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own expense, preaching his mission,
until he founded in 1800 the EVAN-
GELICAL ASSOCIATION. He died in
1808.

Albnera, a village of Spain, in the
province of Badajoz, on the Albuera
river; 13 miles S. E. of Badajoz.
Here (May 16, 1811) a British and
Portuguese army of 32,500, under
General Beresford, defeated in a san-
guinary battle a French army of 23,-
000 under Marshal Soult, the total
loss being 16,000, about equally di-
vided.

Albumen, or Albumin. In chem-
istry, the name of a class of albumin-
oids that are soluble in water, as
serum and egg albumen.

Albuminuria, a disease character-
ized by the presence of albumen in the
urine. It may be acute or chronic.
Acute albuminuria is a form of in-
flammation of the kidneys. Chronic
albuminuria, the commoner and more
formidable malady, arises from grave
constitutional disorders. It is often
attended by cf produces .dropsy.
Whether acute or chronic, but espe-
cially when the latter, it is generally
called Bright's disease, after Dr.
Bright, who first described it with ac-
curacy.

Albuquerque, Alfonso d% " the
Great," Viceroy of the Indies, was
born in 1453, near Lisbon. Albuquer-

3ue landed on the Malabar coast in
503, with a fleet and some troops ;
conquered Goa, which he made the
seat of the Portuguese Government,
and the center of its Asiatic com-
merce; and afterward Ceylon, the
Sunda Isles, the Peninsula of Malacca,



Alcohol

and (in 1515) the Island of Or muz at
the entrance of the Persian Gulf. He
died at sea near Goa, Dec. 16, 1515.

Alcseus, a Greek lyric poet ; native
of Mitylene ; flourished in the 6th cen-
tury B. c. Of his poems we have only
fragments.

Alcala de Henares, a town in
Spain, Cervantes' birthplace, on the
Henares, 21 miles E. of Madrid by
rail. Here was printed in 1517,
in six folio volumes, at an expense of
80,000 ducats, the great Compluten-
sian Bible.

Alcazar, the name of many castles
and palaces in Spain. Ciudad-Ro-
drigo, Cordova, Segovia, Toledo and




ALCAZAR IN SEGOVIA.

Seville _ have alcazars. The one at
Seville is an imposing relic of the Arab
dominion.

Alcibiades, a famous Grecian
statesman and warrior, son of Clinias
and Deinomache, born in Athens about
450 B. c. After a brilliant and erratic
career, distinguished equally by great
achievements and lack of moral prin-
ciple he was assassinated in 404.

Alcohol, a colorless, inflammable
liquid, of agreeable odor, and burning
taste, termed also spirit of wine, and
ethylic or vinic alcohol.



Alcohol



Aldrich



Alcohol, Denatured, alcohol for
use in the industries, in which medi- :
cinal properties have been destroyed;
authorized by Congress in 1905.

Alcott, Amos Bronson, an
American philosophical writer and
educator, one of the founders of the
transcendental school of philosophy
in New England, born in Wolcott,
Conn., Nov. 29, 1799. He died in
Boston, March 4, 1888.

Alcott, Louisa May, an Ameri-
can author, daughter of the preced-
ing, born in Germantown, Pa., Nov.
29, 1832. She died in Boston, Mass.,
March 6, 1888. Few writers are
more popular with children than Miss
Alcott

Alcnin, an English ecclesiastic,
born at York in 735. He died in
804. He made with his own hand a
copy of the Scriptures, which he pre-
sented to Charlemagne, and which be-
came of great assistance to later ed-
itors.

Alden, Henry Mills, an Ameri-
can editor and prose writer, born at
Mount Tabor, Vt., Nov. 11, 1836. He
was graduated at Williams College
and Andover Theological Seminary ;
settled in New York in 1861, became
managing editor of " Harper's
Weekly " in 1864, and editor of "Har-
per's Monthly Magazine " in 1868.
He has published " The Ancient Lady
of Sorrow," a poem ; " God in His
World " ; etc.

Alden, John, a magistrate of the
Plymouth colony, born in 1599. His
name is familiarized by the poem of
Longfellow, " The Courtship of Miles
Standish." He was originally a !
cooper of Southampton, was employed '
in making repairs on the ship " May-
flower," and came over in her with
the Pilgrim Fathers. By some ac-
counts he was the first to step ashore ',
at Plymouth. In Longfellow's poem
he is in love with and eventually mar-
ries Priscilla, with whom he had previ-
ously pleaded the cause of Miles
Standish. He was for over 50 years
a colonial magistrate. He died in
1687.

Alden, "William Livingston, an
American humorous writer and jour-
nalist, born at Williamstown, Mass.,
Oct. 9, 1837. He was for a time



at



United States Consul-General
Rome. He died Jan. 14, 1908.

Alder, the common name for a
genus of plants (alnus), of the oak
family. In the Eastern United States
it is a very common shrub, branching
freely from the roots, and forming
dense clumps along the banks of
streams and in other wet places. On
the W. coast it often attains a height
of from 40 to 60 feet in favorable loca-
tions. It is found in temperate and
cold regions.

Alderman, a title pertaining to an
office in the municipal corporations of
the United States and England.

Alderman, Edwin Anderson, an
American educator, born in Wilming-
ton, N. C., May 15, 1861. In 1896 he
was chosen President of the Univer-
sity of North Carolina; in 1900, of
Tulane University (New Orleans); in
1904, of the University of Virginia.

Alderney, a British island in the
English channel.

Aldershot Camp, a permanent
camp of exercise on the confines of
Hampshire, Surrey, and Berkshire, 35
miles S. W. of London.

Aldine Editions, the books print-
ed by Aldus Manutius and his family,
in Venice (149071597). They com-
prise the first editions of Greek and
Roman classics ; others contain cor-
rected texts of modern classic writers,
carefully collated with the MSS.

Aldrich, Nelson Wilmarth,
United States senator from Rhode Is-
land, recognized as the leading Ameri-
can authority on the protective tariff,
and generally understood to be the real
author of the McKinley Law as
adopted. Born, Foster, R. I., No-
vember 6, 1841. President Providence
Common Council, 1871-73; Speaker
R. I. General Assembly, 1876 ; in Con-
gress 1879 to 1883, when he resigned
to take seat in Senate. He died
April 16, 1915.

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, an
American poet, essayist, and writer of
fiction, born in Portsmouth, N. H.,
Nov. 11, 1836. He spent his early
youth in Louisiana, but at the age of
17 entered a mercantile house in New
York. Removing to Boston in 1866,
he became editor of "Every Satur-
day," and, in 1881, editor of the "At-



Ale

lantic Monthly." He became equally
eminent as a prose writer and poet.
He died March 19, 1907.

Ale, a malt liquor, stronger than
ordinary beer. It was the current
name in England for malt liquor in
general before the introduction of "the
wicked weed called hops " from the
Netherlands, about the year 1524.
The two names, ale and beer, are both
Teutonic, and seem originally to have
been synonymous.

Alemanni, or Alamanni, a con-
federacy of several German tribes
which, at the commencement of the 3d
century after Christ, lived near the
Roman territory, and came then and
subsequently into conflict with the
imperial troops. It is from the Ale-
manni that the French have derived
their names for Germans and Ger-
many in general, namely, Allemands
and Allemagne, though strictly speak-
ing only the modern Suabians and
Northern Swiss are the proper de-
scendants of that ancient race.

Alembert, Jean le Bond d', one
of the most distinguished mathema-
ticians and literary characters of the
18th century ; born in Paris, Nov. 16,
1717. He died Oct. 29, 1783.

Alembic, a simple apparatus some-
times used by chemists for distillation.

Aleppo, a city of Turkey in Asia,
in Northern Syria, and capital of the
vilayet of Aleppo ; on the Koeik river, '
71 miles E. of the Mediterranean.
The foundation of Aleppo dates back
to about 2,000 years B. C. It was
nearly destroyed by an earthquake
in 1822, when it lost two-thirds of its
250,000 inhabitants. The present in-
habitants are Turks, Greeks, Arme-
nians, and Jews. Pop. about 127,000.

Aleutian Islands, or Catherine
Archipelago, a group of about 150
islands, extending W. from Alaska pen-
insula for a distance of 1,650 miles ;
belongs to Alaska Territory. The is-
lands are mountainous, with several
volcanic peaks. The principal islands
are Umnak and Unalaska. The in-
habitants are nearly all Aleuts, a peo-
ple allied to the Eskimos. These is-
lands were discovered by Bering in
1728. Pop. about 3,000.

Alewife, a North American fish,
belonging to the same family as the
herring and the shad.



Alexander

Alexander VI., Pope, Rodrigo Len-
zuoli Borgia, a Spaniard, of Valencia,
son of Isabelle Borgia, whose family
name be took, born Jan. 1, 1431. At
first he studied law, and then was ap-
pointed by his uncle, Pope Calixtus
III., a cardinal before he was 25 years
old. In 1458 he was made Archbishop of
Valencia. After the death of Innocent
VIII. he was crowned Aug. 26, 1492,
with great pomp and solemnity. To
his son John, Duke of Gandia, he pre-
sented the duchy of Benevento, in
1487, which was separated from the
estates of the Church. His daughter,
Lucretia Borgia, was married to Gio-
vanni Sforza, Lord of Pesarp, after-
ward to Alfonso di Biseglia, then
thirdly to Alfonso d'Este, Prince of
Ferrara. His son, Caesar, who after-
ward got complete control of him, was
made Archbishop of Valencia, and, in
1493, was appointed cardinal. After-
ward, in order to create for him a
secular principality, he made an alli-
ance with Louis XII. of France.
Caesar Borgia, therefore, left the
Church and became Duke of Valen-
tinois. In 1501 he became Duke of
the Romagna. On May 4, 1493, Alex-
ander issued a bull dividing the New
World between Spain and Portugal ;
on May 23, 1498, the execution of Sa-
vonarola took place by his order ; and
in 1501 he instituted the censorship
of books. Alexander died Aug. 18,
1503, from poison said to have been
intended for Cardinal Corneto.

Alexander I., Emperor of Russia,
son of Paul I. and Maria, daughter of
Prince Eugene, of Wurtemberg; born
Dec. 23, 1777. On the assassination
of his father, March 24, 1801, Alex-
ander ascended the throne. One of
the first acts of his reign was to con-
clude peace with Great Britain,
against which his predecessor had de-
clared war. In 1803 he offered his
services as mediator between England
and France, and two years later a
convention was entered into between
Russia, England, Austria, and Sweden
for the purpose of resisting the en-
croachments of France on the terri-
tories of independent States. He was
present at the battle of Austerlitz
(Dec. 2, 1805), when the combined
armies of Russia and Austria were de-
feated by Napoleon. Alexander was
compelled to retreat to his dominions



Alexander

at the head of the remains of his
army. In the succeeding campaign
the Russians were again beaten at
Eylau (Feb. 8, 1807), and Friedland
(June 14), the result of which was
an interview, a few days after the
battle, on a raft anchored in the Nie-
men, between Alexander and Napo-
leon, which led to the treaty signed at
Tilsit, July 7. The Russian emperor
now for a time identified himself with
the Napoleonic schemes. The seizure
of the Danish fleet by the British
brought about a declaration of war by
Russia against Great Britain and
Sweden, and Alexander invaded Fin-
land and conquered that long-coveted
duchy, which was secured to him by
the peace of Friedrichshamn (1809).
His having separated himself from
Napoleon led to the French invasion
of 1812. In 1813 he published the fa-
mous manifesto which served as the
basis of the coalition of the other Eu-
ropean powers against France. After
the battle of Waterloo, Alexander, ac-
companied by the Emperor of Austria
and the King of Prussia, made his sec-
ond entrance into Paris. He died in
the Crimea, Dec. 1, 1825.

Alexander II., Emperor of Rus-
sia ; born April 29, 1818 ; succeeded
his father Nicholas in 1855, before
the end of the Crimean War. After
peace was concluded the new emperor
set about effecting reforms in the em-
pire, among the first being the putting
of the finances in order. The greatest
of all the reforms carried out by him
was the emancipation of the serfs by
a decree of March 2, 1861. The czar
also did much to improve education in
the empire, and introduced a reorgan-
ization of the judicial system. During
his reign the Russian dominions in
Central Asia were considerably ex-
tended, while to the European portion
of the monarchy was added a piece of
territory, S. of the Caucasus, formerly
belonging to Turkey in Asia. A part
of Bessarabia, belonging since the Cri-
mean War to Turkey in Europe, but
previously to Russia, was also restored
to the latter power. The latter addi-
tions resulted from the Russo-Turkish
War of 1877-1878, in which the Turks
were completely defeated, the Russian
troops advancing almost to the gates
of Constantinople. Toward the end
of the czar's life several attempts at



Alexander

his assassination were made by Ni-
hilists, and at last he was killed by an
explosive missile Sung at him in a
street in St Petersburg, March 13,
1881. He was succeeded by his son,
Alexander III

Alexander HI., of Russia, son of
Alexander II., was born Maich 10,
1845, and married the daughter of the
King of Denmark in 1866. After his
father's death, through fear of assas-
sination, he shut himself up in his
palace at Gatschina. His coronation
was postponed till 1883, and was cele-
brated with extraordinary magnifi-
cence, and with national festivities
lasting several days. Through the fall
of Mery, the subjugation of the Turk-
omans in Central Asia was completed.
In 1885 hostilities with England with
regard to the defining of the frontier
between the Russian territories and
Afghanistan, for a time seemed immi-
nent. In European affairs he broke
away from the triple alliance between
Russia, Germany, and Austria, and
looked rather to France. He was ag-
grieved by the new Bulgarian spirit.
His home policy was reactionary,
though strong efforts were made to
prevent malversation by officials, and
stern economics were practiced. The
liberties of the Baltic Provinces and
of Finland were curtailed, the Jews
were oppressed, and old Russian or-
thodoxy was favored. Several Ni-
hilist attempts were made on his life,
and he kept himself practically a pris-
oner in his palace. He died at Li-
vadia, Nov. 1, 1894.

Alexander III., King of Scot-
land, born in -1241, in 1249 succeeded
his father, Alexander II. Riding on
a dark night between Burntisland and
Kinghorn, he fell with his horse and
was killed on the spot, March 12, 1286.
A monument (1887) marks the scene
of his death. His death led to the at-
tempt of Edward I. of England to
destroy the liberties of Scotland, which
resulted in the crushing defeat of the
English under Edward II. at Ban-
nockburn.

Alexander I., King of Servia,
born Aug. 14, 1876 ; son of King Milan
I. In 1889 Milan abdicated and pro-
claimed Alexander king, under a re-
gency till he should attain his ma-
jority (18 years). On April 13, 1893,
when in his 17th year, Alexander sud-



Alexander



Alexander the Great



denly took the royal authority into his
own bands, and summarily dismissed
the regent. On Aug. 5, 1900, he mar-
ried Mme. Draga Maschin. He was
the fifth of his dynasty, which was
founded by Milos Todorovic Obrenovic
in 1829. On the night of June 10,
1903, the military at Belgrade re-
volted, soldiers surrounded the palace,
and the leaders broke into the royal
apartments and murdered King Alex-
ander and Queen Draga, and also two
brothers of the Queen and members of
the Cabinet. This extinguished the
Obrenovitch dynasty, except as repre-
sented by a natural son of former King
Milan, whom the latter had acknowl-
edged and made legitimate.

Alexander, Archibald, an Amer-
ican clergyman, of Scottish de-
scent, was born in Virginia, April 17,
1772, and died at Princeton, N. J.,
Oct. 22, 1851. He studied theology,
and performed itinerant missionary
work in various parts of Virginia ; be-
came president of Hampton-Sidney
College in 1796, and pastor of a Pres-
byterian church in Philadelphia in
1807. On the establishment of Prince-
ton Theological Seminary in 1812, he
was appointed its first professor, a
position which he held till his death.
His eldest son. JAMES WADDELL ALEX-
ANDER (1804-1850), was a Presbyte-
rian minister in Virginia, New Jer-
sey, and at New York ; and afterward
professor in Princeton Theological
Seminary. He contributed to the
" Princeton Review," wrote more than
30 children's books, a life of his father,
and miscellaneous works. JOSEPH
ADDISON ALEXANDER, third son (1809-
1860), graduated at Princeton in
1826, lectured there on Biblical Criti-
cism and Ecclesiastical History, and
for the last eight years of his life filled
the chair of Biblical and Ecclesiastical
History. He was engaged at the time
of his death, along with Dr. Hodge, on
a commentary of the New Testament.
He is best known by his commentaries
and "Prophecies of Isaiah" (1846-
1847; revised edition, 1864), and the
" Psalms Translated and Explained "
(3 volumes, 1850) , both of which have
had a large circulation, and have been
reprinted in England.

Alexander Archipelago, or Al-
exander Islands, a group of islands
on the W. coast of North America,



extending from 54 40> N. to 58 25'
N. ; belong to Alaska Territory.

Alexander Jarostowitz Nevski,
St., Grand Duke of Vladimir and
Prince of Novgorod, born in 1219; a
Russian national hero and patron
saint of St Petersburg, where Peter
the Great founded in his honor the
magnificent monastery and the reli-
gious order that bear his name. He
died in 1263.

Alexander, John White, Ameri-
can portrait painter, born in Pitts-
burg, Pa., Oct. 7, 1856 ; studied at Mu-
nich, Paris, and in Italy ; became a
societaire of the Beaux Arts in Paris ;
was appointed one of the American
jurors on paintings for the Paris Ex-
position in 1900. Died June 1, 1915.
Alexander of Hales, a noted
English philosopher and theologian,
born at Hales, Gloucestershire. He
died in Paris, 1245.

Alexander Severus, (in full,
MARCUS AURELIUS ALEXANDER SEV-
ERUS) , a Roman emperor ; born in Ace
(the modern Acre), Phoenicia, in A. D.
205. Alexander was favorable to
Christianity, following the predilec-
tions of his mother, Julia Mammaea,
and he is said to have placed the
statue of Jesus Christ in his private
temple, in company with those of Or-
pheus and Apollonius of Tyana. He
was murdered A. D. 235.

Alexander the Great, the 3d
King of Macedon bearing the name
which he made so famous : born in
Pella, 356 B. c.

Alexander first appeared on the
stage of universal history in 339 B. c.
At the age of 16 the regency of Greece
was intrusted to him by Philip when
he set out on an expedition against
Byzantium ; and in that capacity it
fell to his lot to lead his first army
against an Illyrian rising, to found his
first Alexandria in the upper valley
of the Strymon, and to receive a depu-
tation of envoys from the King of Per-
sia. In the year after his appoint-
ment to the regency Alexander showed
eminent military capacity at the battle
of Chaeronea (338), and, on the mur-
der of Philip, ascended the throne in
336, before he had reached his 20th
year.

In tho autumn of 336 Alexander
marched into Greece, and was con-



Alexandria



Alexandrian Library



firmed iu the chief command against
Persia by the Amphictyones at Ther-
mopylae. In 335 he advanced to the
Haemus range (the Balkans), and
showed great ability in his campaign
against the Thracians, crossing the
Danube apparently out of mere
bravado in the face of the enemy
without losing a single man. He had
no real friends among the Greek
States. The Thebans, hearing a false
report of his death, became overt ene-
mies, proclaimed their independence,
and slew some Macedonian officers.
Alexander appeared in Boeotia with
amazing dispatch, and took Thebes by
storm on the third day of the siege.

Leaving Antipater to govern in Eu-
rope, he crossed over into Asia in the
spring of 334 with 30,000 foot and
5,000 horse. The Persian empire, the
conquest of which he undertook, was
at least 50 times as large as his own
and numbered about 20 times as many
inhabitants. It extended from the
Hellespont to the Punjab, from Lake
Aral to the cataracts of the Nile. But
it was a vast congeries of subject prov-
inces having no internal bond, and no
principle of cohesion but the will of
the king. Alexander entirely subdued
Persia, and formed the idea of con-
quering India. He passed the In-
dus in 327, and made an alliance
with Taxiles, under whose guidance
he reached the Hydaspes (modern
Jhelum). Here, after a severe strug-
gle, and unsatisfactory victory, he
built a fleet, in which he /sent part
of his army down the river, while the
rest proceeded along the banks.

In 323 Alexander arrived at Baby-
lon, where he found numberless envoys
from nations near and far, come to
pay their homage to the young con-
queror. He was engaged in very ex-
tensive plans for the future, including
the conquest of Arabia and the reor-
ganization of the army, when he fell
ill of a fever. He died in 323, after
a reign of 12 years and eight months.
The day before a rumor had gone
abroad that the great general was
dead, and that his friends were con-
cealing the truth. The dying king
caused his army to defile past his bed,
and feebly waved them a last farewell.

Alexandria, a city of Egypt,
founded by Alexander the Great in
331 B. c. The situation of the city,

E. 5.



at the point of junction between the
East and West, rendered it the center
of the commerce of the world, and
raised it to the highest degree of pros-
perity. In the Middle Ages it suf-
fered reverses, and gradually declined,
and when, in 1517, the Turks took
the place, the remains of its for-
mer splendor wholly vanished, walls
and buildings being reduced to ruins.
It is now again one of the most impor-
tant commercial places on the Medi-
terranean. Recent improvements,
to cost $10,000,000, are expected to
make the western harbor one of the
best on the Mediterranean.

Of the few remaining objects of an-
tiquity the most prominent is Pom-
pey's Pillar, as it is erroneously called.
Of the so-called Cleopatra's Needles
two obelisks of the 16th century
B. c., which long stood there one
was taken to England and erected on
the Thames Embankment in 1878;
and the other was set up in Central
Park, New York. Pop. 319,766.

Alexandria, independent city and
port of entry of Virginia; on the Po-
tomac river and the Baltimore &
Ohio and other railroads; 6 miles S.
of Washington; has a good harbor,
large shipments of grains, and con-
siderable manufacturing interests; is
the seat of the Virginia Theological
Seminary (P. E.) and was the
headquarters of General Braddock in
1775. Pop. (1910) 15,329.

Alexandrian Codex, an impor-
tant manuscript of the sacred Scrip-
tures in Greek, now in the British Mu-
seum. It is written on parchment, in
finely formed uncial letters, and is
without accents, marks of aspiration,
or spaces between the words. Its
probable date is the middle of the 5th
century.

Alexandrian Library, a remark-
able collection of books, the largest of
the ancient world, was founded by the
first Ptolemy. Theodosius the Great
permitted all the heathen temples in
the Roman empire to be destroyed, the
magnificent temple of Jupiter Serapis,
containing the library, was not spared.
A mob of fanatic Christians, led on
by the Archbishop Theophilus, stormed
and destroyed the temple, together, it
is most likely, with the greater part
of its literary treasures, in 391 A. D.
It was at this time that the destrnc-



Alexins Comnenns



Alger



tion of the Library was begun, and
not at the taking of Alexandria by the
Arabs, under the Caliph Omar, in 641,
when its destruction was merely com-
pleted.

Alexius Comnenns, Byzantine
Emperor, was born in 1048, and died
in 1118. He was a nephew of Isaac
the first emperor of the Comneni, and
attained the throne in 1081, at a time
when the empire was menaced from
various sides, especially by the Turks,
the Normans and the Crusaders. From
these dangers he extricated himself
by policy or warlike measures, and
maintained his position during a reign
of thirty-seven years.

Alfalfa, a prolific forage plant
belonging to the Legume family, large-
ly grown in the United States, and in
parts of Spanish America. Crops are



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