George Jotham Hagar.

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unions, 5 departments, 45 state
branches, 718 city central unions, 689
local unions ; membership, 2,045,793.

American Indians. See INDIANS,

Americanisms, a word defined as
a term, phrase, or idiom of the Eng-
lish language as spoken in America


for in the United States) which either
(a) originated in America; or, (b)
is peculiar to America; or, (c) is
chiefly employed in America. The fol-
lowing is a list of a few of the more
noteworthy Americanisms :

Around or round. About or near.
To hang around is to loiter about.

Backwoods. The partially cleared
forest regions in the western states.

Bayou. In Louisiana, a term given
to a small stream. The same as "creek."

Bee. An assemblage of persons to
unite their labors for the benefit of
an individual or family or to carry
out a joint scheme.

Bogus. False ; counterfeit.

Boss. An employer or superinten-
dent of laborers; a leader.

Bulldoze, to. To intimidate,

Bunco. A swindling game.

Buncombe or Bunkum. A speech
made solely to please a constituency ;
talking for talking's sake, and in an
inflated style.

Calculate. To suppose, to believe,
to think.

Camp-meeting. -A meeting held in
the fields or woods for religious pur-
poses, and where the assemblage en-
camp and remain for several days.

Car. A carriage or wagon of a
railway train. The Englishman "trav-
els by rail," the American takes, or
goes by, the cars.

Carpet-bagger. A needy political
adventurer who carries a 11 his earthly
goods in a carpet-bag ; originally ap-
plied to politicians from the Northern
States who sought offices in the South
after the Civil War.

Caucus. A private meeting of the
leading politicians of a party to agree
upon the plans to be pursued in an
approaching election.

Chunk. A short, thick piece of
wood or any other material.

Corn. Maize. In England, wheat
or grain in general.

Corn-husking or Corn-shucking.
An occasion on which a farmer invites
his neighbors to assist him in strip-
ping the husks from his corn.

Creek. A small tributary of a large
river. Used chiefly in the West.

Dead-heads. People who have free
admission to entertainments, or who
have the use of public conveyances, or
the like, free of charge.

Down East. In or into the New


England States. A down-easter is a
New Englander.

Drummer. A commercial traveler.

Dry goods. A general term for
such articles as are sold by linen-
drapers, haberdashers, hosiers, etc., in

Fix, to. To put in order, to pre-
pare, to adjust. To fix the hair, the
table, the fire, is to dress the hair, lay
the table, make up the fire.

Fixings. Arrangements, dress, em-
bellishments, luggage, furniture, gar-
nishments of any kind.
^ Fork. Used in the Southwest in a
similar sense to " creek."

Freeze out. To get rid of objec-
tionable persons.

Gerrymander. To arrange politi-
cal divisions so that in an election one
party may obtain an advantage over
| its opponent, even though the latter
may possess a majority of votes.

Grab. To gain a privilege without
proper payment.

Greenback. A former kind of pa-
per money.

Guess, to. To believe, to suppose,
to think.

Gulch. A deep, abrupt ravine,
caused by the action of water.

Happen in, to. To happen to come
in or call.

llatchet, to bury or take up the.
To end or begin war.

Help. The labor of hired persons
collectively; the body of servants be-
longing to a farm or household or fac-

Hoe-cake. A cake of corn meal
baked on or before the fire.

Hoodlum. A rough.

How ! Indian abbreviation of "How
do you do?"

Jolly, to. To flatter, to tease, to
poke fun at

Johnny cake. A cake made of corn
meal mixed with milk or water.

Log-rolling. The assembly of sev-
eral parties of wood-cutters to help
one of them in rolling their logs to
the river after they are felled and
trimmed ; also employed in politics to
signify a like system of mutual co-

Lynch law. An irregular species
of justice executed by the people or a
mob, without legal authority or trial.

Mail letters, to. To post letters.
Make tracks, to. To run away.

American Municipal League

American Party

Mush. A kind of hasty-pudding.

Nickel. A five-cent coin.

Rations. A term applied to every
variety of small wares.

One-horse. A one-horse thing is a
thing of no value or importance; a
mean or trifling thing.

Oxbow. The bend in a river or
the land inclosed within such a bend.

Peart (in the South). Equal to
smart or well.

Piazza. A veranda.

Picayune. A trifle.

Pickaninny. A negro child.

Pile. A quantity of money.

Planks. In politics, the several
principles which appertain to a party ;
" platform " is the collection of such

Pull. A special individual favor.

Reckon, to. To suppose, to think.

Right smart. Very well.

Roast, to. To criticise severely.

Scab. A non-union workman.

Scalawag. A scamp, a scapegrace.

Shake. To leave a person.

Skedaddle, to. To run away, a
word introduced during the Civil war.

Smart. Used in the sense of con-
siderable, a good deal, as a smart
chance ; also equal to well, as " right
smart," very well.

Stakes, to pluck or pull up. To

Stampede. The sudden flight of a
crowd, or of cattle or horses.

Stiff. In medical schools, a corpse.

Store. Same as shop in Great
Britain; as a book store, a grocery

Strike oil, to. To come upon pe-
troleum ; hence, to make a lucky hit,
especially financially.

Stump' speech. A speech calcu-
lated to please the popular ear, such
speeches in newly settled districts
being often delivered from the stumps
of trees.

Ticker. A watch ; also a telegraph

Ticket, to vote the straight. To
vote for all the men or measures on
the ticket.

Truck. The small produce of gar-
dens ; truck patch, a plot in which the
smaller fruits and vegetables are

Turn down, to. To reject or ig-
nore ; used of office seekers especially.

Vamose, to. To run off.

Vendue. An auction ; to vendue,
to sell at auction.

Whoop it up. To create an ex-

WUt. To become soft or languid,
to lose energy, pith, or strength.

American Municipal Iieagne,

an organization with branches in all
important American and Canadian
cities, founded for the promotion of
municinal administration.

American Party, The, the name
of three separate organizations which
at different times held a prominent
place in the political affairs of the
United States. The first, organized
about 1852, at a time when the Whig
Party was near its dissolution was,
in fact, a secret society, and was bet-
ter known in later years as the "Know
Nothings," from the assumed ignor-
ance of its members when questioned
in regard to the objects and name of
the order. Its principal doctrine was
opposition to all foreigners and Ro-
man Catholics, and its motto was
" Americans must rule America." The
first National Convention of the Par-
ty was held in February, 1856, at
which resolutions were adopted, de-
manding a lengthening of the resi-
dence necessary to naturalization, and
condemning President Pierce's admin-
istration for the repeal of the Mis-
souri Compromise. A number of the
members withdrew because of the re-
fusal to consider a resolution regard-
ing the restriction of slavery. Mi Hard
Fillmore, of New York, was nominated
for President, and Andrew Jackson
Donelson for Vice-President, which
nominations were subsequently in-
dorsed by a Whig Convention. Fill-
more carried but one State, Maryland ;
his popular vote being about 850,000.
The party was successful in carrying
the State elections in Rhode Island
and Maryland in 1857, but never
gained any popularity in the Western
States. A second party, bearing the
same name, but directly adverse to the
first in that it was founded in opposi-
tion to secret societies, was organized
for political purposes by the National
Christian Association, at the adjourn-
ment of a convention held by the lat-
ter body at Oberlin, O., in 1872. The
organization was completed and the
name adopted at a convention in Syra-
cuse, N. Y., in 1874. At Pittsburg,

American Protective Asso.

America's Cup

.Tune 9, 1875, a platform was adopted
in which were demanded recognition
of the Sabbath, the introduction of
the Bible into public schools, prohibi-
tion of the sale of liquors, the with-
drawal of the charters of secret socie-
ties, and legislative prohibition of
their oaths, arbitration of internation-
al disputes, the restriction of land
monopolies, resumption of specie pay-
ment, justice to the Indians, and a
direct popular vote for President and
Vice-President. James B. Walker of
Illinois was nominated for President.
In 1880, the party again made nom-
inations, and in 1884, S. C. Pomeroy
was nominated, but withdrew in favor
of John P. St. John, the Prohibition
candidate. The third party to be called
by the name of American Party was
organized at a convention held at Phil-
adelphia, Sept. 10-17, 1887. Its prin-
cipal aims, as set forth in its plat-
form, were, to oppose the existing
system of immigration and naturaliza-
tion of foreigners ; to demand its re-
striction and regulation so as to make
a 14-years' residence a prerequisite of
naturalization ; to exclude from the
benefits of citizenship all anarchists,
and other dangerous characters ; to de-
fend free schools ; to condemn
alien proprietorship ; to declare for
the permanent separation of Church
and State, and in favor of the enforce-
ment of the Monroe Doctrine. But
little has been heard of the American
Party in the past few years.

American Protective Associa-
tion, popularly known as the "A. P.
A.," a secret order organized through-
out the United States, with branches
in Canada, which has attracted much
attention by its aggressive platform
and active agitation. Its chief doc-
trine, as announced in its declaration
of principle, is that " subjection to
and support of any ecclesiastical pow-
er not created and controlled by Amer-
ican citizens, and which claims equal,
if not greater, sovereignty than the
Government of the United States of
America, is irreconcilable with Amer-
ican citizenship ; " and it accordingly
opposes " the holding of offices in Na-
tional, State, or Municipal Govern-
ment by any subject or supporter of
such ecclesiastical power." Another
of its cardinal purposes is to prevent
all public encouragement and support

of sectarian schools. It does not con-
stitute a separate political party, but
seeks to control existing parties, and
to elect friendly and defeat objection-
able candidates, by the concerted ac-
tion of citizens affiliated with all par-
ties. The order was founded March
13, 1887, and claims a membership of
about 2,000,000.

American Psychological Asso-
ciation, an organization founded in
1892 for the advancement of psychol-
ogy as a science.

American Social Science Asso-
ciation, a society organized in 1865.

American Society of Civil En-
gineers, an association instituted in
1852 ; holds two meetings each month
(excepting in July and August) at
headquarters, 220 W. 57th st., New
York city ; membership, 2,200.

American Society of Mechani-
cal Engineers, an organization char-
tered in 1881 ; annual dues, members
and associates, $15 ; juniors,$10 ; en-
trance fee, members and associates,
$25, juniors, $15 ; membership unlim-
ited ; holds two meetings annually ;
headquarters, 12 W. 31st St, New
York city.

American System, a term used
by Henry Clay and applied to his plan
of protective duties and internal im-
provements, as proposed in the de-
bates in Congress which resulted in
the tariff law of 1824. At present it
is used to denote the policy of protec-
tion to home industries by means of
duties on imports.

America's Cnp, a yachting trophy,
originally known as the Queen's Cup,
offered as a prize to the yachts of all
nations by the Royal Yacht Squadron
of Great Britain, in 1851. The first
contest for it was held Aug. 22 of that
year, when it was won by the Ameri-
can yacht " America," whose owners
deeded it in trust to the New York
Yacht club. The subsequent success
of American yachts in keeping the cup
caused it to become known as the
" America's " Cup.

In 1903 Sir Thomas Lipton pre-
sented Shamrock III. as challenger
for the America's Cup, Reliance, built
by the Herreshoffs, being presented as
defender of the Cup by an American
syndicate, with Mr. Iselin as manager.
Several of the races were called off

America's Cup

America's Cup



Names of Yachts.


H. M. S.

Aug. 22, 1851
Aug. 8, 1870
Oct. 16, 1871
Oct. 18, 1871
Oct. 19, 1871
Oct. 21, 1871
Oct. 23, 1871
Aug. 11, 1876
Aug. 12, 1876
Nov. 9, 1881
Nov. 10, 1881
Sep. 14, 1885
Sep. 16, 1885
Sep. 9, 1886
Sep. 11, 1886
Sep. 27, 1887
Sep. 30, 1887
Oct. 7, 1893
Oct. 9, 1893
Oct. 13, 1893
Sep. 7, 1895
Sep. 10, 1895
Sep. 12, 1898
Oct. 20, 1899
Oct. 3, 1901
Oct. 4, 1901
Sep. 3, 1903


From Cowes, around the Isle of (

10 37 00

i N. Y. Y. C. course, about 39 miles i
iN. Y. Y. C. course...

3 58 21
4 37 38
6 10 44

6 46 45
3 07 41
3 18 15
4 02 25
4 17 35
5 39 02
6 09 23
4 16 17
5 11 55
5 23 54
5 34 53
7 18 45
7 46 00
4 17 00
4 45 39
4 54 32
5 33 47

6 06 05
6 22 24
5 63 14
5 04 53
5 26 41
5 38 43
6 49 10
7 18 09
4 53 18
5 12 41
5 42 56
5 54 45
4 05 47
4 11 35
3 25 01
3 55 38
3 24 3C
3 25 ISr
4 59 54
5 08 44
3 55 56
3 55 09

4 48 48


3 38 09
3 44 43
3 12 35
3 16 10
4 32 57
4 33 38
4 00 28


> I

( 20 miles to windward off Sandy /
Hook lightship, and return )

j N. Y. Y. C. course Columbia I


\ 29 miles to windward off Sandy )
i Hook lightship and return )
{IK. Y. Y. C. course j


1 N Y Y C course 5

Countess of Dutferin.

5 20 miles to windward off Sandy I
.( Hook lightship, and return )
[ N. Y. Y. C. course j

Countess of Dufferin.

C 16 miles to leeward from buoy 5 \
i off Sandy Hook lightship, and (
( return \


[N. Y Y C course (

( 20 miles to leeward off Sandy i



1 N. Y. Y. C. course <


( 20 miles. to leeward off Sandy )

> N. Y. Y. C. course j

Thistle 1

c 20 miles off Scotland lightship, >



t 15 miles to windward off Sandy )


(Irregular course: 10 miles to a)


i!5 miles to windward off Sandy >


15 miles to windward off Sandy j
Hook, and return }

Valkyrie III

Valkyrie III

3 15 miles to windward off Sandy )
Hook, and return >

Valkyrie III

( 15 miles to windward off Sandy >
Hook, and return )

(15 miles to windward off Sandy )
f Hook, and return )

Shamrock II

fSO miles triangular course j
1 15 miles leeward and back - -i



j 15 miles to leeward off Sandy )
/ Hook, and return J

Shamrock III

* Did not finish.

Shamrock II. finished first, but lost race on time allowance of 43 seconds.

t Reliance won by 1 1 minutes.

Amerigo Vespucci


on account of the time limit, Reliance
being ahead in all of them, as well as
in the three races which decided the
contest. In the final race, Thursday,
Sept. 3, Reliance started at 1:01:56


p. m., Shamrock at 1 :02 :00 p. m. Re-
liance turned the outer mark at
3 :40 :30, to Shamrock III.'s 3 :51 :40.
Reliance won the race in four hours
and twenty-eight minutes.

Amerigo Vespucci. See VES-

Ames, Adalbert, an American
military officer, born in 1835 ; gradu-
ated at West Point, 18G1 ; became
Brigadier-General and brevet Major-
General United States Volunteers, in
the Civil War; Provisional Governor
of Mississippi, 1868; resigned army
commission, 1870; United States Sen-
ator from Mississippi, 1870-1873,
Governor 1874-1876; and Brigadier-
General United States Volunteers in
the war with Spain, 1898.

Ames, Charles Gordon, an
American clergyman, editor, and lec-
turer, born in Dorchester, Mass., Oct.

3, 1828. He graduated at the Geauga
Seminary, Ohio ; was ordained in 1849
as a Free Baptist, but later became a
Unitarian, and pastor of the Church
of the Disciples, Boston. He was eu-
itor of the Minnesota " Republican "
and the " Christian Register," of Bos-
ton. He wrote " George Eliot's Two
Marriages." He died April 15, 1912.

Ames, Eleanor Kirk, an Ameri-
can author, born at Warren, R. I.,
Oct. 7, 1831. Among her many
books are " Information for Authors,"
" Beecher as a Humorist," " The In-
fluence of the Zodiac on Human Life,"
etc. She died June 24, 19G&

Ames, Fisher, an American ora-
tor and statesman, born in Dedham,
Mass., April 9, 1758. Admitted to the
bar in 1781, he became a member of
Congress in 1789, where he gained a
national reputation by his oratory.
Two of his finest efforts were in sup-
port of John Jay's treaty with Great
Britain, and a eulogy on Washington
before the Massachusetts Legislature.
He was elected president of Harvard
College in 1804, but declined. A bril-
liant talker, he was distinguished in
conversation for wit and imagination,
while his character was spotless. His
works consist of orations, essays, and
letters (2 vols., 1854). He *.ied in
Dedham, July 4, 1808.

Ames, Mary Clemmer, an Amer-
ican author, born in Utica, N. Y., ia
1839 ; was a frequent contributor to
the Springfield " Republican," and
afterward to the New York " Inde-
pendent." Married to and divorced
from the Rev. Daniel Ames, she be-
came, in 1883, the wife of Edward
Hudson at Washington. Among her
works are a volume of " Poems "
(1882) ; and biographies of Alice and
Phoebe Gary. She died in Washing-
ton, D. C., Aug. 18, 1884.

Ametabola, a class of wingless in-
sects, which do not undergo netamor-
phosis. They include bird lice, etc.

Amethyst, a precious stone, a va-
riety of quartz, named by Dana ame-
thystine quartz. The Oriental amethyst
is a rare purple variety of sapphire.
The best specimens are brougLt from
India, Armenia, and Arabia.

Amharic, or Amarinna, a Se-
mitic language with an intermixture
of African words; since the 14th cen-

Amherst College


tury the court and official language
of Abyssinia.

Amherst College, an educational
Institution in Amherst, Mass. ; found-
ed in 1821 and incorporated in 1825.

Amiel, Henri Frederic, a dis-
tinguished Swiss essayist, philosophi-
cal critic, and poet, born at Geneva,
Sept. 27, 1821. He died in Geneva,
March 11, 1881.

Animen, Daniel, an American na-
val officer, born in Brown county, O.,
May 15, 1820; entered the United
States navy, July 7, 1836. He was
executive officer of the North Atlantic
Blockading Squadron at the outbreak
of the Civil War. From 1861 to 1865
he rendered signal service in the at-
tacks on Port Royal, Fort Macallister,
Fort Fisher, and both the ironclad at-
tacks on Fort Sumter. On June 4,
1878, he was retired with the rank
of Rear-admiral. He was the designer
of the Ammen life raft and harbor de-
fense ram. Among his works are "The
Old Navy and the New," and "Navy
in the Civil War" J1883). He died
in Washington, D. C\, July 11, 1898.

Ammergau, Ober- and TTnter,
two adjoining villages in Upper Ba-
varia, in the higher part of the valley
of the Ammer, 42 miles S. W. by S. of
Munich. Ober-Ammergau is noted for
the performance of the " Passion
Play," a series of dramatic represen-
tations of the sufferings of Christ,
which is produced every tenth year
by about 500 performers, in accord-
ance with a vow made at the time of
the pestilence of 1634. During the in-
tervening years, the actors give a
series of representations of Old Tes-
tament legends. The performance gen-
erally lasts seven or eight hours, often
without intermission, and is partly a
religious service and partly a popular
festival. In 1889, a theater was built
just outside the place, with a stage
and auditorium capable of seating
6,000 persons. On the height near by
is a colossal memorial of " Christ on
the Cross, with Mary and John,"
modeled by Halbig, the gift of King
Ludwig II.

Ammiamis Marcellinus, a Ro-
man historian, born of Greek parents
at Antioch, in Syria, about 330.

Animon, the eponymic ancestor of
ft people, known in Hebrew and Bibli-

cal history as the "children of Ani-
mon " or Ammonites ; frequently men-
tioned in the Old Testament Ac-
cording to the account in Genesis
(xix: 38), Ammon was the son of

Ammon, a god of the ancient
Egyptians, worshipped especially in
Thebes (No-Ammon), and early rep-
resented as a ram with downward
branching horns, the symbols of pow-
er; as a man with a ram's head; and
as a complete man with two high
feathers on his head, bearded, sitting
on a throne, and holding in his right
hand the scepter of the gods, in his
left the handled cross, the symbol of
divine life. The worship of Ammon.
spread at an early period to Greece,
and afterward to Rome, where he was
identified with Zeus and Jupiter.

Ammonia, a colorless, pungent
gas, with a strong alkaline reaction.
It can be liquefied at the pressure of
seven atmospheres at 15. Ammonia
is obtained by the dry distillation of
animal or vegetable matter containing
nitrogen; horns, hoofs, etc., produce
large quantities; hence its name of
spirits of hartshorn. Guano consists
chiefly of urate of ammonia. But
ammonia is now obtained from the
liquor of gasworks, coal containing
about 2 per cent, of nitrogen. It is
used in medicine as an antacid and
stimulant ; it also increases the secre-
tions. Fxternally, it is employed as a
rubefacient and vesicant. Ammonia
is used as an antidote in cases of poi-
soning by prussic acid, tobacco, and
other sedative drugs.

Ammonite, a large genus of fossil

chambered shells.



Ammonites, a Semitic race of
people, living on the edge of the Syr-
ian Desert ; according to Gen. xix : 38,
the descendants of Lot, and closely
akin to the Moabites. They inhabited
the country lying to the N. of Moab,
between the rivers Arnon and Jabbok.
Their chief city was Rabbath-Ammon.
The Israelites were often at war with
them. From the name of their
princes, it is evident that their lan-
guage was closely akin to Hebrew.
Their chief deity was Moloch.

Amnesty, an act of oblivion passed
after an exciting political period. Its
object is to encourage those who have
compromised themselves by rebellion
or otherwise to resume their ordinary
occupations, and this it does by giving
them a guarantee that they shall never
be called upon to answer for their
past offenses.

Amor, the god of love among the
Romans, equivalent to the Greek Eros.

Amorites, a powerful tribe of Ca-
naanites, who inhabited the country
N. E. of the Jordan, as far as Mount

Amos, one of the so-called minor
prophets of the Hebrews, was a herds-
man of Tekoa, in the neighborhod of
Bethlehem, and also a dresser of syca-
more trees. During the reigns of
Uzziah in Judah, and Jeroboam II. in
Israel (about 800 B. c.) be came for-
ward to denounce the idolatry then

Amoy, a seaport town and one of
the treaty ports of China; on a small
island of the same name in the Prov-
ince of Fukien ; 325 miles E. by N. E.
of Canton, and directly opposite the
island of Formosa. During the in-
ternational military operations in
China, in 1900, the city was occu-
pied by the Japanese.

Ampere, the practical unit of elec-
tric current strength. It is the mea-
sure of the current produced by an
electro-motive force of one volt through
a resistance of one ohm. In electric
quantity it is the rate of one coulomb
per second.

Ampere, Andre Marie, a French
mathematician and physicist, was
born at Lyons in 1775. He died at
Marseilles, June 10, 1836.

Amphibia, in zoology, animals
Which can live indiscriminately on

land or water, or which at one part
of their existence live in water and
at another on land.

Amphictyonic Council, a cele-
brated council of the States of ancient
Greece. The members of this confed-
eration bound themselves by an oath
not to destroy any city of the Am-
phictyons, nor cut off their streams
in war or peace, and to employ all
their power in punishing those who
did so, or those who pillaged the prop-
erty of the god, or injured his temple
at Delphi.

Ampliion, in mythology, the son
of Jupiter and Antiope; the eldest of
the Grecian musicians. To express

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