. Of the Sacrifice in the Holy Eucharist.

Dr. Hakewill's Dissertation in reply to Heylin considered - - 7

Heylin's Testimonies from Irenaeus - - - - - t6.

Hakewill's comments upon them - - - - - 8

Heylin's testimonies from Eusebius de Demonstratione Evangelica - 9

Discussion on the meaning of the words furfiiMrjy &kt2 Ovfflas - - II

Objection from definitions of Jewish sacrifices - - - - 16

From the unity and value of the oblation - - - - jft.

The Eucharist is a proper sacrifice, though representative - - ib.
That there is a material sacrifice in it proved from the Apostolical Con-
stitutions - - - - • - - -17

The words in the institution, ' hoc facite,' have a sacrificial signification - 18

Our Lord made an oblation of the bread and cup - - - 20

Other sacrificial terms in the account of the institution - - 21

Testimonies of Peter Lombard and St. Thomas Aquinas considered - 22

Sense of the term ' proper' as applied to the sacrifice in the Eucharist - 23

Answer to Dr. NichoUs' objection of causing divisions - - - 24

And introducing the * popish sacrifice of the mass ' - - - 25

Thomdike, as quoted by Bp. Trimnel, explained - - - - 27

His direct testimonies to the Eucharistic sacrifice ... ib,

St Chrysostom, as alleged by Bishop Trimnel, explained - - - 28

Parallel of typical sacrifices which were yet proper ones - - 29

St. Chrysostom's qualification added to exalt the conmiemorative

sacrifice - - - - - - - -30

His positive testimony to the Eucharist being a proper sacrifice - 31

Hickes leaves the subject to younger men .... ib.

Additions to the Second Discourse - - - - - 32

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II. Of the Independence of the Church on the State.


It is not true that the chief promoters of this doctrine are nonjurors - 32

Additions to the Appendix on this subject - - - - 33

Casaubon de Libertate Ecclesiastica - - - - - 34

Defence against the charge of magnifying the priestly office - - 35

Additions to the Appendix on this subject - > - - ib,

III. On the Sacerdotal power of Absolution.

Bishop Trimnel misrepresents the views of those who maintain this doctrine 36

Repentance necessary to its efficacy - - - - - ifc.

The power ministerial only - - - - - -37

Thomdike's statements on the Divine institution of absolution - - 38

On the general necessity of it - - - - - 39

On private confession (quoting Origen) - - - - 40

In what sense forgiveness is not from the Church - - - 41

Case of * Clave errante' - - - - - - tfc.

Testimony of St Isidore Peiusiota in the case of Zosimus - - 42
Dod well's statements on the absolute necessity of sacerdotal absolution,

maintained in substance - - - - - • 43

Hickes' apology - _ - - . - - 45

His motives for writing - - - - - - ib.

His desire to increase the respect of the people for the bishops and

clergy of the Church - - - - - - 46


Design of the Prefatory Discourse - - - - - i6.

Author of the Rights called on to give his name - - - - 49

Hickes' principles unpopular - - - - . - 54

He is not ashamed of names given in reproach - - - 56

Profession of the principles he holds - >- . - 57]

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[Sect. I. — Introduction and Propositions.]


An accoimt of the author's conference with a lady who had been of the Church
of Rome, concerning the nature of the Christian Church - - 59

How the substance of the said conference was at her desire drawn up into
Propositions - - - - - - - -61

Two objections afterward started against these Propositions ; the one by a
lawyer, the other by a divine • - - - - -62

The occasion of the author's writing his discourse of the Dignity of the Epis-
copal Order - - -.- - - - -fft.

The occasion of his writing that of the Christian Priesthood asserted - 63

The Propositions, with Notes upon them.

Prop. I. Of the Church as a society by Divine right - - - ift.

Whence called Christ's body - - - note q, 64

II. Of the government and governors of this society - - - ib.
Whence called God's household, &c . . - note r, ib.

III. Of the episcopal dignity and jurisdiction - - - -66
That the bishops are the Apostles' successors, by unexceptional wit-
nesses cleared - - - note u, ib,

lY. Of the Christian priesthood and ministry - - • -66

That Christian priests are Christ's representatives and vicars - note z, ib.

[Sect. II.— Real Views of the author of the Rights

AND his party.]

The occasion of publishing those Two Discourses which these Propositions
gave birth to - - - -67

General reflections upon the method lately taken of attacking the true rights
of the Christian Church, as laid down in the Propositions - - ib.

Nothing so needful to the understanding of the controversy between us and
the Church of Rome, as a right and complete notion of the Church as a
spiritual society - - - - - - -60

The insolent manner of attacking the constitution of the Christian Church
and priesthood by the book falsely entitled. The Rights of the Christian
Church ^^

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That author's disingenuous way of arguing against facts of public notoriety 67
His fallacious reasonings ; and from whom stolen .... ib.

His pretended discovery no hetter than a blasphemous charge against God

Himself, the founder of His Church - - - - - 68

The very same objections would senre as well against the constitution of

the Jewish Church - - . - - ift.

Or even against the natural constitution of man, as he is subject to two dif-
ferent powers - - - - - - -69

The madness, as well as profaneness, of this way of writing - - ib.

The vanity of all such modem books, when compared with Scripture and

primitive antiquity - - - - - - 70

The insolence of our modem free-thinkers, deists, and atheists, observed - 71
An account of the table-talk of some free-thinkers, among whom was the re-
puted author of the Bights, &c., concerning revelation - - ib.
Another account of a conversation of some of these not unlike to the former,

chiefly conceming miracles - • - - - - 75

Some reflections upon the wit and humour of these men, in bringing the Holy

Scriptures to their test of ridicule - - - - - 76

Their conspiracy against Christ and His Church detected, and their own

principles retorted upon themselves - - - - - 78

Their grounds for reviling the order of priests - - - - ib,

Christ Himself involved in their charge of priestcraft and legerdemain - 79

The astonishing liberty of these men -^ - - - note8,t6.

An account of one of them that resolved all religion into dreaming, with a

Online LibraryGeorge HickesTwo treatises, on the Christian priesthood, and on the dignity of the Episcopal order: with a prefatory discourse in answer to a book entitled, The rights of the Christian church, &c., and an appendix → online text (page 1 of 43)