George Jotham Hagar.

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ican chemist, born in Johnsburg, N.
Y., May 3, 1844; was graduated at
Wesleyan University in 1865 ; made a i
special study of chemistry in the Shef-
field Scientific School of Yale and the
Universities of Leipsic and Berlin ;
became Professor of Chemistry in
East Tennessee University in 1873 ;
was director of the Connecticut Agri- i
cultural Experiment Station in 1875- i
1877, and was appointed director of
the Storrs (Conn.) Experiment Sta-
tion in 1887. He was connected for
several years with the United States
Depa rtment of Agriculture ; published
many papers on chemical and allied
subjects; and, after 1894, gave much
attention to nutrition investigations.
He died in 1907.

Atwill, Edward Robert, an

American clergyman, born in Red
Hook, N. Y., Feb. 18, 1840 ; was grad-
uated at Columbia College in 1862,
and at the General Theological Sem-
inary 1864 ; consecrated the first Prot-
estant Episcopal bishop of West Mis-
souri, Oct. 14, 1890. D. Jan. 24, 1011.

Atwood, Isaac Morgan, an
American educator, born in Pembroke,
N. Y., March 24, 1838; was ordained
in the Universalist Church in 1861 ;
held several pastorates ; edited " The
Christian Leader " 1867-1873 ; became
an associate editor of the " Universal-
ist Leader ; " and was chosen president
of the Canton (N. Y.) Theological
Seminary in 1879.

Atwood, Melville, an Anglo-
American geologist, born in Prescott
Hall, England, July 31, 1812 ; studied
lithology, microscopy, and geology
early in life, and engaged in gold and
diamond mining in Brazil. In 1843
he made a discovery that greatly en-
hanced the value of zinc ore. After
coming to the United States, in 1852,
he invented the blanket system of
amalgamation. He also established
the value of the famous Comstock sil-
ver lode, by an assay of minerals in
that region. He died in Berkeley,
Cal., April 25, 1898.

Anber, Daniel Francois Es-
prit, a French operatic composer,
born Jan. 29, 1782, at Caen, in Nor-
mandy ; was originally intended for a
mercantile career, but devoted him-
self to music, studying under Cheru-
bini. He died in Paris, May 13, 187L

Anberlen, Karl August, a Ger-
man Protestant theologian, born at
Fellbach, Wiirtemberg, Nov. 19, 1824 ;
died at Basel, May 2, 1864.

Anbert, Joachim Marie Jean
Jacques Alexandra Jules, a
French general and military writer;
born in 1804 ; prominent in several
campaigns, and was made commander
of the Legion of Honor in 1860. He
is best known to the public as a jour-
nalist and historical writer. He died
in 1890.

Aubertin, Charles, a French
scholar, born in St. Didier, Dec. 24,

Aublet, Albert, a French paint-
er, born in Paris ; studied historical
painting under Gerome ; won a first-


class medal in the Paris Exposition of
1889, and the Legion of Honor in 1890.

Aubry de Montdidier, a French
soldier, supposed to have been mur-
dered by his comrade, Richard de
Macaire, in 1371. His dog peristed
in pursuing and harassing Macaire,
and this coming to the ears of King
Charles V., he ordered a fight be-
tween them. The dog was victori- 1
ous, and has since been famous in
story as the "Dog of Montargis;" ;
from the place of the fight.

Auburn, city and capital of An- ;
droscoggin county, Me.; on the An- :
droscoggin river and the Maine Cen-
tral railroad; 35 miles N. of Port-
land; is chiefly engaged in the manu-
facture of boots, shoes, cotton goods,
furniture, and farm implements; has
many points of local interest, includ-
ing a 60-foot fall of the river. Pop.
(1910) 15,064.

Auburn, city and capital of Cay-
uga county, N. Y.; on Central &
Hudson River and the Lehigh Val-
ley railroads. It contains a State ar-
mory, Auburn Theological Seminary
(Presb.), a State prison on the
" silent " system, a State Insane asy-
lum, a statue of William H. Sew-
ard, and important industrial plants.
Pop. (1910) 34,668.

Auclimuty, Richard Tylden, an
American philanthropist, born In
New York city in 1831; practiced
architecture for many years; with his
wife founded the New York Trade
Schools, at a cost of $250,000. J.
Pierpont Morgan, in 1892, gave it an
endowment of $500,000. Died 1893.

Auckland, a town in New Zealand,
in the North Island, founded in 1840,
and situated on Waitemata harbor,
one of the finest harbors of New Zea-
land, where the island is only 6 miles
across, there being another harbor
(Manukau) on the opposite side of
the isthmus. It was formerly the cap-
ital of tue colony. Pop. (1911), in-
cluding suburbs, 102,676.

Auckland Islands, a group lying
in the Pacific Ocean to the S. of New
Zealand. The largest of these islands
is about 30 miles long by 15 broad,
and is covered with dense vegetation.
They are almost entirely uninhabited,
belong to the British and are a sta-
tion for whaling ships.


Auction, the public disposal of
goods to the highest bidder.

Audiometer, or Audimeter, an
instrument devised by Prof. Hughes,
the inventor of the microphone. Orig-
inally its object was to measure with
precision the sense of hearing.

Audiphone, an invention to assist
the hearing of deaf persons in whom
the auditory nerve is not entirely de-

Audit, an examination into ac-
counts or dealings with money or
property, along with vouchers or other
documents connected therewith, espe-
cially by proper officers, or persons ap-
pointed for the purpose.

Andsley, George A slid own, a
Scottish-American architect, born in
Elgin, Scotland, Sept 6, 1838; estab-
lished himself in the United States in
1892, and subsequently became promi-
nent both as an architect and author.

Audubon, John James, an
American naturalist of French extrac-
tion, born near New Orleans, May 4,
1780; was educated in France, and
studied painting under David. In 1798
he settled in Pennsylvania, but, hav-
ing a great love for ornithology, he
set out in 1810 with his wife and
child, descended the Ohio, and for
many years roamed the forests in every
direction, drawing the birds which he
shot. In 1826 he went to England,
exhibited his drawings in Liverpool,
Manchester and Edinburgh, and final-
ly published them hi an unrivaled
work of double-folio size, with 435
colored plates of birds the size of life
("The Birds of America," 4 vols.,
1827-1839), with an accompanying
text ( " Ornithological Biography," 5
vols., 8 vo., partly written by Prof.
Macgillivray). On his final return to
the United States he labored with Dr.
Bachman on an illustrated work en-
titled " The Quadrupeds of America "
(1843-1850, 3 vols.). He died in
New York city, June 27. 1851.

Anerbacn > Berthold, a German
novelist, born at Nordstetten, Wtir-
temberg, Feb. 28, 1812. He died at
Cannes, France, Feb. 8, 1882.

Auersperg, Anton Alexander,
Graf von, a German poet, born at
Laibach, April 11, 1806. He died at
Gratz, Sept. 12, 1876. His poems are
very popular in Germany.


Auerstadt, a village in the Prus- j
sian Province of Saxony, 10 miles W. j
of Naumburg. It is famous for the
great battle which took place there
Oct. 14, 1806, between the French un-
der Davoust, and the Prussian army
under Duke Charles of Brunswick,
which ended in a great victory for the
former. The Prussians, who num-
bered fully 48,000, left nearly half of
their men dead or wounded on the
ground, while the French (30,000) es-
caped with a loss of only 7,000. Na-
poleon, who had, on the same day,
defeated the main army of Frederick
William III. at Jena, made Davoust
Duke of Auerstadt.

Augeas, a fabulous king of Elis,
in Greece, whose stable contained
3,000 oxen, and had not been cleaned
for 30 years. Hercules undertook to
clear away the filth in one day in re-
turn for a 10th part of the cattle, and
executed the task by turning the river
Alpheus through it Augeas, having
broken the bargain, was deposed and
slain by Hercules.

Augsburg, Confession of, name
given to the celebrated declaration of
faith, compiled by Melanchthon, re-
vised by Luther and other reformers,
and read before the Diet of Augsburg,
June 25, 1530. It consisted of 28 arti-
cles, seven of which refuted Roman
Catholic errors, and the remaining 21
set forth the Lutheran creed. Soon
after its promulgation, the last hope
of reforming the Roman Catholic
Church was abandoned, and complete
severance followed. An answer by the
Roman Catholics was read Aug. 3,
1530; when the Diet declared that it
had been refuted. Melanchthon then
drew up another confession. The first
is called the unaltered, and the sec-
ond, the altered form.

Augsburg, Diet of, the most cel-
ebrated of the numerous diets held at
Augsburg. Pope Clement VII. refus-
ing to call a general council for the
settlement of all religious disputes,
the Emperor Charles V. summoned
one to meet at Augsburg, June 20,
1530. On the 25th the famous " Con-
fession " was read ; later an answer
was made by the Catholics, whereupon
the Protestants were ordered to con-
form in all points to the Church of
Rome, Charles V. giving them till


April 15, 1531, to reunite with the
Mother Church. On Nov. 22, the em-
peror announced his intention to ex-
ecute the edict of Worms, made severe
enactments against the Protestants,
and reconstituted the Imperial Cham-
ber. The Protestants put in a counter
declaration, and the Diet closed.

Augsburg, League of, a league
concluded at Augsburg, July 9, 1686,
for the maintenance of the treaties of
Miinster and Nimeguen, and the truce
of Ratisbon, and to resist the en-
croachments of France. The contract-
ing parties were the Emperor Leopold
I., the Kings o f Spain and Sweden,
the Electors of Saxony and Bavaria,
and the circles of Suabia. Franconla,
Upper Saxony and Bavaria.

Augur, Christopher Colon, an
American military officer; born in
New York, July 10, 1821 ; was gradu-
ated at the United States Military
Academy in 1843 ; became Major of
the 13th United States Infantry in
1861; Colonel of the 12th Infantry
in 1866; Brigadier-General, United
States army, March 4, 1869; Major-
General in the volunteer service in
1862; mustered out of that service in
1866; and was retired in the regular
army, July 16, 1885. He commanded
a division in the battle of Cedar
Mountain, being severely wounded.
He died in Washington, D. C,, Jan.
16, 1898.

Augur*, a college of diviners in
ancient Rome, who predicted future
events and read the will of the gods
from the occurrence of certain signs,
connected with thunder and light-
ning ; the flight and cries of birds ; the
feeding of the sacred chickens ; the ac-
tion of certain quadrupeds or serpents ;
accidents, such as spilling the salt, etc.
The answers of the augurs and the
signs were called auguries ; bird-pre-
dictions were auspices. Nothing was
undertaken without the augurs, and
by the words " alio die " ( " meet on
another day "), they could dissolve the
assembly of the people and annul de-
crees passed at the meeting.

August, the eighth month of our
year, named by the Roman Emperor
Augustus, after himself, being asso-
ciated with several of his victories and
other fortunate events. Before this it
was called Sextilis or the sixth month


(counting from March). July had
been named for Julius Caesar and the
Senate to please Augustus decreed that
August should have equal length, tak-
ing a day from February.

Augusta, city and capital of Rich-
mond county, Ga., on the Savannah
river and the Southern and other rail-
roads; 120 miles N. W. of Savannah.
The city is noted for its diversified
manufactures, which had in 1914 a
value of over $12,000,000, and its
large trade in cotton, lumber, fruit,
and vegetables. Pop. (1910) 41,040.

Augusta, city and capital of the
State of Maine and of Kennebec
county; on the Kennebec river and
the Maine Central railroad; 63 miles
N. E. of Portland. The city has
abundant water power for numerous
factories, and besides several State
buildings, has* a National Arsenal and
(4 miles out) a National Soldiers'
Home. Pop. (1910) 13,211.

Augusta, Victoria, Duchess of
Schleswig - Holstein - Sonderburg-Au-
gustenburg, born Oct. 22, 1858;
daughter of the late Duke Friedrich;
married Prince Friedrich Wilhelm,
afterward Wilhelm II., Feb. 27, 1881;
became Empress of Germany and
Queen of Prussia on the accession of
her husband to the throne in 1888.

Augnstiue, or Austin, St., the
Apostle of the English, flourished at
the close of the 6th century.

Augrnstulus, Romulus, the last
of the Western Roman emperors ;
reigned for one year (475-476), when
he was overthrown by Odoacer and

Augustus, Cains Julius Caesar
Octavianus, originally called CAIUS
OCTAVIUS, the celebrated Roman em-
peror, was the son of Caius Octavius
and Atia, a daughter of Julia, the sis-
ter of Julius Caesar. He was born
63 B. c., and died A. D. 14. He was
the first emperor of Rome in the full
sense of exercising imperial power as
a recognized monarch, and he was
also one of the greatest, if not the
greatest of the emperors, a liberal pa-
tron of art, and broad and sagacious
in the exercise of his authority. He
is said to have " found Rome of brick
and left it of marble."

Auk, the name given to several sea
birds, especially the great and the lit-


tie auk. The great auk is from two
to two and a half feet high, with
short wings almost useless for flight.
In the water, however, it makes way
with astonishing rapidity. It is es-
sentially a northern bird. It seems to
be rapidly verging to extinction.

Aulic, an epithet given to a coun-
cil (the Reichshofrath) in the old
German Empire, one of the two su-
preme courts of the German Empire,
the other being the court of the im-
perial chamber ( Reichskamrmrge-
richt). It had not only concurrent
jurisdiction with the latter court, but
in many cases exclusive jurisdiction,
in all feudal processes, and in crim-
inal affairs, over the immediate feuda-
tories of the emperor and in affairs
which concerned the Imperial Govern-
ment. The title is now applied in
Germany in a general sense to the
chief council of any department, po-
litical, administrative, judicial or mili-

Aurelian, Lucius Domitius
Aurelianus, an Emperor of Rome,
distinguished for his military abilities
and stern severity of character ; was
the son of a peasant of Illyricum. He
was born about 212 A. D., and lost his
life, A. D. 275, by assassination, the
result of a conspiracy excited by a
secretary whom he intended to call to
account for peculation.

Aureola, or Aureole, in paint-
ings, an illumination surrounding a
holy person, as Christ, a saint, or a
martyr, intended to represent a lu-
minous cloud or haze emanating from

Aureus, the first gold coin which
was coined at Rome, 207 B. C. Its
value varied at different times, from
about $3 to $6.

Auricles of the Heart, those two
of the four cavities of the heart which
are much smaller than the others, and
each of which, moreover, has falling
down upon its external face a flattened
appendage, like the ear of a dog, from
which the name of the whole struc-
ture is derived.

Auricula, a beautiful garden flow-
er. It is a native of the Alpine dis-
tricts of Italy, Switzerland, and Ger-
many, and occurs also in Astrakhan.

Aurifaber, the Latinized name of



ther's companions, born in 1519, be-
came pastor at Erfurt in 1566; died
there in 1579. He collected the un-
published manuscripts of Luther.

Auriga, in astronomy, the Wag-
oner, a constellation of the northern
hemisphere containing 68 stare, in-
cluding Capella of the first magnitude.

Auringer, Obadiah Cyrus, an
American poet, born at Glens Falls,
N. Y., June 4, 1849.

Aurora, a city in Kane county,
111.; on the Fox river and the Chi-
cago & Northwestern and other rail-
roads; 38 miles W. of Chicago; is
the farming and manufacturing cen-
ter of Kane and adjoining counties;
has large cotton and woollen mills
and locomotive and car works; and
claims the first electric lighting sys-
tem in the United States. Pop.
(1910) 29,807.

Aurora Borealis, a luminous me-
teoric phenomenon appearing in the
N. most frequently in high latitudes,
the corresponding phenomenon in the
southern hemisphere being called au-
rora austral is, and both being also
called polar light, streamers, etc.

Aurungzebe, known as the Great
Mogul, or Emperor of Hindustan,
born Oct: 22, 1618. He was the son
of Shah of Jehan, and properly named
Mohammed, but received from his
grandfather that of Aurungzebe (Or-
nament of the Throne), by which he
is known to history. Aurungzebe died
at Ahmednagar, in the Deccan, Feb.
21, 1707, master of 21 provinces, and
of a revenue of about $200,000,000.

Auscultation, the art of discov-
ering diseases within the body by
means of the sense of hearing. Being
carried out most efficiently by means
of an instrument called a stethoscope,
it is often called mediate auscultation.

Auspices, among the Romans,
omens, especially those drawn from
the flight or other movements of birds,
or, less properly, from the occurrence
of lightning or thunder in particular
parts of the sky. These were sup-
posed to be indications of the will of
heaven, and to reveal futurity.

Austen, Jaue, an English novelist,
born at Steventon, Hampshire, of
which parish her father was the rec-
tor, Dec. 16, 1775 ; died, July 18. 1817.


Austerlitz, a small town of Mo-
ravia, on the Littawa, 13 miles S. EL
of Briinn. In the vicinity, on Dec. 2,
1805, was fought the famous battle
that bears its name, between the
French army of 80,000 men, com-
manded by Napoleon, and the com-
bined Russian and Austrian armies,
numbering 84,000, under their respec-
tive Emperors ; in which the former
achieved a signal victory.

Austin, capital of the State of
Texas, and county-seat of Travis co. ;
on the Colorado river; 230 miles N.
W. of Galveston. It derives large
power for manufacturing from the riv-
er. Besides the State Capitol, the city
contains the main building of the State
University, four State asylums, the
State Confederate Home. The Capi-
tol, which cost $3,000,000, is in a
square of 10 acres. The recent con-
struction of a dam in the river has
given the city a large and beautiful
stretch of water, known as Lake Mc-
Donald. The city was originally
known as Waterloo ; was named after
Stephen F. Austin ; became the capital
of the Republic of Texas in 1839 ; and
the capital of the State in 1872. Pop.
(1900) 22,258; (1910) 29,860.

Austin, Alfred, an English poet,
critic, and journalist, born at Head-
ingly, near Leeds, May 30, 1835. He
graduated from the University of Lon-
don in 1853, was called to the bar in
1857, and was editor of the " National
Review," 1883-1893. He was ap-
pointed poet laureate of England in
1896. He died June 2, 1913.

Austin, George Lowell, an
American physician and writer, born
in Massachusetts in 1849 ; died in

Austin, Henry, an American law-
yer and legal writer, born in Boston,
Mass., Dec. 21, 1858; wrote several
valuable law books.

Austin, Jane Goodwin, an Amer-
ican novelist, born in Worcester,
Mass., Feb. 25, 1831 ; was educated
and thenceforth lived in Boston. She
died in Boston, March 30, 1894.

Austin, John, an English writer

on jurisprudence, born fn Creeling

Mill, Suffolk, March 3, 1790. From

1826 to 1835 he filled the chair of

, Jurisprudence at London University.

I Died in Weybridge, Surrey, in Decem-



her, 1859. His wife, SARAH, one of
the Taylors of Norwich, born in 1793,
produced translations of German
works, and other books bearing on
Germany or its literature. She died
in Weybridge, Surrey, Aug. 8, 1867.
Her daughter, LADY DUFF GOBDON,
translated several German works.

Austin, Stephen Fuller, an

American pioneer, born in Austinville,
Va., Nov. 31, 1793; a son of Moses
Austin, the real founder of the State
of Texas, who, about 1820, obtained
permission from the Mexican Govern-
ment to establish an American colony
in Texas, but died before his plans
were accomplished. Stephen took up
the work unfinished by his father, and
located a thrifty colony on the site
of the present city of Austin, in 1821.
Subsequently he was a commissioner
to urge the admission of Texas into
the Mexican Union ; was imprisoned
there for several months; and, in
1835 was a commissioner to the
United States Government to secure
the recognition of Texas as an inde-
pendent State. He died in Columbia,
Tex., Dec. 25, 1836.

Australasia, a division of tbe
globe usually regarded as comprehend-
ing the islands of Australia, Tasmania,
New Zealand, New Caledonia, the
New Hebrides, the Solomon Islands,
New Ireland, New Britain, the Ad-
miralty Islands, New Guinea, and the
Arru Islands, besides numerous other
islands and island groups ; area, 3,2d9-
199 square miles, pop. about five mil-
lions. It forms one of three portions
into which some geographers have di-
vided Oceania, the other two being
Malaysia and Polynesia.

Australia, Commonwealth of,
a British possession which includes
the island continent of Australia prop-
er (the largest island in the world)
and the island of Tasmania, is situ-
ated in the Southern Hemisphere, and
comprises in all an area of about
2,974,581 square miles, the mainland
alone containing about 2,948,366
square miles.

It k bounded on the W. and E. by
the Indian and Pacific Oceans respec-
tively: lies between long. 113 9' E.
and 153 39' E., while its northern
and southern limits are the parallels
of lat. 10 41' S. and 39 8* S., or,

including Tasmania, 43 39' S. On
its north are the Timor and Arafura
seas and Torres Strait ; on its south
the Southern Ocean and Bass Strait.
The continent is a large plateau,
fringed by a low-lying, well-watered
coast, particularly on the eastern side.
No less than 1,149,320 square miles
belong to the tropical zone, and 1,020,-
720 to the temperate zone.

The area and population (exclusive
of aborigines) of the different states
composing the Commonwealth were
reported as follows on Dec. 31, 1915 :


States and Territories Sq. M. Pop.

New South Wales 309,460 1,869,084

Victoria 87,884 1,417,803

gueensland 670,500 680,446

outh Australia 380,070 439,222

Western Australia 975,920 318,016

Tasmania 26,215 201,025

Northern Territory 523,620 4,563

Federal Territory 912 1,829

Total 4,455,005 4,931,988

The government is based on the
Constitution Act of 1900. A gover-
nor-general represents the Crown.
The Senate consists of thirty-six mem-
bers, six for each Original State, di-
rectly chosen by the people of the
State for a term of six years. The
House of Representatives consists of
seventy-five members, directly elected
for three years. A Referendum is pro-
vided. State governors are appointed
by the Crown, and State Parliaments
retain legislative authority in regard
to all matters not transferred to the
Federal Parliament.

The executive power is vested in the
governor-general, with an Executive
Council of seven Ministers ; the judi-
cial in Federal Supreme Court, called
the High Court of Australia, and
other courts vested with Federal ju-
risdiction. Trade, commerce, and in-
tercourse among the States is abso-
lutely free. The Commonwealth makes
uniform customs and excise duties.

The estimated revenue of the Com-
monwealth for the fiscal year 1915-16
was $142,453.000; estimated expen-
diture, $315,420,455 ; contributions to
the States, $31,734,975. During the
year the revenue was augmented by
loans aggregating $303,007,800. The
largest expenditure was for defence,
$248,649,875. The total debt of the



Commonwealth on March 1, 1916, was
$446,806,750, of which $175,225,100
was a 4^% war loan and $149,892,-
080 a war loan from the British Gov-
ernment. The total net debt of the
States on June 30, 1915, was $1,672,-
876,170, or about $340 per capita.

Production and industry in the cal-
endar year 1913 yielded the following

Agricultural ? 231,300,000

Pastoral 289,330,000

Dairying, Poultry, etc 101,705,000

Forestry and Fisheries 31,690,000

Mining 129,040,000

Manufacturing 307,930,000

Total $1,090,995,000

The leading farm crops in 191415
were wheat, 24,892,402 bushels ; oats.
4,341,104; maize, 8,455,561; hay, 1,-
733,944 tons ; and sugar-cane, 2,104,-
239 tons. The live-stock comprised
78,600,334 sheep, 11,051,573 cattle, 2,-
521,272 horses, and 862,447 swine.
The value of all minerals produced in
1914 was $111,322,945, gold leading
with $43,649,735. Coal yielded $23,-

Commercial relations in 1914-15

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