George Jotham Hagar.

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Superbly and Profusely Illustrated with Hundreds of Subjects
in Full Color, Monotone, and Text Cuts


Of often sought for facts in almost every department

of human knowledge, a


Showing the most important events in history
from the earliest times, and

A Most Comprehensive Narrative of the Great War


Editor of Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History; compiler of the

Chronology of the World in the New Standard Dictionary; a reviser

of Appleton's New Practical, Standard American, New International,

Columbian, Imperial, and other Cyclopedias

Assisted by many Associate Editors, Special Contributors,
and United States and Canadian Government Officials


Copyright 1911, by F. E. Wright
Copyright 1912, by F. E. Wright
Copyright 1914, by F. E. Wright
Copyright 1918, by F. E. Wrigh;
Copyright 1919, by F. E. Wright


For a cyclopedia to attain the dignity of a standard work of
reference, and to maintain that position, certain distinctive features are
essential. The chief of these, outside variety of topics and accuracy, are
independence, originality, progressiveness, convenience, lucidity, and

Independence and originality cannot be acquired without departing from
the old-time methods of pedantic Latinity, unfamiliar scientific and
technical terms, and diffusiveness, which, even, in modern times, still
seek to make knowledge the prerogative of a privileged class. Progress-
iveness is obtained by adopting up-to-date methods of organization, prep-
aration, and production, and employing the ingenious principle of the
expansive card-index, so that the latest data may be added until the very
day of printing each edition. Convenience is found in the concise disposition
of matter, and its arrangement in the form of compact Volumes, of handy
size for ready reference, in place of large and clumsy volumes, inconvenient
to handle on account of their size and weight, which are by many supposed
to represent the correct style for all cyclopedic works of reference.
Lucidity and brevity are attained by the development, through the patient
and laborious work of editors and compilers, of the fine and difficult
art of condensation, in which the constant aim is to synthesize or crystallize
the ever-growing mass of ancient and modern information into the con-
crete and attractive form of "race knowledge." This term was introduced
by Professor Patton, of Princeton University, to distinguish the sifted
and verified knowledge of a subject useful to the whole world from the
detailed knowledge required by specialist or expert, and indicates a simple
and concise handling which, while meeting all reasonable demands of
scholarship, brings the profoundest learning within the comprehension of
any attentive or thoughtful mind.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century there has been enormous
activity among the publishers of leading nations to produce new cyclopedias,
with the purpose of presenting the whole range of universal information
according to modern standards and requirements, and of exhibiting the
wonderful progress made in all departments of human knowledge and
endeavor during the previous century.

In the making and distribution of cyclopedias, the need of a popular
reference work of more compact form than those in ordinary use was
made strikingly apparent both to editors and publishers, by the thousands
of questions poured daily into the offices of magazines and journals, which,
by arrangement were referred to the cyclopedists for reply. In the
majority of instances, the answers could have been found by reference to
the venerable and ponderous types of cyclopedias. But these, wherever
possessed, apparently had been relegated to the repose of library shelves,
after the novelty of possession had worn off, while the trouble attendant
on disturbing them for research was, apparently, greater than the slight
inconvenience caused by writing and waiting for a brief answer to a simple

Under these circumstances, the conviction grew that a more convenient
form of reference work was necessary for ordinary use, one which, if kept in
the home on the reading-table, in the student's room on a handy shelf,


or in the office or store on the work-desk, would become an indispensable
and authoritative source of the information needed in connection with
the current news of every- day life.

The ordinary skip method of reading newspapers, magazines, etc., is not
conducive to self-culture. Every day interesting information is given
about places and subjects of which most people know very little and re-
member less from the knowledge acquired in school days. But a ready
glance into a convenient reference work will put one in possession of the
necessary information, and if the knowledge is acquired at the time when
the subject is a topic of general discussion, it is likely to be permanently

The "reference habit' is one of the most delightful and profitable that
can be inculcated in young persons or cultivated by men and women for
the worthy purpose of extending education throughout the whole of adult
life. The more convenient the form of reference work at hand, the oftener
it will be used, and when this can be done with the least possible waste
of time, the reference habit frequently changes the whole mental attitude,
transforming an ordinary into a well-informed person.

With the conviction fully confirmed that such a convenient work of
reference was urgently needed, the publishers of the present work, after
mature deliberation, decided upon a striking departure and a revolution
in the ordinary methods of cyclopedia making. Adopting a novel and
original plan which would allow them to make use of the latest sources
of information right up to the date of publication, they determined to
build a work which should present the modern, solid, alive, and up-to-date
American view of everything worth knowing in the fewest possible words;
a work for the use of students and others which would fit them to take
part in the conversation or enjoy the society of any well-informed circle.

The result, as embodied herein, exhibits the truly American character-
istic of the exact knowledge sought; giving the pith of each subject, the
essential facts, condensed to the plainest terms consistent with accuracy
and clearness, and presented in a convenient form for ready reference.
The salient features of each topic treated and its modern aspect follow
the title and impress themselves at once upon eye and mind. The old,
stereotyped, pompous, so-called cyclopedic style gives way to a bright,
modern presentment of knowledge and facts. Without needless wading
through a mass of words, the reader immediately grasps the knowledge
sought. Every subject is condensed or distilled to an essence of crystal
clearness, in order to secure the compact and convenient size aimed at.
Moreover, this plan of condensation or crystallization has allowed the in-
clusion of a greater number of titles than are to be found in the larger
works of reference, for over 150,000 separate titles will be found in the
various volumes of this work, as compared with the 50,000 or 60,000
subjects in the ordinary cyclopedias.

The publishers have also aimed at making the work doubly attractive
by reason of its illustrations. Text-cuts, half-tones and artistic three-
color page plates, considerably beyond the plane of the average cyclopedic
illustrations, contribute largely to a full understanding of the crisp de-
scriptive matter. Special attention was also directed towards providing
a clear type, easy for reading and restful to the eyes, instead of the small,
fatiguing, eye-straining type, so frequently complained of in the larger
forms of cyclopedic dictionaries.

The whole work, modern in conception and treatment, accurate, clear,
concise, and up-to-date in a thoroughly practical sense, is a standard, ideal


reference library, providing a short cut to all knowledge. No work on a
similar scale of convenience has been attempted hitherto, and the pub-
lishers, gratified by its comprehensive scope and reliability, feel confident
that its compact form will make it, though small, a powerful rival for
preferential and general use in school, home, store, or office, over the
larger types of cyclopedias, gazetteers, or dictionaries.

When the present work was projected the world war had not assumed
its monstrous proportions. Hence, the editors gave special attention to a
presentation of the countries, states, provinces, departments, and cities of
the world under their most advanced economic, educational, and philan-
thropic conditions. To this was added the inclusion of brief sketches of
the men and women whose achievements in. various directions had given
them a far-reaching reputation.

With the enlargement of the world war area and the enforced entrance
of the United States into it, the original plan of the cyclopedia was en-
larged to make it, in addition to its other features, a thorough exposition
of the unparalleled struggle for human freedom and a reign of popular

As a result, a very large number of cities, towns, villages, and other
localities that have experienced the horrors of war, and sketches of numerous
high military, naval, and civic officers of the belligerent nations, have been
introduced. Note has also been made of war activities in cities, towns,
and places already "in the books." These various subjects, geographical
and personal, have then been referred to an exceedingly comprehensive
chronology of the war in a special Appendix.

Part II of this Appendix treats exclusively of the activities of the United
States in the war, and Part III of the general progress of the war, inde-
pendently of the United States. These two parts, in connection with maps
of the belligerent countries, will enable the reader to trace with clearness
and accuracy the various campaigns, their progress, and special activities.

Part I of this Appendix is confined to the American campaign in Mexico
the futile quest of Villa.

The editor and publishers wish to acknowledge here the most cordial
and efficient co-operation in their task by a very large number of dis-
tinguished specialists and of representatives of the United States and
Canadian Governments.

Among them should be especially mentioned, on the part of the
United States Government: Hon. William Gibbs McAdoo, Secretary
of the Treasury; Hon. Newton Diehl Baker, Secretary of War;
Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy; Hon. Franklin Knight
Lane, Secretary of the Interior; Hon. David Franklin Houston, Secretary
of Agriculture; Hon. William Cox Redfield, Secretary of Commerce; Hon.
William Bauchop Wilson, Secretary of Labor; Hon. Albert Sidney Burleson,
Postmaster-General; Hon. George Otis Smith, Director of the United States
Geological Survey; Hon. Sam. L. Rogers, Director of the Bureau of the
Census; Hon. E. E. Pratt, Chief of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce; and Hon. John Barrett, Director-General of the Pan-American

On the part of the Canadian Government: Hon. George E. Foster,
M. P., Minister of Trade and Commerce; Hon. J. D. Hazen, Minister of
Marine and Fisheries; and Hon. R. H. Coats, B. A., F. S. S., Dominion
Statistician and Controller of the Census.

a, the first letter in the
English and other alpha-
bets, ultimately derived
from the Phoenician, is
traced by some to a char-
acter belonging to the Egyptian h : er-
atic alphabet. Alpha, the Greek
name of the letter, corresponds closely
to aleph ("an ox"), the Phoenician
name (see ALPHABET). The form
which it has as a capital is the earliest.
The sound which originally belonged
to it, and which is still its character-
istic sound except in English, is that
heard in far, farther, palm, etc. A, in
music, is the sixth note in the diatonic
scale of C.

Aard-vark, (that is, "earth-pig"),
a burrowing insect-eating animal of
the order Edentata found in South


Africa. The name "pig" is given to
it from the shape of its snout. It is
about 5 feet long, with a thin tapering
tail, and long upright ears. It is noc-
turnal in its habits and very timid.
Its flesh is considered a delicacy.

Aard-wolf, a singular carnivorous
animal, first brought from South Af-
rica by the traveler Delalande. Its

size is about that of a full grown for,
which it resembles in both its habits
and manners, being nocturnal, and con-
structing a subterraneous abode.

Aargau, or Argovie, a canton of
Switzerland, bounded on the N. by the
Rhine, which separates it from the
grand-duchy of Baden, elsewhere by
the cantons Zurich, Zug, Lucerne,
Bern, Solothurn, and Basel; area, 543
square miles. Pop. (1913) 23t>,860,
more than half of whom are Protes-
tants. The capital is Aarau.

Aarhans, a city of Denmark, capi-
tal of a division of the same name. It
is situated on the Cattegat, and has
an excellent and safe harbor, which
admits vessels of light draught, the
construction of such craft being the
chief industry of the place. It has
considerable manufacturing and is the
centre of a large trade, being connect-
ed with the rest of the Jutland region
by the State railway, and regular
steamers to Copenhagen and Great
Britain. The town is among the old-
est in Denmark, and is noted as being
the site of the first Christian church
in the kingdom. Its bishop's see
dates from 948. It has a cathedral
commenced in 1201, which is a fair
example of early 13th century Gothic
architecture. Pop. (1911) 61,755.

Aaron, son of Amram (tribe of
Levi), elder brother of Moses, and di-
vinely appointed to be his spokesman
in the embassy to the court of Pha-
raoh. By the same authority, avouched
in the budding of his rod, he was
chosen the first high-priest. He was
recreant to his trust in the absence
of Moses upon the Mount, and made
the golden calf for the people to wor-


ship. He died in the 123d year of his
age, and the high-priesthood descended
to his third son, Eleazar.

Aaron's rod, in architecture, is a
rod like that of Mercury, but with
only one serpent twined around it.

Ab, the eleventh month of the civil
year of the Hebrews, and the fifth of
their ecclesiastical year, which begins
with the month Nisan. It answers to
the moon of July, that is, to part of
our month of July and to the begin-
ning of August ; it consists of 30 days.

Abaca, or MANILA HEMP, a strong
fibre yielded by the leaf-stalks of a
kind of plantain (Musa textilis)
which grows in the Indian Archipel-
ago, and is cultivated in the Philip-
pines. The outer fibres of the leaf-
stalks are made into strong ropes, the
inner into various fine fabrics.

Abaco, GREAT and LITTLE, two is-
of the Bahamas group.

Abacus, a Latin term applied to
an apparatus used by the Chinese for
facilitating arithmetical operations,
consisting of a number of parallel
cords or wires, upon which balls or
beads are strung, the uppermost wire

= ~


being appropriated to units, the nest
to tens, &c. In classic architecture
it denotes the tablet forming the up-
per member of a column, and sup-
porting the entablature. In Gothic
architecture the upper member of a
column from which the arch springs.

Abaddon,, in the Bible, and in ev-
ery rabbinical instance, means the an-
gel of death, or the angel of the abyss
or " bottomless pit."

Abalone, a Californian name for
the ear-shells or sea-ears, a gastropod
of the family Haliotidae. The animal
feeds on sea-weeds, creeping along the
rocks. When in repose it draws all
its parts under the saucer-like shell,
and clings like a limpet to whatever it
is attached. The Chinese use the body
Cor food, and the shell is employed in


making buttons, inlaying, and all pur-
poses for which mother of pearl is used.

Abatis, or Abattis, in military
affairs, a kind of defense made of felled
trees. In sudden emergencies, the trees
are merely laid lengthwise with the
branches pointed outward to prevent
the approach of the enemy.

Abba, Guiseppe Cesare, an Ital-
ian poet ; born in 1838 at Cairo Monte-
notte. He took part in the expedition
of Garibaldi into Sicily in 1860, which
he celebrated in his poem "Arrigo."

Abbas Hilmi, Pasha, Khedive of
Egypt, born in 1874, oldest son of
the Khedive Mehemet-Tewfik. He
succeeded his father as Khedive in
1892 ; was deposed in 1914, when
Great Britain assumed a protectorate
over Egypt ; and was succeeded by
Prince Hussein Kaniel Pasha.

Abbas I., surnamed the GREAT;
born in 1557, was the seventh Shah or
King of Persia of the dynasty of the
Cufis. He died Jan. 27, 1628.

Abbassides, the name of a race
who possessed the caliphate for 524
years. There were 37 caliphs of this
race who succeeded one another with-
out interruption. They drew their de-
scent from Abbas-ben-Abd-el-Motallib,
Mahomet's uncle. Their empir* ter-
minated in Mostazem in 1257.

Abbe, Cleveland, an American
meteorologist, born in New York city,
Dec. 3, 1838. He was the "Old Prob-
abilities" and meteorologist in the
U. S. Signal Service in 1871-91, and
meteorologist of the U. S. Weather
Bureau from 1891 till his death on
Oct. 28. 1916.

Abbey, a monastery or religious
community of the highest class, gov-
erned by an abbot, assisted generally
by a prior, sub-prior, and other subor-
dinate functionaries ; or, in the case of
a female community, superintended by
an abbess. Abbeys or monasteries first
arose in the East. The abbeys in Eng-
land were wholly abolished by Henry
VIII. at the Reformation. In the
United States the word "monastery"
is generally used for male religious
houses ; "convent" for female.

Abbey, Edwin Austin, an Amer-
ican artist, born in Philadelphia, April
1, 1852. Besides illustrating many
books and painting a number of no-
table pictures, he designed a series of


paintings for the Boston Public Li-
brary, on the "Holy Grail." He was
commissioned by King Edward VII.
to paint the coronation scene in West-
minster Abbey. He died Aug. 1, 1911.

Abbot, the superior of a monastery
of monks erected into an abbey or
priory. Abbot is also a title given to
others besides the superiors of monas-
teries ; thus, bishops, whose sees were
formerly abbeys, are called abbots.
Among the Genoese, the chief magis-
trate of the republic formerly bore the
title of "Abbot of the People."

Abbot, Ezra, an American Greek
scholar, born at Jackson, Me., April
28, 1819. He was one of the Amer-
ican committee of New Testament re-
visers. He died at Cambridge, Mass.,
March 21, 1884.

Abbot, Henry Larcom, an Amer-
ican military engineer, born in Bever-
ly, Mass., Aug. 13, 1831 ; graduated at
the United States Military Academy in
1854 ; became brevet Major-General of
Volunteers in the Civil War, and sub-
sequently Colonel and Chief of Engi-
neers of the United States army, and
was retired in 1895.

Abbot, Willis John, an Amer-
can journalist and author, born in
Connecticut in 1863. With the excep-
tion of a "Life of Carter Harrison,"
his works consist principally of popu-
lar histories for young people. His
editorial writings are graceful and cul-
tured in style, and powerful in expres-

Abbotsford, the home of Sir Wal-
ter Scott, situated on the S. bank of
the Tweed a few miles above Mel-
rose. At the time Scott bought the es-
tate in 1811, it was called Clarty Hole,
but his antiquarian spirit moved him to
connect the place with the old monks
of Melrose Abbey, who formerly cross-
ed the river near the house. He re-
tained all of the ancient Scotch archi-
tecture that could be used, and en-
larged the building to its present di-
mensions. The property remains in
the possession of the author's descend-
ants to the fourth generation.

Abbott, Charles Conrad, an
American archaeologist, born at Tren-
ton, N. J., 1843. He has discovered
palaeolithic human remains in the Del-
aware valley, and shown the likeli-
hood of the early existence of the Eski-


mo race as far south as New Jersey.
A large collection of archaeological
specimens made by him is now in the
Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass.,
where he was stationed in 1876-1889.

Abbott, Edwin Abbott an En-
glish theologian and Shakespearean
scholar, born in London, Dec, 20, 1838.
From the City of London School he
passed, in 1857, to St. John's College,

Abbott, Emma, American dra-
matic soprano, born in Chicago, 111.,
in December, 1849. After years of
hard work, she went abroad in 1872
and studied with Sangiovanni at Mi-
lan, and Delle Sedie in Paris, and aft-
erward sang in opera with great suc-
cess. In 1878 she married E. J. Weth-
erell, of New York. She died in Salt
Lake City, Utah, Jan. 5, 1891.

Abbott, Jacob, an American
writer of juvenile stories, born in Hal-
lowell Me., Nov. 14, 1803; died Oct.
31, 1879. He graduated from Bow-
doin College, studied for the ministry,
was professor of mathematics at Am-
herst for four years, and in 1834 es-
tablished the Eliot Church in Roxbury,
after having been principal of a girls'
school in Boston. After 1839 he de-
voted his whole time to literature and
wrote and published more than 200
volumes, among them the famous Rol-
lo Books. In collaboration with his
brother John, he wrote a number of
histories for juvenile readers, with
whom he was a great favorite. His
works have a considerable sale in the
first years of the 20th century.

Abbott, Sir John Joseph. Cald-
well, a Canadian statesman, born in
1821. He took an active part in the
Senate, leading the Conservative side.
On the death of Sir John Macdonald,
in 1891, he become Premier, resigning
in the following year on account of ill-
health. He died in 1893.

Abbott, John Stevens Cabot, an
American author, born at Brunswick,
Me., Sept. 18, 1805 ; brother of Jacob
Abbott ; author of "History of Napo-
leon ; "History of the Civil War ;"
"History of Frederick the Great :" and
numerous other works on kindred
themes. He died, 1877.

Abbott, Lyman, an American
clergyman, borti at Roxbury. Mass.,
Dec. 18, 1835. At first a lawyer, he



was ordained minister of the Congrega-
tional Church in 1860. After a pas-
torate of five years, in Indiana, he
went to New York, and rose rapidly
to distinction through his contributions)
to periodical literature. He was pas-;
tor of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, in
1888-1898, being the immediate suc-
cessor of Henry Ward Beecher. He;
was associated with Mr. Beecher in the
editorship of the " Christian Union," j
a-nd is now editor of " The Outlook,"
formerly the " Christian Union."

Abbott, Russell Bigelow, an'
American educator ; born in Brookville,
Ind., Aug. 8, 1823 ; was graduated at
the University of Indiana in 1847 ; and
received the degree of D. D. from
Galesville University in 1884. After
serving for several years as principal
of public schools in Muncie and New
Castle, Ind., and of Whitewater Pres-
byterian Academy, he was ordained in
the Presbyterian Church in 1857 ; held
pastorates in Brookville, Ind., seven
years, in Knightstown, Ind., two years,
and in Albert Lea, Minn., 15 years ;
and, founding Albert Lea College in
the latter city, became its president i .
1884. Dr. Abbott served as moderator
of the Presbyterian Synod of Minne-j
sota and several times as a delegate to
the General Assembly of his church.

Abbreviations, or " shortenings,"
are used in writing to save time and
space, or, it may be, to ensure secrecy
In the following list most of the abbre-
viations that are likely to be met with
by modern readers are alphabetically j
arranged :

A. or Ans. Answer.
A. A. G. Assistant Adjutant-General.
A. A. A. G. Acting Assistant Adju-,

r A. A. P. S. American Association for

the Promotion of Science.
A. A. S. Academics Americans $0-1
cius, Fellow of the American Acad-
emy (of Arts and Sciences).
A. A. S. S. Americance Antiquariance
Societatis Socius, Member of the
American Antiquarian Society.
r A. B. Able-bodied seaman.
A. B. Artium Baccalaureus, Bache-
lor of Arts.

A. B. C. F. M. American Board of
Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
Abl. Ablative.
Abp. Archbishop.
Abr. Abridgment, or Abridged.

A. B. S. American Bible Society.

A. C. Ante Christum, before the
birth of Christ.

Acad. Academy.

Acad. Nat. Sci. Academy of Natural

Ace. Accusative.

Online LibraryGeorge Jotham HagarThe New world encyclopedia; a library of reference (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 91)