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gives it strategic importance. Its
fortress was dismantled by the Rus-
sians in the war of 1854-1856 ; in 1878
the Berlin Congress sanctioned the ces-
sion to Russia of Ardahan, which had
been captured early in the war. On
account of the severity of the climate,
the houses of Ardahan are mainly con-
structed underground.

Ardennes, an extensive hill-coun-
try and forest, occupying the S. E.
corner of Belgium, between the Moselle
and the Meuse, but extending also into
France and Rhenish Prussia. It con-
sists of a broken mass of hills, for the
most part of no great elevation, which
gradually slope toward the plains of
Flanders. Enormous supplies of coal
are found in the north, a very impor-
tant element in Belgium's industrial
wealth. The region was the scene of
important military operations in the
early part of the World War.

Arditi, Luigi, an Italian musi-
cian and composer, born in. Piedmont,
July 16, 1822 ; studied music at the
Conservatoire of Milan. Famous first
as a violinist, then as a conductor, he
conducted Italian opera and concerts
in places as remote from one another
as New York and Constantinople.
He died in May, 1903.

Ardmore, city and capital of Car-
ter county, Okla.; in what was the
Chickasaw Nation, Ind. Terr. ; on the
Santa Fe and other railroads; 100
miles S. of Oklahoma City; is in a
cotton-growing, natural gas, petro-
leum, coal, and asphalt section; has
a Carnegie library, two colleges,
water, electric light, and telephone
services, and cotton compressers and
oil mill; and is chiefly engaged in the
cotton industry. Pop. (1910) 8,618.

Are, the unit of the French land
measure, equal to 100 square meters,
or 1,076.44 square feet.


Arena, the inclosed space in the
central part of the Roman ampmtnea-
ters, in which took place the combats
of gladiators or wild beasts. It was
usually covered with sand or saw dust
to prevent the gladiators from slip-
ping, and to absorb the blood.

Arecibo, city, seaport, and capital
of department of same name, Porto
Rico; on the Arecibo river, 40 miles
W. of San Juan; settled in 1616;
greatly damaged by hurricane in
1899; has a roadstead available only
by small vessels. Pop. (1910) 9,612.

Areolar Tissue, a tissue widely
diffused through the body, and com-
posed of white and yellow fibers, the
former imparting to it strength, and
the latter elasticity.

Areometer, an instrument de-
signed to measure the specific gravity
of liquids.

Areopagus, the name of a hill or
rocky eminence lying to the W. of the
Acropolis at Athens, which was the
meeting-place of the chief court of
judicature of that city; hence called
the Council of Areopagus. It was of
very high antiquity, and existed as a
criminal tribunal long before the time
of Solon. Solon enlarged its sphere
of jurisdiction, and gave it extensive
powers of a censorial and political na-
ture. Some say that the Apostle Paul
was taken before this council ; but the
Scripture does not bear out this idea.
It would seem, rather, that the Athen-
ians had taken him to the hill in or-
der to hear him expound his new doc-

Arequipa, a city of Peru, capi-
tal of the Department of the same
name ; 40 miles from the Pacific Ocean,
on the Chile river ; altitude, 7.850 feet
above sea level. Gold and silver are
mined in the vicinity. A great earth-
quake occurred, Aug. 13 and 14, 1868,
which destroyed more than $12,000,000
worth of property, and the lives of
more than 500 persons. Its public
buildings and dwellings are one or two
stories high and constructed of stone.
Near at hand Harvard University has
an observatory, at an altitude of over
8,000 feet.

Area, the Greek god of war, or
more particularly of its horror and tu-
mult. He is represented in Greek


poetry as a most sanguinary divinity
delighting in war for its own sake.

Aretaeus, a Greek physician of
Cappadocia, who flourished about 100
A. D. He is considered to rank next to
Hippocrates in the skill with which he
treated diseases; was eclectic in his
method ; and in the diagnosis of dis-
ease is superior to most of the ancient

Aretino, Pietro, an Italian poet
and dramatist, born at Arezzo, April
20, 1492. His "Letters" are a val-
uable contribution to the history of the
times. He died in Venice, Oct. 21,

Argali, the name for some species
of the genus ovis, or sheep, which in-
habits the mountains and steppes of
Northern Asia. They are very keen-
sighted, quick of hearing, and possess
a delicate sense of smell. They attach
themselves closely to one locality, and
are noted for their great powers of
leaping, even from heights of 20 or 30
feet. The Big-horn sheep of the Rocky
Mountains are sometimes called Amer-
ican argali.

Argali, Sir Samuel, an ear/y
English adventurer in Virginia, born
about 1572 ; planned and executed the
abduction of Pocahontas, the daughter
of the Indian chief Powhatan, in order
to secure the ransom of English prison-
ers. He was Deputy Governor of Vir-
ginia (1617-1619), and was accused
of many acts of rapacity and tyranny.
By carrying on trade in violation of the
law he managed to acquire a fortune,
and was shielded from justice by the
Earl of Warwick. He died in 1639.

Argand. Lamp, a lamp named
after its inventor, Aim Argand, a
Swiss chemist and physician (born
1755, died 1803), the distinctive fea-
ture of which is a burner forming a
ring or hollow cylinder covered by a
chimney, so that the flame receives a
current of air both on the inside and
on the outside.

Argemone, a genus of plants be-
longing to the poppy-worts. It has
three sepals and six petals. The^A.
Mexicana, believed, as its name im-
ports, to have come from Mexico, has
conspicuous yellow flowers. From
having its calyx prickly, it is often
called Mexican thistle. The seeds are
a more powerful narcotic than opium,


Argent, in coats or arms, the her-
aldic term expressing silver ; repre-
sented in engraving by a plain white

Argenta, a town in Pulaski
county, Ark.; on the Arkansas river,
and the Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf
and other railroads; nearly opposite
Little Rock; chiefly engaged in the
live-stock and cotton industries. Pop.
(1910) 11.13&

Argentina, formerly called the
United Provinces of La Plata, a vast
country of South America ; extreme
length, 2,100 miles ; average breadth
a Tittle over 500 miles ; total area,
1,153,418 square miles. It is bounded
on the N. by Bolivia ; on the E. by
Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, and the
Atlantic; on the S. by the Antarctic
Ocean; and on the W. by the Andes.

With the exception of the N. W.,
where lateral branches of the Andes
run into the plain for 150 or 200 miles,
and the province of Entre Rios, which
is hilly, the characteristic feature of
the country is the great monotonous
and level plains called pampas. In the
N., these plains are partly forest-cov-
ered, but all the central and S. parts
present vast treeless tracts, which af-
ford pasture to immense herds of
horses, oxen, and sheep, and are varied
in some places by brackish swamps, in
others by salt steppes.

European grains and fruits, includ-
ing the vine, have been successfully in-
troduced, and are cultivated in most
parts of the republic, countless herds
of cattle and horses and flocks of sheep
are pastured on the pampas, and mul-
tiply there very rapidly. Gold, siver,
nickel, copper, tin, lead, and iron, be-
sides marble, jasper, precious stones,
and bitumen, are found in the moun-
tainous districts of the northwest,
while petroleum wells have been dis-
covered on the Rio Vermejo; but the
development of this mineral wealth has
hitherto been greatly retarded by the
want of proper means of transport.
As a whole, there are not extensive
forests in the country, except in the
region of the Gran Chaco (which ex-
tends also into Bolivia), where thera
is known to be 60,000 square miles of
timber. Thousands of square miles are
covered with thistles, which grow to a
great height in their season. Cacti
also form great thickets. Peach and


apple trees are abundant in some dis-
tricts. The native fauna includes the
puma, the jaguar, the tapir, the llama,
the alpaca, the vicuna, armadilos, the
rhea or nandu, a species of ostrich, etc.
The climate is agreeable and healthful,
97 being about the highest tempera-
ture experienced. The native Indians,
few in number, give little trouble to
white settlers, although some of the
Gran Chaco tribes are warlike and
have killed foreign travellers. Some
tribes, still in a savage state, inhabit
less known districts and live by hunt-
ing and fishing. The typical inhabi-
tants of the pampas are the Gauchos,
a race of half-breed cattle- rearers and
horsebreakers, almost continually in
saddle, galloping the plains.

A. is divided into 14 provinces and
10 territories. Buenos Aires, the cap-
ital, is connected with other large
towns including Rosario, La Plata,
Tucuman, Cordoba, Santa F6, Men-
doza, Parana, etc., by extensive and
modern lines of railroads and tele-
graphs. Industries and commerce
have increased with the arrival of
large numbers of immigrants, averag-
ing about 300,000 yearly. In 1915 the
imports aggregated $220,085.951, and
the exports $541,532,224. The chief
foreign trade, in order of importance,
was with Great Britain, the United
States, Italy, France, and Brazil, and
was largely affected by the World

The government is republican, sim-
ilar to that of the United States, and
the President is elected for six years.
The population was estimated in
1914 at about 9.000,000, Buenos Aires
having 1,700,000. The constitution
bears date of May 15, 1853, with
amendments in 1866 and 1898.

Argillaceous Rocks. Rocks in-
cluding slate, in which clay prevails.

Argol, a salt deposited by wine
on the inside of bottles and barrels.
It may be purified in hot water, and
clarified by adding clay, and recrys-
tallizing. In repeating the process it
becomes white and is called cream of

Argon, a constituent gaseous ele-
ment discovered in our atmosphere by
Lord Rayleigh and Prof. Ramsay, in
1894. There is still much doubt con-
cerning its true status.


Argonaut, one of the heroes who
accompanied Jason in the ship
" Argo " when he sailed on his mythic
voyage in quest of the golden fleece
(generally used in the plural). The
tales describing the return of the Ar-
gonauts differ very essentially.

The word is also applied to a genus
of cephalopod mollusks, the typical one
of the family argonautidse. The best
known species is the argonaut, or pa-
per sailor. The shell is thin and
translucent. Aristotle supposed that
it floated with the concave side up, the
animal holding out its arms, after the
manner of sails, to catch the breeze.
Poets have since repeated the fable.

Argonne, a rocky, forest-clad pla-
teau, extending along the borders of
Lorraine, Germany, and Champagne,
France, watered by the Meuse, Marne,
and Aisne rivers ; noted as the scene
of Dumouriez's campaign against the
Prussians in 1792, of military move-
ments preceding the battle of Sedan
in 1870, and of struggles for the pos-
session of Alsace-Lorraine in the
World War.

Argos, a town of Greece, in the
N. E. of the Peloponnesus, between
the gulfs of JEgina and Nauplia or
Argos. This town and the surround-
ing territory of Argolis were famous
from the legendary period of Greek
history onward, the territory contain-
ing, besides Argos, Mycenae, where
Agamemnon ruled, with a kind of sov-
ereignty, over all the Peloponnesus.

Argosy, a poetical name for a
large merchant vessei ; derived from
Ragusa, a port which was formerly
more celebrated than now, and whose
vessels did a considerable trade with

Argot, the jargon, slang or pecu-
liar phraseology of a class or profes-
sion ; originally the conventional slang
of thieves and vagabonds, invented for
the purpose of disguise and conceal-

Argument, a term sometimes used
as synonymous with the subject of a
discourse, but more frequently appro-
priated to any kind of method employ-
ed for the purpose of confuting or at
least silencing an opponent.

Argus. (1) In classical mythol-
ogy, a son of Arestor, said to have had
100 eyes, of which only two slept at


! one time, the several pairs doing so in
! succession. When killed by Mercury,
his eyes were put into the tail of the
peacock, by direction of Juno, to whom
this bird was sacred. Argus was
deemed a highly appropriate name to
give to a vigilant watch dog.

(2) In zoology, a genus of birds.
It contains the argus, or argus pheas-
ant. The male measures between five
and six feet from the tip of the bill to
the extremity of the tail, and is an em-
inently beautiful bird, the quill-feath-
ers of the wings, which often exceed
three feet in length, being ornamented
all along by a series of ocellated spots,
about 80,000 in number.

Argyle, Campbells of, a historic
Scottish family, raised to the peerage
in the person of Sir Duncan Campbell
of Lochow, in 1445. JOHN, second
Duke and Duke of Greenwich, son of
Archibald, born 1G78, died 1743 ; served
under Marlborough at the battles of
Ramilies, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet,
and assisted at the sieges of Lisle and
Ghent. He incurred considerable
odium in his own country for his ef-
forts in promoting the union with

Ariadne, a daughter of Minos,
King of Crete, who, falling in love
with Theseus, then shut up by her
father in the labyrinth, gave him a
clue by which he threaded his way out.

Arian, a follower of Arius, Pres-
byter of Alexandria in the 4th cen-
tury A. D., or one holding the system
of doctrine associated with his name.
In the year 317, Alexander, Bishop of
Alexandria, having publicly expressed
his opinion that the Son of God is not
only of the same dignity as the
Father, but of the same essence (in
Greek, ousia), Arius, one of the
Presbyters, considered this view
as leaning too much to Sabel-
lianism, and, rushing to the other
extreme, he declared that the Son of
God was only the first and noblest of
created beings, and though the universe
had been brought into existence
through His instrumentality by the
Eternal Father, yet to that Eternal
Father He was inferior, not merely in
dignity, but in essence. The views of
Arius commended themselves to multi-
tudes, while they were abhorrent to
still more ; fierce controversy respect-
ing them broke out, and the whole



Christian world was soon compelled to
take sides. It would occupy too
much space to detail the vicissitudes
of a highly checkered struggle ; suffice
it to say that the Arians greatly weak-
ened themselves by splitting into sects,
and the doctrines regarding the rela-
tion of the three Divine Personages
authoritatively proclaimed at Nice*
were at last all but universally adopt-
ed. They may be found detailed in
what are popularly termed the Nicene
and the Athanasian Creeds. They
were held almost without a dissentient
voice through the Middle Ages, and
were cordially accepted by the leading

Ariel, the name of several person-
ages mentioned in the Old Testament ;
in the demonology of the later Jews a
spirit of the waters. In Shakespeare's
" Tempest," Ariel was the " tricksy
spirit " whom Prospero had in his ser-

Aries, in astronomy, the constel-
lation Aries, or the Ram, one of the
ancient zodiacal constellations, and
generally called the first sign of the
zodiac ; also the portion of the eclip-
tic between and 30 longitude,
which the sun enters on March 21st
(the vernal equinox).

Arimanes, or Aliriman, the
principle of evil in the Persian theol-
ogy, which perpetually counteracts the
designs of Ormuzd or Oromazdes, who
denotes the principle of good.

Arimatlifea, a town of Palestine,
identified with the modern Ramleh, 22
miles W. N. W. of Jerusalem.

Arion, an ancient Greek poet and
musician, born at Methymna, in Les-
bos, flourished about B. c. 625. He is
said to have been rescued from
drowning by a dolphin, which at-
tracted by his music, bore him to land.
A fragment of a hymn 'M Poseidon,
ascribed to Arion, is extant.

Ariosto, I/udovico, an Italian
poet, born at Reggio, Sept. 8, 1474. i
Was one of the three great epic poets I
of Italy, and styled " The Divine " by
his countrymen. He died in Ferrara,
June 6, 1533.

Arista, Don Mariano, a Mex-
ican statesman, born in 1803. Of
Spanish descent, he at an early age
entered the army, in which he at-
tained to the rank of major-general.

He served with distinction in the war
against the United States, was, in
1848, appointed Minister of War, and,
in 1850, President of the Republic.
He was succeeded as President in
1852, by Don Juan Cebellos. He died
in 1855.

Aristarchns, a Greek grammar-
ian, who criticised Homer's poems
with the greatest severity.

Aristarchus of Samos, a famous
astronomer, born 267 B. c. First as-
serted the revolution of the earth
about the sun. His work on the mag-
nitude, and distance of the sun and
moon, is still extant. He is also re-
garded as the inventor of the sun-dial.

Aristides, a statesman of ancient
Greece, for his strict integrity sur-
named " The Just." He died at an
advanced age about B. c. 468, so poor
that he was buried at the public ex-
pense. It was customary in Athens
for citizens to vote by a ballot of
shells hence called ostracism from
the Greek word for shell for the
exile of any citizen who might be un-
popular, without any specific charge
being made against him. Aristides
was, on one occasion the victim of os-
tracism, and a citizen who voted
against him gave as a reason, that he
was tired of hearing him called " The

Aristippns, a disciple of Socrates,
and founder of a philosophical school
among the Greeks, which was called
the Cyrenaic, from his native city Gy-
rene, in Africa ; flourished in 380
B. C. His moral philosophy differed
widely from that of Socrates, and was
a science of refined voluptuousness.
His writings are lost.

Aristobulus, name of several roy-
al personages of Judea : ARISTOBULUS
I., son of John Hyrcanus, high priest
of the Jews ; from 105-104 B. C. King
of Judea. He is supposed to have
been the first of the Hasmoneans to
take the title of king. In the single
year of his reign he conquered por
tions of Iturea and Trachonitis, and
compelled the people to accept Juda-
ism. ARISTOBULUS II., son of Alex-
ander Jannsenus, was named as high
priest by bis mother, Queen Regent
Alexandra, while to Hyrcanus II. : his
elder brother, the throne was given.
In a contest for the throne, he was



defeated by Pompey in 63 B. c., and
carried captive to Rome. He died
about 48 B. c. ARISTOBULUS III., a
grandson of Hyrcanus II. ; his sister,
Mariamne, was the wife of Herod I.,
who appointed him high priest, but,
fearing his popularity, had him assas-
sinated about 30 B. c. ARISTOBULUS
III. was the last male of the Hasmo-
nean family.

Aristobulus, an Alexandrian
Jew and peripatetic philosopher, who
lived about 170 B. c., was considered
by the early fathers as the founder of
the Jewish philosophy in Alexandria. |

Aristocracy, a form of govern- !
ment by which the wealthy and noble, |
or any small privileged class, rules i
over the rest of the citizens ; now
mostly applied to the nobility or chief
persons in a State.

Aristophanes, the greatest of the
Greek writers of comedy (B. c. 448?- '
380?), born at Athens.

Aristotle, the most renowned of
Greek philosophers, born at Stagira,
Macedonia, 384 B. c. ; was for 20 years
a student of philosophy in the school
of Plato at Athens, but at the same
time a teacher, in the meantime mas-
tering and digesting all the accessible
results of philosophical and scientific
research and speculation in his time.
After Plato's death, he opened a school
of Philosophy at the court of Hermias,
King of Atarnous, in Mysia, who had
been his fellow student in Plato's
Academy, and whose adopted daugh- 1
ter he afterward married. At the in- j
vitation of Philip of Macedon, he un- '.
dertook the education of his son, Alex- !
ander. When Alexander succeeded to
the throne, the philosopher returned
to Athens and opened a school in the
Lyceum, so called from the neighbor- ,
ing temple of the Lycian Apollo. He
taught in the Lyceum for 13 years,
and to that period we owe the compo- j
sition of most of his numerous writ- |
ings. _ The number of his separate
treatises is given by Diogenes Laer-
tius as 146 ; only 46 separate works !
bearing the name of the philosopher I
have come down to our time. He died
at Chalcis, Euboea, in 322 B. C.

Arithmetic, in its broadest sense,
the science and art which treat of the
properties of numbers. This defini-
tion, however, would include algebra,

which is considered a distinct branch.
Algebra deals with certain letters of
the alphabet, such as x, y, z, a, b, c,
etc., standing as symbols for numbers;
arithmetic operates on numbers them-
selves, as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. Viewed as a
science, arithmetic is a branch of
mathematics ; looked on as an art, its
object is to carry out for practical
purposes certain rules regarding num-
bers, without troubling itself to in-
vestigate the foundation on which
those rules are based.

Ari Thorgilsson, the father of
Icelandic literature (1067-1148).

Arizona, a State in the Mountain
Division of the North American
Union ; bounded by Nevada, Utah,
New Mexico, California and the Mex-
ican State of Souora ; gross area,
113,956 square miles ; organized as a
Territory Feb. 14. 1863 ; admitted into
the Union as a State, Feb. 14, 1912.
Number of counties, 14; pop. (1900)
122,212; (1916) 255,544; capital,

A. abounds with mineral wealth in-
cluding coal, iron, gold, silver, copper,
lead, platinum, quicksilver, tin, etc. ;
mining, ranching and lumbering are
the chief industries.

Of the total area, embracing over
72,500,000 acres, only about 5,000,000
acres is farming land. The rainfall
is so small that irrigation is depended
upon to make agriculture profitable.
The construction of irrigating canals
and water storage reservoirs is being
steadily promoted and over 500,000
acres are now productive thereby. In
the calendar year 1916 farm crops
had a value of $13.597.000 and all
farm property, over $80,000,000. The
pine timber land covers an area of
nearly 4,000,000 acres, giving the Ter-
ritory resources for timber and build-
ing material unsurpassed anywhere in
the country. ,

The State is rich in mineral re-
sources, largely copper, coal, iron,
gold, silver, lead, quicksilver, and
precious stones. The value of all
productions in 1915 was $91,541,403,
copper yielding $80,495,152. In 1914
the manufacturing industries had a
combined output valued at $64.090,000
on a capital of $40,300,000. the lead-
ing industry being the smelting and
refining of copper.

The governor is elected for two


years. Legislature meets biennially ;
Senate, 19 members, House, 35. One
Representative-at-Large in Congress.
State officials and Legislature Demo-
cratic in 1917.

Ark, a chest or coffer for the safe-
keeping of any valuable thing ; a de-
pository. The large floating vessel in
which Noah and his family were pre-
served during the deluge.

The Ark of the Covenant, in the
synagogue of the Jews, was the chest
or vessel in which the tables of the
law were preserved.

Arkansas, a State in the West
South Central Division of the Nofth
American Union ; bounded by Mis-
souri, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisi-
ana, Texas and Oklahoma ; gross area,
53,850 square miles ; admitted into the
Union, June 15, 1836 ; seceded, March
4, 1861; readmitted June 22, 1868;
number of counties, 75 ; pop. (1900)
1,311,564; (1916) 1,739,723 ; capital,
Little Rock.

The State contains semi-anthracite,
cannel, and bituminous coal ; iron and
zinc ores ; galena, frequently bearing
silver ; manganese ; gypsum, oil-stone
of superior quality ; marble ; alabas-
ter ; rock crystal ; copper ; granite ;
kaolin ; marl ; mineral ochers, and salt.
In 1915 the value of all mineral pro-
ductions was $6,558,693.

The soil varies with the geological
characteristics and surface conditions
already described. Agriculturally, the
most valuable soil is found in the
river bottom-lands, and as the surface
rises from these bottoms the soil be-
comes less productive. There are large
submerged tracts that only require
proper drainage to make them valu-
able to the farmer. The uplands gen-
erally are well timbered and well wa-

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