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lation about 15,000.

Andover Theological Semi-
nary, a noted Congregational institu-
tion at Andover, Slass. ; founded in

Andral, Gabriel, a French phy-
sician and pathologist, born in Paris,
Nov. 6, 1797. He died Feb. 13, 1876.

Andrassy, Julius Count, Hun-
garian statesman, born March 8, 1823.
He was a conspicuous member of the
Congress of Berlin in 1878; negotiat-
ed the German-Austrian alliance with
Bismarck in 1879; and the same year
retired from public life. He died Feb.
18, 1890.

Andre, John, a British military
officer, born in London in 1751 ; enter-

___ Andre

ed the army in 1771 ; went to Canada
in 1774 ; and was made prisoner by the
Americans in 1775. After his ex-
change, he was rapidly promoted, and
in 1780 was appointed Adjutant-Gen-
eral, with the rank of Major. His
prospects were of the most flattering
kind when the treason of Arnold led
to his death. The temporary absence
of Washington having been chosen by
the traitor as the most proper season
for carrying into effect his design of
delivering to Sir Henry Clinton the
fortification at West Point, then un-
der his command, and refusing to con-
fide to any but Major Andre the maps
and information required by the Brit-
ish general, an interview became neces-
sary, and Sept. 19, 1780, Andre left
New York in the sloop-of-war " Vul-
ture," and on the next day arrived at
Fort Montgomery, in company with
Beverly Robinson, an American re-
siding at the lines, through whom the
communications had been carried on.
Furnished with passports from Ar-
nold, Robinson and Andr6 the next
day landed and were received by the
traitor at the water's edge. Having
arranged all the details of the proposed
treason, Arnold delivered to Andre"
drafts of the works at West Point
and memoranda of the forces under his
command, and the latter returned to
the beach in hopes of being immediate-
ly conveyed to the " Vulture." But
the ferrymen, who were Americans, re-
fused to carry him, and as Arnold
would not interpose his authority, he
was compelled to return by land. Un-
fortunately for him he persisted,
against the advice of Arnold, in re-
taining the papers, which he concealed
in his boot. Accompanied by Smith,
an emissary of Arnold, and provided
with a passport under his assumed
name of Anderson, he set out and
reached in safety a spot from which
they could see the ground occupied by
the English videttes. At Tarrytowii
he was first stopped, and then arrested,
by three Americans. Andr< offered
them his money, horse, and a large re-
ward, but without avail. They ex-
amined his person, and, in his boots,
found the fatal papers. He was then
conveyed to Colonel Jameson, com-
mander of the American outposts.
On the arrival of Washington, Andre
was conveyed to Tappan and tried by


a board of general officers, among
whom were General Greene, the presi-
dent, Lafayette, and Knox. Every ef-
fort was made by Sir Henry Clinton
to save him, and there was a strong
disposition on the American side to do
po. His execution, originally appoint-
ed for Sept. 30, did not take place till
Oct. 2. If possession could have been
obtained of the traitor, the life of
Andr6 would have been spared. His
remains, which were buried on the
spot, were afterward removed to Lon-
don, and now repose in Westminster

Andre, Louis Joseph. Nicolas,
a French military officer, born in
Nuits, Burgundy, March 29, 1838. He
was graduated at the Polytechnic
School, and in 1865 became captain,
serving in that capacity throughout the
Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871.
He became Major in 1877, Lieutenant-
Colonel in 1885, and Colonel in 1888.
He was made General of Brigade in
1893, and placed in charge of the Poly-
technic School. He married, in 1875,
Mile. Chapuis, a talented singer of the
Opera Comique. On May 29, 1900, he
was appointed Minister of War by
President Loubet, succeeding General
the Marquis de Gallifet , who held the
office during the exciting period of the
Dreyfus revision. Died March 18, 1913.

Andrea, Jakob, a German Pro-
testant theologian, born in Wiirtem-
berg, March 25, 1528; died in Tubin-
gen, Jan. 7, 1590.

Andrea, Johann Valentin, a
very original thinker and writer, born
in 1586, near Tubingen. He studied
at Tubingen, became a Protestant pas-
tor, and died in 1654 at Stuttgart,
where he was chaplain to the court.
Eminently practical in mind, he was
grieved to see the principles of Chris-
tianity made the subject of mere empty
disputations, and devoted his whole
life to correct this prevailing tendency
of his age.

Andree, Solomon Auguste, a
Swedish aeronaut, born Oct. 18, 1854 ;
educated for a civil engineer. In 1882,
he took part in a Swedish meteoro-
logical expedition to Spitsbergen. In
1884 he was appointed chief engineer
to the patent office, and from 1886 to
1889 he occupied a professor's chair
at Stockholm. In 1892 be received


from the Swedish Academy of Sci-
ences a subvention for the purpose of
undertaking scientific aerial naviga-
tion. From that time Dr. Andree de-
voted himself to aerial navigation, and
made his first ascent at Stockholm in
the summer of 1893. In 1895 he pre-
sented to the Academy of Sciences a
well-matured project for exploring the
regions of the North Pole with the aid
of a balloon. The estimated cost
amounted to about $40,000. A na-
tional subscription was opened, which
was completed in a few days, the King
of Sweden contributing the sum of
$8,280. With two companions, Dr. S.
T. Strindberg and Herr Fraenckell, he
started from Dane's island, Spitzber-
gen, July 11, 1897. His balloon was
07^4 feet in diameter, with a capacity
of 170,000 cubic feet. Its speed was
estimated at from 12 to 15 miles an
hour, at which rate the Pole should
have been reached in six days, pro-
vided a favorable and constant wind
had been blowing. Two days after his
departure, a message was received from
Dr. Andr6e by carrier pigeon, which
stated that at noon, July 13, they were
in latitude 82.2, and longitude 15.5
E., and making good progress to the
E., 10 southerly. This was the last
word received from the explorer.

Andrew, the first disciple, one of
the apostles of Jesus. His career
after the Master's death is unknown.
Tradition tells us that, after preach-
ing the gospel in Scythia, Northern
Greece, and Epirus, he suffered mar-
tyrdom on the cross at Patrse, in
Achaia, 62 or 70 A. D.

Andrew I., King of Hungary, in
1046-1049; compelled his subjects to
embrace Christianity ; he was killed in
battle in 1058.

Andrew, John Albion, war gov-
enor of Massachusetts. Was born at
Windham in 1818, died 1867. His "Let-
ters and Life" was published in 1904.

Andrews, Christopher Colum-
bus, an American diplomat and
writer, born at Hillsboro, N. H., Oct.
27, 1829; was brevetted Major-Gen-
eral in the Civil War; United States
Minister to Sweden from 1869 to 1877,
and Consul-General to Brazil from
1882 to 1885.

Andrews, Elisha Benjamin, an
American educator, born in Hinsdale,


N. H., Jan. 10, 1844; he was grad-
uated at Brown University, 1870, and
Newton Theological Seminary, 1874 ;
President of Brown University in
1889-1898 ; became Superintendent of
Public Schools in Chicago in 1898,
and Chancellor of the University of
Nebraska in 1900; resigned in 1908.

Andrews, Ethan Allen, an
American educator and lexicographer,
born at New Britain, Conn., April 7,
1787. He died in 1858.

Andrews, Jane, an American ju-
venile story writer, born in Massachu-
setts in 1833. She died in 1887.

Andrews, John N., an American
military officer, born in Delaware, in
1838; was graduated at West Point
in 1860 ; served with distinction
through the Civil War ; commissioned
Colonel of the 12th United States in-
fantry in 1895 ; and appointed a Brig-
adier-General of Volunteers for the
war against Spain in 1898.

Andrews, Lorrin, an American
missionary, born in East Windsor,
Conn. , April 29, 1795 ; was educated
at Jefferson College and Princeton
Theological Seminary, and went as a
missionary to the Hawaiian Islands in
1827. He founded, in 1831, the La-
hainaluna Seminary, which later be-
came the Hawaii University, where he
served 10 years as a professor. He
translated a part of the Bible into the
Hawaiian language. In 1845 he be-
came a judge under the Hawaiian
Government and Secretary of the
Privy Council. He produced several
works on the literature and antiquities
of Hawaii, and a Hawaiian diction-
ary. He died in 1868.

Andrews, Stephen Pearl, an
American writer, born at Templeton,
Mass., March 22, 1812; was a promi-
nent abolitionist, practiced law in the
South, and settled in New York in
1847. He died at New York, May 21,

Andromache, a daughter of
JEtion, King of Thebes in Cilicia, and
wife of Hector. After the conquest of
Troy she became the prize of Pyrrhu?,
son of Achilles, who carried her to
Epirus and had three sons by her,
but afterward left her to Helenus,
brother of Hector, to whom she bore
a son. Euripides has made her the
chief character of a tragedy.


Andromeda, in classical mythology
a daughter of Sepheus, King of Ethi-
opia and Cassiope. It was fabled that
she was chained to a rock by order of
Jupiter Ammon, and then exposed to
the attacks of a monster. Perseus re-
leased, and afterward married her. On
her death she was changed into the
constellation which bears her name.

In astronomy, a constellation, fanci-
fully supposed to resemble a woman

Andros Islands, a group of islands
belonging to the Bahamas.

Andros, Sir Edmund, an Eng-
lish provincial governor, born in 1637 ;
was governor of New York in 1674-
1682, and of New England, with New
York included, in 1686-1689. His
harsh execution of the orders of the
Duke of York caused him to be gener-
ally execrated, and, after his attempt
to deprive Connecticut of its royal
charter, he was seized by the people
of Boston and sent to England under
charges. He was also Governor of
Virginia in 1692-1698, and of the Is-
land of Jersey in 1704-1706. He died
in 1714.

Anemometer, an instrument de-
signed to measure the velocity of the
wind, on which its strength depends.

Anemone, a genus of plants be-
longing to the crowfoots.

^ In zoology, it is a popular name
given to various radiated animals
which present a superficial resemb-
lance to the anemone.

Anemoscope, an instrument for
rendering visible the direction of the
wind. In that commonly used there
is a vane exposed to the wind acting
upon an index moving round a dial-
plate on which the 32 points of the
compass are engraved.

Aneroid, not containing any li-
quid ; used chiefly in the expression,
" aneroid barometer."

Anenrism, a morbid dilation of the
aorta, or one of the other great arter-
ies of the body.

Angel, a messenger, one employed
to carry a message, a locum tenens, a
man of business.

In a special sense an angel is one of
an order of spiritual beings superior to
man in power and intelligence, vast in
number, holy in character, and thor-
oughly devoted to the worship and ser-

Angel Fish

vice of God, who employs them as his
heavenly messengers. Their existence
is made known to us by Scripture, and
is recognized also in the Parsee sacred

Angel Fish, a fish of the shark
family, the reverse of angelic in
its look, but which derived its name
from the fact that its extended pec-
toral fins present the appearance ot
wings. It is called also monk-fish,
fiddle-fish, shark-ray, and kingston.

Angelica, a genus of plants mostly
herbaceous and perennial, natives of
the temperate and colder regions of
the northern hemisphere. Wild angel-
ica (A. sylvestris) is a common plant
in moist meadows, by the sides of
brooks, and in woods. The garden an-
gelica is a biennial plant, becoming
perennial when not allowed to ripen
its seeds.

Angelico, Fra, the commonest
designation of the great friar-painter
in full, " II beato Fra Giovanni An-
gelico da Fiesole," " the blessed
Brother John the angelic of Fiesole."
Born in 1387 at Vicchio, in the Tus-
can province of Mugello, in 1407, he
entered the Dominican monastery at
Fiesole, in 1436 he was transferred to
Florence, and in 1445 was summoned
by the Pope to Rome, where thence-
forward he chiefly resided till his
death in 1455.

Angell, George Thoradike, an
American reformer, born in 1820, He
was graduated at Dartmouth, 1846,
and admitted to the bar, 1851. He
was active in promoting measures for
the prevention of crime, cruelties, and
the adulteration of food, and founded
the American Humane Educational
Society. He died in 1909.

Angell, James Bnrrill, an Amer-
ican educator and diplomatist, born in
Scituate, R. I., Jan. 7, 1827; was
graduated from Brown University in
1850. He became president of the
University of Vermont in 1866 and of
the University of Michigan in 1871;
was minister to China in 1880-81 and
to Turkey in 1897-98 ; again president
of the University of Michigan in 1900-
10. He died April 1, 1916.

Angell, Joseph Kinnicnt, an
American lawyer, born in Providence,
R. I., in 1794; best known for his
works on "Treatise on the Right of


Property in Tide- Waters," and " The
Limitation of Actions at Law and in
Equity and Admiralty." He died in

Angelo (Michelangelo). See MI-

Angelns, The, a painting by J. P.
Millet. It represents two French
peasants who have stopped their work
in the field to listen to the Angelus
bell, and to pray. The American Art
Association bought the picture in 1899
for about 580,000 francs, exhibited it
about the country and sold it in 1890
for $150.000.

Angelns, in the Roman Catholic
Church, a short form of prayer in
honor of the incarnation, consisting
mainly of versicles and responses.

Angina Pectoris, the name first
given by Dr. Heberden in 1768, and
since then universally adopted as the
designation of a very painful disease,
called by him also a disorder of the
breast; by some others, spasm of the
chest, or heart stroke, and popularly
breast pang. It is characterized by
intense pain in the prsecordial region,
attended by a feeling of suffocation
and a fearful sense of impending
death. These symptoms may continue
for a few minutes, half an hour, or
even an hour or more. During the
paroxysm the pulse is low, with the
body cold, and often covered with
clammy perspiration. Death does not
often result from the first seizure, but
the malady tends to return at more or
less remote intervals, generally prov-
ing fatal at last. There are several
varieties of it : an organic and func-
tional form ; and again a pure or idio-
pathic and a complex or sympathetic
one have been recognized. Angina is
produced by disease of the heart. It
especially attacks elderly persons of
plethoric habits, men oftener than
women, generally coming on when
they are walking, and yet more, it
they are running up stairs or exerting
great effort on ascending a hill. Stim-
ulants should be administered during
the continuance of a paroxysm ; but it
requires a radical improvement of the
general health to produce a permanent
effect on the disorder.

Angle, the point where two lines
meet, or the meeting of two lines in a
point. Technically, the inclination ot
two lines to one another.

Angler Fish

Angler Fish, a fish called also sea
devil, frog, or frog fish. It has an
enormous head, on which are placed
two elongated appendages or filaments,
the first of them broad and flattened
at the end. These, being movable, are
maneuvered as if they were bait; and
when small fishes approach to examine
them, the angler, hidden amid mud and
sand, which it has stirred up by means
of its pectoral and ventral fins, seizes
them at once; hence its name.

Angles, a German tribe who ap-
pear to have originally dwelt on the E.
side of the Elbe between the mouth of
the Saale and Qhre, and to have re-
moved N. from their old abodes to the
modern Schleswig, where they dwelt
between the Jutes and Saxons. In
the 5th century they joined their pow-
erful N. neighbors, the Saxons, and
tools part in the conquest of Britain,
which from them derived its future
name of England.

Anglesey, or Anglesea, an island
and county of England, in North
Wales, in the Irish Sea, separated
from the mainland by the Menai
Strait. It is about 20 miles long and
17 miles broad. The Menai Strait is
crossed by a magnificent suspension
bridge, 580 feet between the piers and
100 feet above high-water mark, allow-
ing the largest vessels which navigate
the strait to sail under it ; and also
by the great Britannia tubular bridge,
for the conveyance of railway trains,
Holyhead being the point of departure
for the Irish mails.


Anglican Church, The, means
collectively that group of autonomous
churches which are in communion
with, or have sprung from, the mother

^ Angling

Church of England. They are the
following: The Church of Ireland,
the Episcopal Church of Scotland, the
Protestant Episcopal Church of the
United States of America, the Church
of Canada, the Church of Australia,
the Indian Church, and the Church of
South Africa, which are all autono-
mous bodies under the jurisdiction of
their own metropolitans, and not
amenable to the ecclesiastical courts
of the Church of England, though they
all look to the Archbishop of Canter-
bury as patriarch. In addition tc
these autonomous churches in connec-
tion with the Anglican communion,
there are 12 missionary bishops, repre-
senting the English church in various
remote regions of Asia, Africa, and
America ; and three or four represent-
ing the Protestant Episcopal Church
of America. The Reformed Episcopal
Church of America and the Free
Church of England are not recognized
as authentic branches of the Anglican
Church. The American Church, le-
gally the Protestant Episcopal Church,
according to the U. S. census of 1910,
had 6,845 organizations, 77 dioceses
and missionary districts, 5,368 clergy,
886,942 communicants, and church
property valued at $125,040,498.


Angling, the art of catching fish
with a hook, or angle (Anglo-Saxon,
ongel), baited with worms, small fish.

Anglo-American Com.


flies, etc. We find occasional allusions
to this pursuit among the Greek and
Latin classical writers ; it is mentioned
several times in the Old Testament,
and it was practiced by the ancient
Egyptians. The oldest work on the
subject in English is the " Treatyse of
Fysbinge with an Angle." printed by
Wynkyn de Worde in 1496, along with
treaties on hunting and hawking, the
whole being ascribed to Dame Juliana
Berners, or Barnes, prioress of a nun-
nery near St. Alban. Walton's inim-
itable discourse on angling was first
printed in 1653.

Anglo-American Commission,
a joint international commission ap-
pointed in 1898, by the United States
and Great Britain, to negotiate a plan
for the settlement of all controversial
matters between the United States and
Canada. This commission settled the
Alaskan boundary.

Anglo-French Treaty, a diplo-
matic agreement between England and
France, signed April 8, 1904. By this
treaty, France gave up her claims to
certain sovereign rights on the New-
foundland shore ; the rights and privi-
leges of the two nations in Egypt,
Morocco, and Africa generally, are set
forth, and the position of France in
Siam, Madagascar, etc., defined.

Anglo-Japanese Alliance, a
protective agreement for the mutual
defense of interests in eastern Asia
and India, effected by treaties in 1902
and 1905, between Great Britain and

Anglo-Saxons, the name used,
with doubtful propriety, by modern
historians to include the Angles, Sax-
ons, and Jutes, who settled in Britain
in the 5th and 6th centuries after
Christ, and thus became the ancestors
of the English people. These tribes
came from Germany, where they in-
habited the parts about the mouths of
the Elbe and Weser, and the first body
of them who gained a footing in Eng-
land are said to have landed in 449,
and to have been led by Hengist and
Horsa. The Jutes settled chiefly in
Kent, the Saxons in the S. and middle
of the country, and the Angles in the
N. Among the various Anglo-Saxon
States that afterwards arose those
founded by the Angles first gained the
preponderance, and the whole country
came in time to be called after them

Engla-land, that is, the land of the

Angora Cat, Goat, etc., a variety
of these common animals, generally
supposed to have originated in Angora.
They are characterized by the length
and silkiness of the hair, which makes
the goat a valuable animal to raise.
In America, each generation of the
goat has a poorer fleece, the excellent
quality being retained only by frequent
crossings with the original stock.

Angostura Bark, the aromatic
bitter medicinal bark obtained chiefly
from Galipea officinal is, a tree of 10
to 20 feet high, growing in the north-
ern regions of South America ; natural
order rutacse. The bark is valuable
as a tonic and febrifuge, and is also
used for a kind of bitters.

Angonleme, Louis Antoine de
Bourbon, Due d', the eldest son of
Charles X. of France, and Dauphin
during his father's reign, born at Ver-
sailles Aug. 6, 1775. On the rev-
olution in July, 1830, he signed,
with his father, an abdication in
favor of his nephew, the Due de
Bordeaux ; and when the Chambers
declared the family of Charles X. to
have forfeited the throne, he accom'
panied him into exile, to Holyrood, to
Prague, and to Gorz. He died, 1844.

Anhalt, a duchy of North Ger-
many, lying partly in the plains of
the Middle Elbe, and partly in the
valleys and uplands of the Lower
Harz, and almost entirely surrounded
by Prussia; area, 906 square miles.
The united principality is now incor-
porated in the German Empire, and
has one vote in the Bundesrath and
two in the Reichstag. Pop. (1910)
331,128. The chief towns are Dessau,
Bernburg, Kothen, and Zerbst.

Ani, the name given to a division
of the Cuculidae, or cuckoos; the typ-
ical anis are found in South America,
the West Indies and Florida. They
are about the size of our blackbird.

Anichini, Ludwig, a Venetian
engraver of great celebrity. On see-
ing his pieces, Michael Angelo is said
to have exclaimed that the art of
engraving had reached perfection.

Aniline, an organic substance used
as the basis of brilliant and durable
dyes. It is found in small quantities
in coal-tar, but the aniline of com-


merce is obtained from benzene or ben-
zole, a constituent of coal-tar, consist-
ing of hydrogen and carbon. It is
a colorless oily liquid somewhat heav-
ier than water, with a peculiar vinous
smell, and a burning taste. Its name
is derived from anil, the Portuguese
Und Spanish name for indigo, from the
dry distillation of which substance it
was first obtained by the chemist Un-
?erdorben in 1826. The manufacture
of aniline or coal-tar dyes as a branch
of industry was introduced in 1856 by
Mr. Perkin of London.

Animal, an organized and sen-
tient living being. Life in the earlier
periods of natural history was attri-
buted almost exclusively to animals.
With the progress of science, how-
ever, it was extended to plants. In
the case of the higher animals and
plants there is no difficulty in assign-
ing the individual to one of the iwo
great kingdoms of organic nature, but
in their lowest manifestations, the veg-
etable and animal kingdoms are
brought into such immediate contact
that it becomes almost impossible to
assign them precise limits, and to say
With certainty where the one begins
and the other ends. From form no ab-
solute distinction can be fixed between
animals and plants. Many animals,
such as the sea-shrub, sea-mats, etc.,
so resemble plants in external appear-
ance that they were, and even yet
popularly are, looked upon as such.

Animal Chemistry, the depart-
ment of organic chemistry which in-
vestigates the composition of the fluids
and the solids of animals, and the
chemical action that takes place in
animal bodies.

Animal Magnetism. (See HYP-

Anise, an umbelliferous plant, cul-
tivated in Malta and Spain for the
sake of its aromatic and carminative
seeds which form a profitable article
of export and commerce. Its scent
tends to neutralize other smells.

Anjon or Beagne, Battle of,
between the English and French ; the
latter commanded by the Dauphin of
France March 22, 1421. The Eng-
lish were defeated ; the Duke of Clar-
ence was slain by Sir Allan Swinton,

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