George Jotham Hagar.

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Europeans by the translation of An-
toine Galland, a great French Orien-
talist, in 1704. It speedily became
translated into the other principal Eu-
ropean languages, fixed popular ad-
miration, and tp this day retains its
place in popular literature.

Aracari, the name given in Brazil
to several scansorial birds. They have
smaller bills than the toucans proper,
and are of brighter colors, being gen-
erally green, with red or yellow on
their breasts.

Arachnida, the class of animals
which contains spiders, scorpions, and

Arack, or Arrack, a spirituous
liquor manufactured in the East In-
dies from a great variety of substances.
It is often distilled from fermented


rice, or it may be distilled from the
juice of the cocoanut and other palms.

Arafat, or Jebel er Rahmeh, a
hill in Arabia, about 200 feet high,
with stone steps reaching to the sum-
mit, 15 miles S. E. of Mecca ; one of
the principal objects of pilgrimage
among Mohammedans, who say that it
was the place where Adam first re-
ceived his wife, Eve, after they had
been expelled from Paradise and sep-
arated from each other 120 years. A
sermon delivered on the mount consti-
tutes the main ceremony of the Hadj
or pilgrimage to Mecca, and entitles
the hearer to the name and privileges
of a Hadji or pilgrim.

Arago, Dominique Francois, an
eminent French astronomer and physi-
cist ; born near Perpignan, Feb. 26,
1786. He died in 1853. As Minister
of War and Marine after the fall of
Louis Philippe he was instrumental in
abolishing negro slavery in the French

Arago, Eticnne Vincent, a
French poet, journalist, and play-
wright, born at Perpignan, Feb. 9,
1802. He died in 1892.

Aragon, once a kingdom, now di-
vided into the three provinces of Sara-
gpssa, Huesca, and Teruel, in the N.
E. of Spain ; greatest length from N
to S.. 190 miles; breadth. 130; area,
17,980 square miles; pop. (1910)
950,633. It is bounded on the N. by
the Pyrenees, and borders on Navarre,
the Castiles, Valencia, and Catalonia.
< Aragnay, or Araguaya, a large
river of Brazil, which rises in about
19 S. lat., near the Parana, flowing
to about 6 S. lat, where it joins the
Tocantins. The united stream, after
a course of 1,000 miles, falls into the
delta of the Amazon in S. lat. 1 40'.
Many tribes of warlike Indians dwell
on its banks.

Aral Lake, separated by the pla-
teau of Ust-Urt from the Caspian Sea,
is the largest lake in the steppes of
Asia. It lies wholly within the limits
of Russian Central Asia, embracing
an area of about 24,000 square miles.

Aram, Eugene, a self-taught
scholar whose unhappy fate has been
made the subject of a ballad by Hood
and a romance by Lord Lytton, born
in Yorkshire. England, in 1704. In
1734 he opened a school at Knares-


borough. About 1745 a shoemaker of
that place, Daniel Clarke, was sud-
denly missing under suspicious cir-
cumstances; and no light was thrown
on the matter till 13 years afterward,
when an expression dropped by one
Richard Houseman respecting the dis-
covery of a skeleton supposed to be
Clarke's, caused him to be taken into
custody. From his confession an or-
der was issued for the apprehension of
Aram, who had long quitted York-
shire, and was at the time acting as
usher at the grammar school at Lynn.
He was brought to trial on Aug. 3,
1759, at York, where, notwithstand-
ing an able and eloquent defense which
he made before the court, he was con-
victed of the murder of Clarke, sen-
tenced to death, and executed.

Aramaean, or Aramaic, a Se-
mitic language nearly allied to the
Hebrew and Phrenician, anciently
spoken in Syria and Palestine and
eastward to the Euphrates and Tigris,
being the official language of this re-
gion under the Persian domination.

Arapahoes, a tribe of American
Indians located near the head-waters
of the Arkansas and Platte rivers.

Arapaima, a genus of tropical
fishes, including the largest known
fresh water forms. They are found in
the rivers of South America, and are
sometimes taken in the Rio Negro, 15
feet in length, and 400 pounds in
weight. They are shot with arrows
or harpooned, and are highly esteemed
as food.

Ararat, a celebrated mountain in
Armenia, forming the point of contact
of Russia with Turkey and Persia, to
all of which it belongs. It rises, an
isolated cone, on the S. border of the
plain of the Aras of Araxes. The
summit of the Great Ararat rises 16,-
964 feet above the sea-level. It is
covered with perpetual snow and ice
for about 3 miles from its summit
downward in an oblique direction.
Mount Ararat was the resting place
of the ark when the flood abated.

Araucania, the country of the
Araucos or Araucanian Indians, in
the south of Chile. The Chilean prov-
ince of Arauco, lying between the
Andes and the Pacific Ocean, and
bounded on the N. by Concepcion, on
the S. by Valdivia, was formed in


1875, with an area of 2,446 square
miles, and a population of 59,237. A
large part of the territory in Arauco
and the more southerly province of
Valdivia, is occupied by Indians, who
have of late mostly submitted to Chil-
ean authority.

Arbitration, an adjudication by
private persons, called arbitrators, ap-
pointed to decide a matter or matters
in controversy, either by written or
oral submission, by agreement of the
disputants. It differs from a reference
which is made by the order of a court
of law. The proceeding generally is
called a submission to arbitration ; the
parties appointed to decide are termed
arbitrators, not referees : and their ad-
judication is called an award. This
mode of settling disputes has been
approved by some legislatures, and
there are statutes in a number of
States regulating the proceedings.

It cannot be said that the legal re-
quirements have helped to any great
extent in the settlement of disputes be-
between labor and capital. Either or
both sides claim that an injustice has
been done, and while a modus vivendi
may be determined, it is only that mat-
ters may be arranged for a more suc-
cessful outcome of the next difficulty.
The settlement of the great coal strike
of 1902 by the arbitrators selected by
President Roosevelt, ended the conflict
for the time being, but did not satisfy
either party to the dispute.

The first general treaty of arbitra-
tion ever drawn between nations was
signed Jan. 11, 1897, in Washington,
by Richard Olney, Secretary of State
for the United States, and Sir Julian
Pauncefote, Ambassador of Great
Britain to the United States, for
Great Britain. This treaty was
placed before the United State Sen-
ate, Jan. 11, 1897 accompanied by a
special message from President Cleve-
land, but the Senate refused to ratify
it. Since then similar treaties have
been made and ratified between Italy
and the Argentine Republic and be-
tween the Argentine Republic and
Uruguay. The International Peace
Convention at The Hague, in 1899, es-
tablished an International Court of
Arbitration which has been ratified by
the United States and other signatory
powers. In 1903, Holland accepted
Mr. Carnegie's offer of $1,500.000


for a Temple of Peace and Interna-
tional Law Library at The Hague, for
the sessions of the Court.

Arbor Day, a day set apart to
encourage the voluntary planting of
trees by the people. The custom was
inaugurated by the Nebraska State
Board of Agriculture in 1874, which
recommended that the second Wednes-
day in April annually be designated
as Arbor Day, and that all public
school children should be urged to ob-
serve it by setting out young trees.
The custom has since been extended,
till now nearly every State and Terri-
tory in the country has set apart one
day by legislative enactment or other-
wise, for this purpose ; several of the
States making the day a legal holiday,
others making it a school holiday.

Arbor Vitae (lit. 'tree of life'),
the name of several coniferous trees
of the genus Thuja, allied to the cy-
press, with flattened branchlets, and
small imbricated or scale-like leaves.
The common Arbor Vitse (Thuja oc-
cidentalis) is a native of North Amer-
ica, where it grows to the height of
40 or 50 feet. The young twigs have
an agreeable balsamic smell.

Arbutus, a genus of plants belong-
ing to the order of ericaceae (heath
worts). Trailing arbutus is a creep-
ing or trailing plant; with rose colored
blossoms, found chiefly in New Eng-
land in the spring. Commonly called
Mayflower. In the Southern States it
is known as Ground Laurel.

Arc, in geometry, a portion of the
circumference of a circle, cut off by
two lines which meet or intersect it.
Its magnitude is stated in degrees,
minutes, and seconds, which are equal
to those of the angle which it subtends.

In mathematical geography, an arc
of the earth's meridian, or a merid-
ional arc, is an arc partly measured on
the surface of the earth from N. to S.,
partly calculated by trigonometry. It
was by these measurements that the
earth was discovered to be an oblate

In electricity, a voltaic arc is a lu-
minous arc, which extends from one
pencil of charcoal to another, when
these are fixed to the terminals of a
battery in such a position that their
extremities are one-tenth of an inch


Arcade, a series of arches of any
form, supported on pillars, either in-
closing a space before a wall, or any
building which is covered in and
paved ; or, when used as an architec-
tural feature for ornamenting the
towers and walls of churches entirely
closed up with masonry. The cloisters
of the old monasteries and religious
houses were, strictly speaking, arcades.
The term is also applied to a covered
passage having stores on either side
of it

Arcadia, the classical name of
Middle Peloponnesus, now forming the
modern province of Arkadia, in the
Morea, Greece.

Arcesilans, a Greek philosopher,
founder of the New Acr.demy, was
born at Pitane in JEolia, Asia Minor,
316 B. c. He died B. c. 241.

Arch, in architecture, a series of
wedge-shaped stones or bricks, so ar-
ranged over a door or window in an
edifice for habitation, or between the
piers of a bridge, as to support each
other, and even bear a great superin-
incumbent weight The curved arch
was known to the Assyrians and the
Old Egyptians.

There is no mention of the genuine
arch in Scripture, the term "arches,"
in Ex.ek. xl : 16, being a mistranslation.

The arch was brought into extensive
use by the Romans, and everywhere
prevailed till the 12th century A. D.
when the arcl pointed at the apex, and
called in consequence the pointed arch
the one so frequently seen in Gothic
architecture appeared in Europe as
its rival. The forms of both curved
and pointed arches may be varied in-

Arch, Triumphal, a structure
raised by the Romans to celebrate a
victory, or some great historical event ;
or to add an additional luster to the
commemoration of the military ex-
ploits of a victorious general. The
practice has been adopted by some of
the modern nations of which France
is the foremost.

Arch, Joseph, an English reform-
er, born in Barford, Warwickshire, in
1826, and, while still a farm laborer,
became a Primitive Methodist preach-
er. In 1872 be founded the National
Agricultural Laborers' Union, and
thereby, according to Justin M'Carthy,


" began the emancipation of the rural
laborers." He afterward visited Can-
ada to inquire into the labor and emi-
gration questions; and, in 1885-1886,
he represented in Parliament the
northwest division of Norfolk, which
again returned him in 1892 and 1895.

Archaeology, the science which
makes us acquainted with the antiqui-
ties of nations that have lived and
died, and the remains of various kinds
which throw a light upon the history
of those now existing. Every country
owns, in a greater or less degree, relics
of antiquity highly interesting to the
archaeologist. In Mexico and Cen-
tral America, evidences have been
found of the existence of a clever and
ingenious people who had died before
the discovery of America.

Archaeopteryx, a unique fossil
bird from the oolitic limestone of Sol-
enhofen, of the size of a rook, and dif-
fering from all known birds in having
two free claws representing the thumb
and forefinger projecting from the
wing, and about twenty tail vertebra
free and prolonged as in mammals.

Archangel, a seaport, capital of
the Russian government of same name,
on the right bank of the northeastern
Dwina, about 20 miles above its mouth
in the White Sea. Below the town the
river divides into several branches and
forms a number of islands, on one of
which, called Sollenbole, is the harbor.
The port is closed for six months by
ice. Archangel, was long the only
port which Russia possessed. Pop. 20,-

Archdeacon, an ecclesiastical dig-
nitary next in rank below a bishop,
who has jurisdiction either over a part
of or over the whole diocese. He is
usually appointed by the bishop, under
whom he performs various duties, and
he holds a court which decides cases
subject to an appeal to the bishop.

Archduke, a duke whose authori-
ty and power is superior to that of
other dukes. In the present day, this
title is not assumed by any excepting
the princes of the imperial House of

Archelaus, a Greek philosopher,
the disciple and successor of Anaxa-
goras. Archelaus is said to have had
Socrates for his pupil at Athens.
Flourished about 440 B. c.



Arclielaus, son of Herod the
Great. His reign is described as most
tyrannical and bloody. The people at
length accused him before Augustus
(Judea being then dependent upon
Rome). The Emperor, after hearing
bis defense, banished him to Vienne,
in Gaul. To avoid the fury of this
monster, 7 A. D., Joseph and Mary re-
tired to Nazareth.

Archer, Branch T., a Texan pa-
triot, born 1790; died 1856. In 1831
he left Virginia where he had practiced
medicine, and settled in Texas where
he took an active part in ^all the
troubles that preceeded the indepen-
dence of the territory. He was one of
the commissioners who asked aid from
the United States government, arid was
speaker of the Texas House of Repre-
sentatives, and Secretary of War for
the new Republic.

Archer, William, a Scottish crit-
ic, born at Perth, Sept. 23, 1856. He
graduated at Edinburgh University,
1876, and was called to the bar, 1883.
He has long been dramatic critic for
various London papers.

Archer Fish, the toxotes aculator,
which shoots water at its prey. It is |
found in the East Indian and Polyne-
sian Seas.

Archery, the art of shooting with
a bow and arrow. This art, either as
a means of offense in war, or as sub-
sistence and amusement in time of
peace, may be traced in the history of |
almost every nation. It always, how-
ever declines with the progress of
time, which introduces weapons more
to be depended on, and not so easily \
exhausted as a bundle of arrows. !
With the ancients, the sagitarii, or
archers, were an important class of
troops. The English archers were
famous in the Middle Ages, and turned
the side in important battles.

Archilochus, a Greek poet, flour-
ished in the 7th century B. c. Of his
life, nothing is definitely known. He
was classed by the ancients with the
greatest poets, Homer, Pindar, Sopho-
cles ; but of his works only a few frag-
ments have come down to us.

Archimedes, the most famous of
ancient mathematicians, was a native
of Syracuse. He possessed equal
knowledge of the sciences of astrono-
my, geometry, hydrostatics, mechanics,

and optics. Among his inventions
were the combination of pulleys for
lifting heavy weights, the revolving
screw, and a spherical representation
of the motion of the heavenly bodies.
His inventive genius was especially ex-
emplified in the defense of Syracuse
when besieged by Marcellus. It is
said that on this occasion he devised
a burning-glass, formed of reflecting
mirrors of such power that by it he set
tire to the enemy's fleet. This well
known story is, however, believed to
be equally an invention. Upon the
city being taken by storm, Archimedes,
then in his 74th year, was among those
who lost their lives, B. c. 212.

Archimedes, Principle of, a
well known principle in hydrostatics,
the discovery of which is attributed to
the celebrated philosopher whose name
it bears. This important theorem may
be thus defined : When a solid is im-
mersed in a fluid, it loses a portion of
its weight, and this portion is equal
to the weight of the fluid which it dis-
places, that is, to the weight of its
own bulk of the fluid.

Archimedian Screw, or Spiral
Pump, a machine invented by Archi-
medes, the celebrated Syracusan phi-
losopher, while studying in Egypt. Ob-
serving the difficulty of raising water
from the Nile to places above the reach
of the flood tides, he is said to have de-
signed this screw as a means of over-
coming the obstacle. It consists of a
pipe twisted in a spiral form around a
cylinder, which, when at work, is sup-
ported in an inclined position. The
lower end of the pipe is immersed in
water, and when the cylinder is made
to revolve on its own axis, the water
is raised from bend to bend in the
spiral pipe until it flows out at the
top. The Archimedian screw is still
used in Holland for raising water, and
draining low grounds.

Archipelago, a term applied to
such tracts of sea as are interspersed
with many islands. It is more es-
pecially applied to the numerous is-
lands of the ^Bgean Sea, or that part
of the Mediterranean lying between
Asia Minor and Greece.

Architecture, the art of bui'iing,
especially with a view to beauty or
magnificence. It is an art which is
ever advancing as the needs of civil-
ized man change and increase. Some


Arctic Expeditions

of the architectural work of the an-
cients has never been surpassed in
later ages in massiveness and in ;
beauty, and the grand architectural
monuments of the Middle Ages are '
the chief redeeming features of that j
period of intellectual gloom. The '
architecture of the twentieth century
bids fair to keep abreast of the mar-
vellous progress of other arts, and
nowhere is it achieving more signal
triumphs than in the United States,
with its mighty office-buildings, its
magnificent public structures, and its
residences including every comfort
and improvement.

Archives, the place in which rec-
ords are kept ; also the records and
papers which are preserved, as evi-
dence of facts.

Archons, the chief magistrates of
ancient Athens, chosen to superintend
civil and religious concerns.

Archytas, an ancient Greek math-
ematician, statesman, and general, whc i
flourished about 400 B. c., and belong-
ed to Tarentum, in Southern Italy.
The invention of the analytic method
in mathematics is ascribed to him, as
well as the solution of many geometri-
cal and mechanical problems.

Arc Light, that species of the
electric light in which the illuminating
source is the current of electricity
passing between two sticks of carbon
kept a short distance apart, one of
them being in connection with the pos-
itive, the other with the negative ter-
minal of a battery or dynamo.

Arcon, Jean Claude Lcmi-
ceaud d% a French engineer, born
in 1733. He distinguished himself by
the invention of the famous floating
batteries used at the siege of Gibral-
tar, in 1782. He died in 1800.

Arctic Circle, a small circle or
the globe, 23 28' distant from the
North Pole, which is its center. It is
opposed to the Antarctic circle, which
is at the same distance from the South

Arctic Expeditions, expeditions
projected to explore the regions sur-
rounding the North Pole. The ob-
ject with which these enterprises were
commenced by the English was to ob-
tain a passage by way of the polar re-
gions to India, Egypt being in Moham-
medan hands, and fear, which now

seems absolutely ludicrous, being felt
that the Portuguese would successfully
debar daring English seamen from
using the route by the Cape of Good
Hope. When the utter hopelessness
of finding either a northwestern or a
northeastern passage to India through
the polar regions became apparent, it
was felt that Arctic expeditions might
still profitably be sent out for purely
scientific exploration, one main object
now being to make as near an ap-
proach as possible to the Pole. They
have continued at intervals to our
own times, and are not likely ever to
cease. Two of the most notable events
in their history which have hitherto
occurred have been the discovery of
the northwest passage by Captain Mc-
Clure, of the " Investigator," on Oct.
26, 1850, and the tragic deaths of Sir
John Franklin and his crew, about the
year 1848, the catastrophe being ren-
dered all the more impressive to tBe
public mind by the uncertainty which
long hung over the gallant explorers'

In September, 1895, Lieut. Robert
E. Peary, of the United States navy,
returned from an Arctic expedition,
after an absence of two years. He
did not get so far north as some of
his predecessors, but in scientific re-
sults his expedition surpassed all
others of recent years. His surveys
and maps extend our knowledge of the
coast northward 2. He started on
another expedition in 1897. On Aug.
13, 1896, Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, of Nor-
way, returned from an Arctic expedi-
tion, after an absence of more than
three years. The most northerly
point reached by him was 86 14' N,
latitude, or 200 miles nearer the Pole
than ever reached before. He found
no indications of land N. of 82 N.
latitude, and in the higher latitudes no
open sea, only narrow cracks in the

The following are the farthest points
of N. latitude reached by Arctic ex-
plorers, up to present date :
Year Explorers North Latitude

1607. Hudson A .- 80 23' 0"

1773. Phipps 7. 80 48' 0"

1806. Scoresby 81" 12' 42"

1827. Parry 82" 50' 0"

1874. Meyer (on land)... 82 0' 0"

1875. Markham and Parr

(Nares' expedition. 83" 20' 86"

1876. Payer 83" 07' 0*

Arctic Ocean


Year Explorers North Latitude

1882. Lockwood (Greely's

party) 83 24' 0"

1896. Nansen 86 14' 0"

1900. Abruzzi 86 33' 0"

1908. Peary 87 6' 0"

1909. April 6. Peary The Pole

In 1902 Lieutenant Peary attained
lat. 84 17', 404 statute miles from
the Pole. He pushed the advance on
the American side 30 miles beyond his
own best record in 1901. In 1906 he
came within 200.36 miles of his goal,
when he was forced back by insur-
mountable obstacles. The Baldwin
(1902) and the Fiala (1905) expedi-
tions, which proceeded by way of
Franz Josef Land, did not reach such
high latitudes. In 1909 tidings of
Arctic discovery were highly sensa-
tional in character. On Sept. 1 Dr.
Frederick A. Cook telegraphed that he
had discovered the Pole on April 21,
1908, and five days later Peary an-
nounced that he had reached it on
April 6, 1909. On their return the
rival claimants were honored at home
and abroad, but a scientific investiga-
tion of their records resulted in credit-
ing the achievement to Peary.

Arctic Ocean, in its widest sense,
that portion of the ocean which ex-
tends from the Arctic circle (lat. 66
32' N.) to the North Pole, or more re-
etrictedly from about lat 70 N. As-
suming the former limit, the Arctic
Ocean is found entering deeply, in the
form of gulfs, bays, etc., into the N.
parts of the continents of Europe,
Asia, and America. The water of the
Arctic Ocean is extremely pure, shells
being distinctly visible at a great
depth ; it also presents rapid transi-
tions of color, chiefly from ultramarine
to olive-green, the latter variations of
color being produced by myriads of
minute animals, belonging for the most
part, to the Coelenterata and Mollusca.

Arctic Kegions, the regions
round the North Pole, and extending
from the pole on all sides to the Arctic
circle in lat. 66 32' N. The Arctic
or North Polar circle just touches the
N. headlands of Iceland ; cuts off the
S. and narrowest portion of Green-
land ; crosses Fox Strait N. of Hudson
bay, whence it goes over the American
continent to Bering Strait. Thence
it runs to Obdorsk at the mouth of the
Obi ; then, crosing Northern Russia,

the White Sea, and the Scandinavian
peninsula, returns to Iceland.

Arct-urus, in astronomy, a fixed
star of the first magnitude, called also
Alpha Bootis. It is one of the very
brightest stars in the northern heav-

Ardahan, a village of about 300
houses, in the portion of Turkish Ar-
menia, ceded in 1878 to Russia, 35
miles N. W. of Kars. Its position

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