George Jotham Hagar.

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showed : imports of merchandise, spe-
cie, and bullion, $322,159,185; ex-
ports, $302,962,880. The principal ex-
ports were wool, wheat, skins, hides,
butter, copper and zinc, mutton and
lamb, flour, coal, and beef. During
the World War the government con-
trolled the export of the principal
food-stuffs. The Commonwealth gov-
ernment owns a line of steamships,
operated in trade only.

Internal communication is afforded
by 20,062 miles of railway, besides 2,-
055 miles of private lines ; 8,409 post-
ing and receiving offices which in 1914
handled 520,518,000 letters and post-
cards, 136,200,000 newspapers, etc.,
and 4,286,000 parcels ; and 4,624 tele-
graph offices, with 108,931 miles of
wire, dealing with 17,000,000 cable-
grams and telegrams.

Invalid and old-age pensions are
granted to a maximum annual amount
of $260 per capita, totalling in 1916,
$14,432,080 to 114,380 persons, and
maternity allowances of $25 on the
birtn of each child are granted, 33,-
250 claims being passed in 1915-16.

In 1917 the seat of the Parliament
was at Melbourne and a made-to-order

Federal Capital was under construc-
tion at Canberra, in New South
Wales on plans drafted by an Ameri-
can engineer.

The principal cities and towns, with
their population, 1911, are Sydney (N.
S. W.), 725,400; Melbourne (Vic.),
651,000; Adelaide (S. A.), 196,567;
Brisbane (A.), 154,000; Perth (W.
A.), 106,792; Newcastle (N. S. W.),
65,500; Ballarat (Vic.), 44,000; Ben-
digo (Vic.), 42,000; Hobart (Tas.),
39,107; Broken Hill (N. S. W.), 30,-
972; Geelong (Vic.) 28,900; and
Charters Towers (A.), 26,000.

At the outbreak of the World War
Australia responded promptly and ef-
fectively to the call of the mother
country. The Commonwealth has a
considerable naval fleet. That and a
strong military force were quickly
mobilized for service at home and
wherever needed. See APPENDIX :
World War.

Australia, South, one of the orig-
inal States in the Commonwealth of
Australia ; occupies the middle of Aus-
tralia, and stretches from sea to sea.
At first as the colony of South Aus-
tralia it extended between Ion. 132
and 141 E., and from the Southern
Ocean to lat. 26 N. It now has an area
of about 903,690. Pop. (1911) 418,172.

Australia, Western, one of the
original States in the Commonwealth
of Australia ; embraces all that por-
tion of Australia W. of Ion. 129 E.,
bounded E. by South Australia, and
N., W., and S. by the Indian Ocean ;
area, 975,920 square miles; capital,
Perth. The coast-line measures about
3,000 miles, and, except on the S., is
indented by numerous bays, creeks, and
estuaries. From 1850 to 1868 it was a
place for the transportation of con-
victs. In 1890 the State received au-
tonomous government. On Oct. 16,
1906, the Legislature adopted a motion
to secede from the commonwealth, the
union being detrimental to the devel-
oping interests of the State. Pop.
(1911) 294,181.

Australian Federation, a poli-
tical union of all the Australian colo-
nies, the agitation for which began in
1852. Feb., 1899, a unanimous agree-
ment was reached by the colonial pre-
miers in conference at Melbourne, re-
garding the unsettled questions re-


ferred to them by the colonial Legisla-
tures, thus insuring the success of the
federation project. In 1900, a bill
making Federation effective was intro-
duced into Parliament, at London, and
passed, the only amendment offered
having reference to the royal preroga-
tive. Later in that year the Earl of
Hopetoun was appointed by the Queen
first Governor-General. He resigned
in May, 1902.

Austria, or Austria-Hungary ,
an extensive monarchy in Central Eu-
rope, inhabited by several distinct
nationalities, and consisting of two
semi-independent countries, each with
its own parliament and government,
but with one common sovereign, army,
and system of diplomacy, and also
with a parliament common to both.
The Austrian empire extends from
about lat. 42 to 51 N., or, exclusive
of Dalmatia and the narrower part of
Croatia, from about lat. 44 30' to
51 N., and from Ion. 8 30' to 26
30' E., the total area in round num-
bers is 240,000 square miles. Its
Greatest length from E. to W. is about
60 miles ; its greatest breadth from
N. to S., with the exclusion above
stated, is about 400 miles ; bounded S.
by Turkey, the Adriatic Sea, and the
kingdom of Italy ; W. by Switzerland,
Bavaria, and Saxony ; N. by Prussia
and Russian Poland ; and E. by Rus-
sia and Rumania. On the shores of
the Adriatic, along the coasts of Dal-
matia, Croatia, Istria, etc., lies its
only sea frontage.

Besides being divided into the two
great divisions above mentioned, the
Austrq-Hungarian monarchy is fur-
ther divided into a number of govern-
ments or provinces. The following
table gives their name, area, and pop-
ulation :

Area in Pop. Dec.

_ Divisions sq. m. 31,1910
Austrian Provinces

Lower Austria 7,658 3,531,814

Upper Austria 4,268 853,006

Salzburg 2,763 214,737

Styria 8,662 1,444,157

Carinthia 3,989 396,200

Carniola ..'. 3,845 525,995

Coast land 3,079 893,797

Tyrol and Vorarl-

berg 11,312 1,092,021

Bohemia 20,065 6,769,548

Moravia 8,583 2,622,271

Silesia 1,988 756,949

Galicia 30,321 8,025,675


Area in Pop. Dec.

Divisions sq. m. 31, 1910
Austrian Provinces

Bukowina 4,033 800,098

Dalmatia 4,956 645,666

115,882 28,571,934
Hungarian Provinces

Hungary Proper 108,977 18,142,200

Croatia and Slayonia 16,418 2,602,544

In military service. . . 141,743

Total Hungary 125,395 20,886,487

Total Empire 241,277 49,458,421

None of the European States, with
the exception of Russia, exhibits such
a diversity of race and language as
does this dual Empire. In Austria
alone the following ethical elements
on the basis of language were devel-
oped in the census of 1910 : German,
9,950,266; Bohemian, Moravian, and
Slovak, 6,435,983; Polish, 4,967,984;
Ruthenian, 3,518,854 ; Slovene, 1,252,-
940; Servian and Croatian, 783,334;
Italian and Ladin, 768,422; Ruma-
nian, 275,115; and Magyar, 10,974.
In Hungary the corresponding ele-
ments were : Magyar, 10,050,575 ;
German, 2,037,435; Slovak, 1,967,-
970; Rumanian, 2,949,032; Rutheni-
an, 472,587; Croatian, 1,883,162;
Servian, 1,106,471; all others, 469,-
255. Hence in the entire Empire the
linguistic elements were : German,
11,987,701 ; Bohemian, Moravian, and
Slovak, 9,656,893; Polish, 4,967,984;
Ruthenian, 3,991,441 ; Servian and
Croatian, 3,772,967; Italian and La-
din, 768,422; Rumanian, 3,224,147;
Magyar, 10.061,549; all others, 469,-
255. The Slavs, who amount to above
19,000,000, or 45 per cent, of the total
population, are the chief of the com-
ponent nationalities of the monarchy
in point of numbers, forming the great
mass of the population of Bohemia,
Moravia, Carniola, Galicia, Dalmatia,
Croatia and Slavonia, and Northern
Hungary, and half the population of
Silesia and Bukowina. This prepon-
derance, however, is only apparent, as
none of the other races are split up
into so many branches differing so
greatly from each other in language,
religion, civilization, manners, and
customs. These branches are the
North Slavic Czechs, Moravians, and
Slovaks, the Ruthenians and Poles,
and the South Slavic Slovenians,


1 Seven-passenger eight-cylinder touring car.
2 Six-cylinder touring car 66 H.P.
3 Twin-six brougham, six-passenger.


4 Half-ton Light Delivery Wagon. 5 One-and-a-half-ton Delivery Truck.
6 Five-ton Heavy Service Truck.



Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians. The
Germans are scattered over the whole
monarchy, and form almost the sole
population of the archduchy of Aus-
tria, Salzburg, the greatest portion of
Styria and Carinthia, almost the
whole of Tyrol and Vorarlberg, con-
siderable portions of Bohemia and Mo-
ravia, the whole of the W. of Silesia,
etc. ; and they are also numerous in
Hungary and Transylvania. The Mag-
yars or Hungarians form the great
bulk of the inhabitants of Hungary
and of the E. portion of Transylvania.
To the Italic or Western Romanic
stock belong the inhabitants of South
Tyrol and parts of the coast lands and
Dalmatia. A considerable portion of
the S. E. of the empire is occupied by
members of the Rumanian (or East-
ern Romanic) stock, who form more
than half the population of Transyl-
vania, besides being spread over the
S. E. parts of Hungary, Bukowina,
and part of Croatia and Slavonia.
The number of Jews is also very con-
siderable, especially in Galicia, Hun-
gary, Bohemia, and Moravia. There
are also several other races whose
numbers are small, such as the Gyp-
sies, who are most numerous in Hun-,
gary and Transylvania, and the Al-
banians in Dalmatia and neighboring
regions. The population is thickest
in Lower Austria, Bohemia, Silesia,
and Moravia ; thinnest in Salzburg

The State religion of Austria is the
Roman Catholic, and next in numbers
is the Greek Church. Calvinism and
Lutheranism are also professed by a
large body of the people ; the former
mostly in Hungary and Transylvania,
the latter in the German provinces and
in Galicia. The civil power exercises
supreme control in all ecclesiastical
matters, the emperor being, in every-
thing but the name, head of the

Military service is obligatory on all
citizens capable of bearing arms who
have attained the age of 20, and lasts
up to the age of 42, either in the ac-
tive army, in the landwehr, or the
landsturm. The period of service in
the active army is 12 years, of which
three are passed in the line, seven in
the reserve, and two in the landwehr.

The history of Austria-Hungary in
the last few years has been most
eventful. On Oct. 7, 1909, without

any previous hint, the annexation of
the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and
Herzegovina and the sanjak of Novi
Bazar was proclaimed. Turkey vain-
ly protested against the act, as a viola-
tion of the provisions of the Treaty
of Berlin. On June 28, 1914, the
Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdi-
nand, heir to the throne, and his wife,
the Duchess of Hohenberg, were as-
sassinated while on a visit to Sara-
jevo, ^Bosnia, by an alleged Servian.
This incident was made the immediate
pretext for the greatest war in his-
tory. The venerable Emperor, Francis
Joseph, died Nov. 21, 1916, and was
succeeded by his grand nephew, the
Archduke Charles Francis Joseph, as
Charles I. For a summary of the
participation of Austria-Hungary in
the war see APPENDIX: World War.

Author's Guild, American, an
organization founded in New York
city, in 1892, and incorporated, in
1895, has for its objects the promo-
tion of a professional spirit among
authors and a better understanding
between authors and their publishers,
and, in general, the protection of lite-
rary^ property and the advancement of
the interests of American authors and
literature. The guild has a pension
fund for members who become needy.

Autocracy, a word signifying that
form of government in which the sov-
ereign unites in himself the legislative
and the executive powers of the State,
and thus rules uncontrolled. Such a
sovereign is, therefore, called an auto-
crat. Nearly all Eastern governments
are of this form. Among European
rulers, the Emperor of Russia alone
bears the title of Autocrat, the name
indicating his freedom from constitu-
tional restraint of every kind.

Automobiles, a term under which
are comprised horseless carriages, mo-
tor vans, motor omnibus, and all the
motor traction vehicles adapted for
use on ordinary roads having no rails.
Electricity, steam and gasoline or
naphtha are the three main sources of
power that do the bidding of the man
behind the lever. Other sources of
power, such as compressed air, liquid
air, carbonic acid gas and alcohol,
have been experimented with ; but are
regarded as impracticable by experts.
The modern automobile, which was
led up to by the bicycle with its rub-


her tires, found its first great devel-
opment in France, encouraged by the
perfection of the highways in that
country. The United States census of
1914 on manufactures credited the au-
tomobile industry with having 300 es-
tablishments for producing complete
cars, which employed $312,870,000
capital, paid wage earners $79,307,-
000, used materials costing $292,598,-
000, and had an output valued at
$503.230,000. The manufacture of au-
tomobile bodies and parts had 971 es- |
tablishments, $94,854.000 capital, and
an output valued at $129,601,000. The
total registration of cars in the United
States was 1.127,940, an increase in
three years of 605,001. A tremendous
increase of motors for trucking, ambu-
lance, and artillery use developed dur-
ing the World War. In the calendar
year 1916 the exports of American
made automobiles and parts aggre-
gated 80.850, valued at $96,595,861,
the largest number going to Europe.

Autonomy, the arrangement by
which the citizens of a State manage
their own legislation and government;
and this evidently may, with certain
restrictions, be the case also within
limited bodies of the same people, such
as corporations, religious sects, etc.

Autopsy, eye-witnessing, a direct
observation ; generally applied to a
post mortem examination, or the dis-
section of a dead body.

Autumn, the season of the year
which follows summer and precedes
winter. Astronomically, it is consid- j
ered to extend from the autumnal equi-
nox, Sept. 23, in which the sun enters
Libra, to the winter solstice, Dec. 22, !
in which he enters Capricorn. Pop-
ularly, it is believed to embrace the
months of September, October and

Auvergne, a province of Central
France, now merged into the Depart-
ments of Cantal and Puy-de-Dome,
and an arrondissement of Haute-
Loire. It contains the Auvergne Moun-
tains, the highest in France.

Anxetophone, a device which
greatly increases the sound produced
by the graphophone (q. v.).

Auzout, Adrian, a French math-
ematician ; inventor of the micrometer,
^ which is still in use among astron-


omers to measure the apparent diam-
eter of celestial bodies. He was the
first who thought of applying the tel-
escope to the astronomical quadrant.
He died in 1691.

Ava, Arva, Yava, or Kava, a
plant possessing narcotic proprieties.
Until recently it was ranked in the
genus piper (pepper). It is a native
of many of the South Sea islands,
where the inhabitants intoxicate them-
selves with a fermented liquor pre-
pared from the upper portion of the
root and the base of the stem.

Avalanches, masses of snow or
ice that slide or roll down the decliv-
ities of high mountains, and often
occasion great devastation. They
are most common in July, August
and September. Sudden avalanches,
larger or smaller, constitute one of
the special dangers of Alpine climbing.

Avars, a people, probably of Tu-
ranian origin, who at an early period
may have migrated from the region E.
of the Tobol in Siberia to that about
the Don, the Caspian Sea, and the
Volga. A part advanced to the Dan-
ube in 555 A. D., and settled in Dacia.
They served in Justinian's army, aid-
ed the Lombards in destroying the
kingdom of the Gepidae, and in the
6th century conquered under their
khan, Bajan, the region of Pannonia.
They then won Dalmatia, pressed into
Thuringia and Italy against the
Franks and Lombards, and subdued
the Slavs dwelling on the Danube, as
well as the Bulgarians on the Black
Sea. But they were ultimately lim-
ited to Pannonia, where they were
overcome by Charlemagne, and nearly
extirpated by the Slavs of Moravia.
After 827 they disappear from history.
Traces of their fortified settlements
are found, and known as Avarian

Avatar, more properly Avatara,
in Hindu mythology, an incarnation
of the Deity. Of the innumerable
avatars the chief are the 10 incarna-
tions of Vishnu, who appeared succes-
sively as a fish, a tortoise, a boar.

Avdyeyev, Michael Vassilye-
vich, a Russian novelist (1821-1876).

Avebnry, a village of England, in
Wiltshire, occupying the site of a so-
called Druidical temple, which origi-
nally consisted of a large outer circle


of 100 stones, from 15 to 17 feet in
height, and about 40 feet in circum-
ference, surrounded by a broad ditch
and lofty rampart, and inclosing two
smaller circles.

Avebnry, Lord. See LUBBOCK.

Avellaneda, Nicholas, an Ar-
gentine statesman, born in Tucuman,
Oct. 1, 183G; Minister of Public in-
struction in 1868-1874, and President
of the Republic in 1874-1886; pub-
lished several historical and economi-
cal works. He died Dec. 26, 1885.

Avellaneda y Arteaga, Ger-
trudis Gomez de, a distinguished
Spanish poet, dramatist and novelist,
born in Puerto Principe, Cuba, March
23, 1814. She died in Madrid, Feb.
2, 1873.

Ave Maria ("Hail, Mary"), the
first two words of the angel Gabriel's
salutation (Luke i: 28), and the be-
ginning of the very common Latin
prayer to the Virgin in the Roman
Catholic Church.

Average, formerly the apportion-
ment of losses by sea or elsewhere in
just proportions among different indi-
viduals; now the medium or mean
proportion between certain given
quantities. It is ascertained by ad-
ding all the quantities together and
dividing their sum by the number of

Averell, William Woods, an
American military officer, born in
Cameron, N. Y., Nov. 5, 1832; was
graduated at the United States Mili-
tary Academy in 1855 ; served on the
frontier and in* several Indian cam-
paigns till the beginning of the Civil
War, when he was appointed Colonel
of the 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry, and
assigned to the command of the caval-
ry defenses of Washington. During
the war he distinguished himself on
numerous occasions as a cavalry raid-
er and commander, and at its close
was brevetted Major-General of volun-
teers. He was retired in 1888.
He was United States Consul-general
at Montreal in 1866-1869. He died in
Bath, N. Y., Feb. 3, 1900.

Avernus, or Averno, a lake in
the neighborhood of Naples, about 2%
miles N. W. of Puzzuoli, and near the
coast of Baiae, the waters of which
were so unwholesome and putrid that
DO birds ever visited its banks. The


ancients made it the entrance of hell,
by which Ulysses and .<Eneas descend-
ed into the lower regions.

Averrhoa, a genus of plants. It
consists of two species, both of which
form small trees in the East Indies.
One has fruit resembling a small
cucumber. The latter is intensely
acid and cannot be eaten raw. It
is pickled or candied, or a syrup is
obtained from it by boiling with sugar,
and its juice is found an excellent
agent for removing iron mold or other
spots from linen. To the Malays it
answers the same purposes as the cit-
ron, the gooseberry, the caper and the
cucumber of Europe.

Avery, Benjamin Parke, an
American journalist and diplomatist,
born in New York city in 1829. From
1874 to 1875 he was United States
Minister to China. He died in Pekin,
China, Nov. 8, 1875.

Avery, Samuel Putnam, an
American merchant, born in New
York city, March 17, 1822; became a
copper-plate and wood engraver, and
subsequently an art publisher and
dealer, and retired from business in
1888. In 1891, with his wife, he cre-
ated and endowed the Avery Architec-
tural Library, in Columbia University,
as a memorial of his deceased son;
and in May, 1900, he presented to the
trustees of the New York Public Li-
brary a collection of etchings, litho-
graphs and photographs, numbering
more than 17,500 pieces, with many
volumes similarly illustrated. Died
Aug. 12, 1904.

Aviary, a building for birds.

Aviation. See AEBO^ATJTICS.

Avicennia, or White Man-
grove, a genus which consists of
trees or large shrubs resembling man-
groves, and, like them, growing in
tidal estuaries and salt marshes.

Ayienns, Bnfns Festus, a Latin
descriptive poet, who flourished about
the end of the 4th century after
Christ, and wrote " Descriptio Orbis
Terra," a general description of the
earth ; " Ora Maritima," an account
of the Mediterranean coasts, etc.

Avignon (ancient Avenio), a city
of France, capital of the Department
of Vaucluse, on the left bank of the
Rhone, 76 miles N. N. W. of Mar-
seilles, on the railway to Paris. In

Avlona ^^

1309, Clement V. transferred thither
the abode of the Popes, who continued
to reside here till 1377, when they re-
turned to Rome ; but two schismatical
Popes, or Popes elected by the French
cardinals, resided at Avignon till
1409. Avignon and its territory re-
mained the property of the Holy See
until 1797, when it was incorporated
with France.

Avlona, the principal seaport on
the coast of Albania, on the gulf of
the same name, supposed to be the
ancient Avion of the Greeks, fifty-
eight miles across the Strait of Otran-
to from Italy. For its share in the
great war, see APPENDIX: World

Avocado, a West Indian fruit,
called also avocado pear, alligator
pear, avigato, and sabacca.

Avoirdupois, a system of weights
used for all goods except precious met-
als, gems, and medicines, and in which
a pound contains 16 ounces, or 7,000
grains, while a pound troy contains 12
ounces, or 5,760 grains. A hundred-
weight contains 112 pounds avoirdu-

Avon, the name of several Eng-
lish and Scottish rivers, the best
known of which is that Avon which
rises in Northamptonshire, and flows
into the Severn a't Tewkesbury, after
a course of 100 miles. On its banks
is Stratford-on-Avon, the birthplace
and abode of Shakespeare, who has
hence been styled the Bard of Avon.

Axayacat, or Axayacatl, a Mex-
ican fly, the eggs of which, deposited
abundantly on rushes and flags, are
collected and sold as a species of cavi-

Axim, an important station and
port on the African Gold Coast, a* lit-
tle to the E. of the mouth of the Anco-
brah river. Inland from Axim, in the
basin of that river, and in the district
between it and the Prah, gold mining
operations have been carried on on a
large scale.

Axinomancy, a mode of divina-
tion much practiced by the ancient
Greeks, particularly with the view of
discovering the perpetrators of great
crimes. An ax was poised upon a
stake, and was supposed to move so
as to indicate the guilty person ; or the
names of suspected persons being pro-


nounced, the motion of the ax at a
particular name was accepted as a sign
of guilt.

Axiom, a Greek word meaning a
decision or assumption, is commonly
used to signify a general proposition
which the understanding recognizes as
true, as soon as the import of the
words conveying it is apprehended.

Axis, a straight line, real or im-
aginary, passing through a body, and
around which that body revolves, or
at least may revolve ; also, the imag-
inary line connecting the poles of a
planet, and around which the planet

Axis, a species of deer found in
India, called by Anglo-Indian sports-
men hog deer.

Axminster, a market town in
England, in the county Devon, on the
Axe, at one time celebrated for its
woolen cloth and carpet manufactures,
and giving name to an expensive va-
riety of carpet having a thick, soft
pile, and also to a cheaper variety.

Axolotl, a curious Mexican am-
phibian, not unlike a newt, from 8 to
10 inches in length, with gills formed
of three long, ramified or branch-like
processes floating on each side of the
neck. It reproduces by laying eggs,
and was for some time regarded as a
perfect animal with permanent gills.
It is said, however, that they frequent-
ly lose their gills like the other mem-
bers of the genus, though some au-
thorities maintain that the true ax-
olotl never loses its gills. The axolotl
is esteemed a luxury by the Mexicans.
There are a number of species in
North America.

Ayacucho, formerly Huamanga or
Guamanga, a town in the Peruvian
department of the same name, 220
miles E. S. E. of Lima. Here, on Dec.
9, 1824, the combined forces of Peru
and Colombia the latter then com-
prising Ecuador, New Granada, and
Venezuela totally defeated the last
Spanish army that ever set foot on
the continent.

Aye-aye, an animal of Madagas-
car, so called from its cry, now re-
ferred to the lemur family. It is about
the size of a hare, has large, flat ears
and a bushy tail.

Ayeshah, also Aysha, or Aisha,
the favorite wife of Mohammed, and



daughter of Abu-Bekr, was born at
Medina about 610 A. D. ; and was only
nine years of age when the Prophet
married her. She was the only one of
Mohammed's wives who accompanied
him in his campaigns. Although Aye-
shah bore no children to Mohammed,
she was tenderly beloved by him. She

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