George Jotham Hagar.

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died at Medina (677 A. D.), highly
venerated by all true Mussulmans, and
named the Prophetess and the Mother
of Believers.

Aylmer, Matthew, a Canadian
military officer, born in Melbourne, P.
Q., March 28, 1842 ; became Adjutant-
General of the Dominion militia, the
highest military office in Canada next
to that of the Major-General com-
manding, in 1896 ; baron in 1901.


Ayr, a town of Scotland, a royal
and parliamentary borough and capi-
tal of Ayrshire, at the mouth of the
river Ayr. The house in which the
poet Burns was born stands with-
in 1^ miles of the town, between it
and the Church of Alloway ("Allo-
way's auld haunted kirk"), and a
monument to him stands on a height
between the kirk and the bridge over
the Doon.

Ayrer, Jacob, a German dramat-
ist ; next to Hans Sachs the most pro-
lific dramatist of Germany in the 16th
century. He died in Nuremberg,
March 26, 1605.

Ayres, Anne, an American au-

thor, born in England in 1816; was
the first member of an American sis-
terhood in the Protestant Episcopal
Church. She died in February, 1896.

Ayrton, William Edward, an
English electrician and inventor, born
in London, in 1847 ; was graduated at
University College, London, in 1867;
entered the Indian telegraph service,
having studied electrical engineering
with Prof. William Thomson ; became
electrical superintendent and intro-
duced throughout India the system of
determining the position of a fault by
electrically testing one end of a line.
He has been a voluminous writer and
is widely known for his " Practical
Electricity." He died Nov. 8, 1908.

Aytonn, Sir Robert, poet, born
in Fifeshire, Scotland, in 1570; died
in 1638.

Aytonn, William Edmond-
toune, poet and prose writer, born
at Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1813. In
1848 he published a collection "of bal-
lads entitled " Lays of the Scottish
Cavaliers," which has proved the most
popular of all his works. He died at
Blackhills, Elgin, 1865.

Aynntamiento, the name given in
Spain to the councils or governing
bodies of towns.

Aynthia, the ancient capital of
Siam, on the Menam, 50 miles N. of
Bangkok. Some magnificent buildings
still remain, now crumbling into ruins
and overgrown with luxuriant vege-
tation; notable among them are Bud-
dhist temples, especially the Golden
Mount, 400 feet high.

Azalea, a genus of plants belong-
ing to the heathworts. Several for-
eign azaleas are cultivated in gardens
and greenhouses on account of the
abundance of their fine flowers, and,
in some cases, their fragrant smell.

Azeglio, Massimo Taparelli ;
Marquis d', an Italian author, irt-
ist, diplomatist, and statesman, born
at Turin, in 1801. He died Jan. 15,

Azores, or Western Islands, a
Portuguese archipelago, in the mid-
Atlantic, between 36 55' and 39 55*
N. lat. and between 25 10' and 31
16' W. long., stretching over a dis-
tance of 400 miles.

The total area of the group is 922



square miles, and the pop. (1911)
242,613. The coast is generally steep
and rugged ; the interior abounds in
ravines and mountains. Perhaps the
greatest want of the group is a good
harbor. The Azores are regarded as
a province, not a colony, of Portugal.

Azov, Sea of, is a large gulf of
the Black Sea, formed by the Crimean
peninsula, or rather an inland lake
connected with the Black Sea by the
Strait of Yenikale or Kertch (an-
cient Bosporus Cimmerius), 28 miles
long, and barely 4 wide a,t the narrow-
est The whole sea is shallow, from 3
to 52 feet deep ; and measuring 235 by
110 miles, it occupies an area of 14,-
500 square miles.

Azrael, the name given to the
angel of death by the Mohammedans.

Aztecs, a race of people who set-
tled in Mexico early in the 14th cen-

Itury, ultimately extended their domin-
| ion over a large territory, and were
; still extending their supremacy at the
time of the arrival of the Spaniards,
I by whom they were speedily subju-
j gated. See MEXICO.

Azuline, or Aznrine, blue dyes
belonging to the coal-tar class.

Aznni. Domenicp Alberto, an
Italian jurist, born in Sassari, Sar-
dinia, in 1749. He became judge of
the Tribunal of Commerce at Nice,
and in 1795 published a work in which
he endeavored to reduce maritime
laws to fixed principles. He died Jan.
1 23, 1827.

Azure, the heraldic term for the
color blue, represented in engraving by
horizontal lines.

Aznrine, a fresh water fish of the
same genus as the roach, chub and
minnow ; called also blue racb.

b, the second letter in all i
European alphabets, in He-
brew, and most other Ian- 1
guages. It belongs to the !
mutes and labials, and as all j
labials are easy to be pronounced, b
is one of the first letters which chil-
dren learn to speak, after a, ba or pa
generally being the first syllable.

Baal, the chief male divinity among
the Phoenicians, as Ashtoreth was the
leading female one. The Carthagin-
ians, who sprang from the Phoenicians,
carried with them his worship to their
new settlements, as is proved, among
other evidence, by the names of some
of their world-renowned heroes; thus
Hannibal, written in Punic inscrip-
tions, Hannibaal, signifies the grace of
Baal ; and Hasdrubal, or Asdrubal,
Azrubaal = ""Help of Baal." The
worship of Baal early existed among
the Canaanites and the Moabites,
whence it spread to the Israelites, be-
coming at last for a time completely
dominant among the 10 tribes, and to
a certain extent even among the two.
Perhaps the Babylonian Bel was only
Baal with a dialectic difference of
spelling, though Prof. Rawlinson
thinks differently (Isa. xlvi: 1). There
was an affinity between Baal and Mo-
loch. The Beltein or Beltane fires, lit
in early summer in Scotland and Ire-
land, seem to be a survival of Baal's

Baalbek (ancient HEIJOPOIJS, city
of the sun), a place in Syria, in a
fertile valley at the foot of Antili-
banus, 40 miles from Damascus, fa-
mous for its magnificent ruins. Of
these, the chief is the temple of the
Sun, built either by Antoninus Pius
or by Septimius Severus. Some of the
blocks used in its construction are 60
feet long by 12 thick ; and its 54 col-

umns, of which 6 are still standing,
were 72 feet high and 22 in circum-
ference. Near it is a temple of Jupi-
ter, of smaller size, though still larger
than the Parthenon at Athens, and
there are other structures of an elab-
orately ornate type. Originally a
center of the sun-worship, it became
a Roman colony under Julius Caesar,
was garrisoned by Augustus, and ac-
quired increasing renown under Tra-
jan as the seat of an oracle. Un-
der Constantine its temples became
churches, but after being sacked by
the Arabs in 748, and more complete-
ly pillaged by Tamerlane in 1401, it
sank into hopeless decay. The work
of destruction was completed by an
earthquake in 1759.

Baba, a Turkish word, signifying
father, originating, like our word
papa, in the first efforts of children to
speak. In Persia and Turkey it is
prefixed as a title of honor to the
names of ecclesiastics of distinction,
especially of such as devote themselves
to an ascetic life; it is often affixed
in courtesy, also, to the names of
other persons, as Ali-Baba.

Babbage, Charles, an English
mathematician and inventor of a cal-
culating machine ; born near Teign-
mouth, England, Dec. 26, 1792. He
died in London, Oct. 18, 1871.

Babbitt, Isaac, an American in*
ventor, born in Taunton, Mass., July
26, 1799; learned the goldsmith's
trade ; early became interested in the
production of alloys; and in 1824
manufactured the first britannia wa*re
in the United States. In 1839, he dis-
covered the well known anti-friction
metal which bears his name, Babbitt
metal. For this discovery, the Massa-
chusetts Charitable Mechanics' Asso-
ciation awarded him a gold medal in

Babbitt Metal


1841, and subsequently Congress voted
him $20,000. He died in Somerville,
Mass., May 26, 1862.

Babbitt Metal, a soft metal re-
sulting from alloying together certaiu
proportions of copper, tin, and zinc,
or antimony, used with the view of as
far as possible obviating friction in
the bearings of journals, cranks, axles,
etc. Invented by Isaac Babbitt

Babcock, Earle Jay, an Amer-
ican educator ; born in St. Charles,
Minn., June 11, 1865 ; was graduated
at the University of Minnesota in
1899 ; worked extensively with the
United States Geological Survey ; and
in 1902 was director of the State
School of Mines of North Dakota, and
Professor of Chemistry and Geology in
the State University.

Babcock, Orville E., an Ameri-
can military officer, born in Franklin,
Vt, Dec. 25, 1835; served v ; th dis-
tinction in the Civil War, a^u was a
member of Gen. Grant's staff. When
the latter was elected President, Bab-
cock became his secretary, and the
superintending engineer of several im-
portant public works. He was in-
dicted in 1876 for taking part in reve-
nue frauds, but on his trial was ac-
quitted. He died in Florida, June 2,

Babcock, Stephen Moulton, an
American educator ; born in Bridge-
water, N. Y., Oct. 22, 1843. He was
instructor of chemistry at Cornell
University in 1875-1876; Professor of
Agricultural Chemistry at the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin ; and chemist to
the New York State Experimental
Station. He died May 19, 1916.

Babel, a place or circumstances in
which confusion of sounds as, for
instance, by several people speaking
at once is the predominating char-
acteristic. The reference is to the
confusion of tongues divinely sent in
consequence of the building of the
Tower of Babel (Gen. xi : 1-9). The
magnificent temple of Belus, asserte_d
to have been originally this tower, is
said to have had lofty spires, and many
statues of gold, one of them 40 feet
high. In the upper part of this tem-
ple was the tomb of the founder, Be-
lus (the Nimrod of the sacred Scrip-
tures), who was deified after death.
The Tower of Babel is most frequent-

ly identified with the enormous ruin
atBirs, 2.000 ft. in base circumference,
156 ft. high, and two hours west of
Hillah on the site of the ancient bib-
lical city of Babylon.

Bab-el-Mandeb (i. e., the gate
of tears), the name of the strait be-
tween Arabia and the continent of
Africa, by which the Red Sea is con-
nected with the Gulf of Aden and the
Indian Ocean.

Babi, the name of a modern Per-
sian sect, derived from the title, Bab-
ed-Din (gate of the faith), assumed
by its founder, Mirza AH Mohammed,
a native of Shiraz, who, in 1843, after
a pilgrimage to Mecca, undertook to
form a new religion from a mixture
of Mohammedan, Christian, Jewish,
and Parsee elements. Babism enjoins
few prayers, and those only on fixed
occasions ; encourages hospitality and
charity ; prohibits polygamy, concu-
binage, and divorce ; discourages as-
ceticism and mendicancy; and directs
women to discard the veil, and share
as equals in the intercourse of social

Babington, Anthony, a Roman
Catholic gentleman of Derbyshire, who
associated with others of his own per-
suasion to assassinate Queen Eliza-
beth, and deliver Mary, Queen of
Scots. The plot being discovered, the
conspirators were executed in 1586.

Babiroussa (a Malay word signi-
fying stag hog ) , a species of wild hog,
sometimes called the horned or stag
hog, from the great length and curva-
ture of its upper tusks or canines,
which curl upward and backward
somewhat like the horns of Rumin-
antia, the lower canines being also
very prominent It is nearly of the
size of a common hog, but rather
longer, and with more slender limbs.
The babiroussa is very numerous in
Celebes, the Moluccas, and Java. It
is hunted with dogs, and when taken
makes little resistance ; sometimes
when pressed it endeavors to reach the
sea, and eludes its pursuer by its dex-
terity in diving and swimming.

Baboo, or Babn, a Hindu title of
respect equivalent to sir or master,
usually given to wealthy and educated
native gentlemen, especially when of
the mercantile class.



Baboon, a common name applied
to a genus of monkeys, natives of Af-
rica. They make a very obstinate re-
sistance to dogs, and only retreat be-
fore men when armed with guns. They
feed exclusively on fruits, seeds, and
other vegetable matter, and display a
great deal of cunning and audacity
when engaged in their marauding ex-
peditions. This animal has the re-
markable instinctive power of being
able to detect the presence of water,
and in South Africa is often employed
for this purpose when the ordinary
water supply fails. The baboon can
never be called tamed, however long
his confinement may have endured.

Babuyanes, or Madjicosima
Islands, a number of islands lying
about 30 miles N. of Luzon, and gen-
erally considered the most northern of
the Philippines. They are subject to
the Loo-Choo Islands ; aggregate pop.
about 12,000.

Babylon, the capital of Babylonia,
on both sides of the Euphrates, one of
the largest and most splendid cities
of the ancient world, now a scene of
ruins, and earth-mounds containing
them. Babylon was a royal city 1600
years before the Christian era; but
the old city was almost entirely de-
stroyed in 683 B. c. A new city was
built by Nebuchadnezzar nearly a cen-
tury later. This was in the form of a
square, each side 15 miles long, with
walls of such immense height and
thickness as to constitute one of the
wonders of the world. It contained
splendid edifices, large gardens and
pleasure-grounds, especially the hang-
ing-gardens, a sort of lofty terraced
structure supporting earth enough for
trees to grow, and the celebrated tow-
er of Babel, or temple of Belus, rising
by stages to the height of 625 feet.
(See BABEL.) After the city was
taken by Cyrus in 538 B. C., and Baby-
lonia made a Persian province, it
began to decline, and had suffered se-
verely by the time of Alexander the
Great. He intended to restore it, but
was prevented by his death, which
took place here in 323 B. c., from
which time its decay was rapid.

The great city of Babylon, or Babel,
was the capital of Babylonia, which
was called by the Hebrews Shinar.
The country was, as it still is, ex-
ceedingly fertile, and must have

anciently supported a dense popula-
tion. The chief cities, besides Baby-
lon, were Ur, Calneh, Erech, and Sip-
para. Babylonia and Assyria were
often spoken of together as Assyria.

Babylonish. Captivity, a term
usually applied to the deportation of
the two tribes of the kingdom of Ju-
dah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar,
585 B. C. The duration of this cap-
tivity is usually reckoned 70 years,
though strictly speaking, it lasted only
50 years. A great part of the 10
tribes of Israel had been previously
taken captive to Assyria.

Baccarat, or Baccara, a game
played with the ordinary playing
cards. It acquired notoriety owing to
a fraud alleged to have been perpe-
trated by one of the persons present
in a game at which the Prince of
Wales, now King Edward, was
" banker," some years ago.

Bacchus (in Greek generally
Dionysos), the god of wine.

Bach, Alexander von, an Aus-
trian statesman, born in Loosdorf,
Jan. 4, 1813 ; was Minister of Justice
in 1848, of the Interior in 1849-1859 ;
and, subsequently, ambassador to
Rome. In 1855, he negotiated the
Concordat with the Papacy which
brought Austria into submission to
the Roman Church. He died Nov. 15,

Bach Heinrich a German musi-
cian, born Sept. 16, 1615 ; member of
the celebrated family of musicians,
father of Johann Christoph and Jo-
hann Michael Bach ; was organist at
Arnstadt, where he died July 10, 1691.

Bach, Johann Christian, a Ger-
man musician, born in Erfurt, in
1640 ; a member of the family of mu-
sicians ; son of Johannes Bach, the
great uncle of Johann Sebastian Bach.
He died in Erfurt, in 1682.

Bach, Johann Christian, a
German musician, born in Leipsic, in
1735 ; a son of Johann Sebastian
Bach ; died in London, in 1782.

Bach, Johann Christoph.
Friedrich, a German musician, born
in Leipsic, in 1732 ; a son of Johann
Sebastian Bach ; died in Biickeburg,
in 1795.

Bach, Johann Michael, a Ger-
man composer and instrument maker,


Bachelor's Buttons

born in 1648 ; a son of Heinrich
Bach ; father-in-law of Johann Sebas-
tian Bach. He died in Arnstadt, in

Bach, Johann Sebastian, a cel-
ebrated musician, born at Eisenach,
Upper Saxony, March 21, 1685. When
he was 10 years old his father, who
was a musician at Eisenach, died, and
Bach sought the protection of an elder
brother, who, dying soon after, he
was again left destitute, and, to earn
a livelihood, entered the choir of St.
Michael's, Luneberg, as a soprano
singer. In 1703 he became court mu-
sician at Weimar, the following year
organist at Arnstadt, and in 1708
court organist at Weimar. While
holding this office be labored to make
himself master of every branch of
music. In 1717 he was made Director
of Concerts, and six years afterward
Director of Music and Cantor to St.
Thomas' School, Leipsic, an appoint-
ment which he held to his death.
Bach's close studies affected his eyes,
and an operation left him^ totally
blind and hastened his death, in Leip-
sic, July 28, 1750. With the excep-
tion of Handel, Bach had no rival as
an organist.

Bach, Karl Philipp Emanuel,
a German musician, born in Weimar,
March 14, 1714 ; son of Johann Se-
bastian Bach ; was court musician in
the service of Frederick the Great in
1740-1767. He died in Hamburg,
Dec. 14, 1788.

Bache, Alexander Dallas, an
American scientist, born in Philadel-
phia, Pa., July 19, 1806; was gradu-
ated at the United States Military
Academy, at the head of his class, in
1825 ; became Professor of Natural
Philosophy and Chemistry at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania in 1828; was
the organizer and first President of
Girard College, 1836; and was ap-
pointed superintendent of the United
States Coast Survey, in 1843. In the
last office he performed services of
lasting and invaluable character. He
was regent of the Smithsonian Insti-
tution in 1846-1867; an active mem-
ber of the United States Sanitary
Commission during the Civil War ;
and President of the National Acad-
emy of Sciences in 1863. He died in
Newport, R. I., Feb. 17, 1867.

Bache, Hartman, an American
military engineer, born in Philadel-
phia, Pa., Sept. 3, 1798; was graduat-

j ed at the United States Military

* Academy, in 1818. His most notable
achie>ements were the building of the
DeiaAare Breakwater and the appli-
cation of iron-screw piles for the foun-
dation of lighthouses upon sandy

I shoals and coral reefs. He died hi

I Philadelphia, Oct. 8, 1872.

Bache, Sarah, an American phi-
lanthropist, born in Philadelphia, Pa.,
Sept. 11, 1744; was the only daugh-
ter of Benjamin Franklin, and the
wife of Richard Bache. During the
Revolutionary War she organized and
became chief of a band of patriotic
ladies who made clothing for the sol-
diers, and in other ways relieved their
Bufferings, especially during the severe
i winter of 1780. At one time she had
nearly 2,500 women engaged under
her direction in sewing for the army.
She personally collected large sums
of money to provide the material for
this work, and also for the purchase
of medicines and delicacies for the
soldiers in the hospitals, where she
also personally acted as nurse. She
died Oct. 5, 1808.

Bacheller, Irving, an American
novelist, born in Pierpont, N. Y., Sept.
26, 1859. He was graduated at St.
Lawrence University in 1879 and be-
came a reporter of the Brooklyn
" Times." Subsequently he estab-
lished a newspaper syndicate. He has
written several novels, notable for
originality, and for fresh, and fasci-
nating pen pictures of American life.

Bachelor, a term applied anciently
to a person in the first or probation-
ary stage of knighthood who had not
yet raised his standard in the field. It
also denotes a person who has taken
the first degree in the liberal arts and
sciences, or in divinity, law, or medi-
cine, at a college or university ; or a
man of any age who has not been mar-
ried. A knight bachelor is one who
has been raised to the dignity of a
knight without being made a member
of any of the orders of chivalry such
as the Garter or the Thistle.

Bachelor's Buttons, the double
flowering buttercup with white or yel-
low blossoms, common in gardens.


Bacliman, John, an American
clergyman and naturalist, born in
Duchess county, N. Y., Feb. 4, 1790;
became pastor of a Lutheran church
in Charleston, S. C. He is best known
by reason of his association with Au-
dubon in the making of the " Quad-
rupeds of North America," he writ-
ing the principal part of the text,
which Audubon and his sons illustrat-
ed. He died in Charleston, S. C.,
Feb. 25, 1874.

Bacillus, a name given to cer-
tain filiform bacteria, which have as-
sumed much importance of late, prin-
cipally because of their constant
presence in the blood and tissues in
splenic fever and malignant pustule.

Back, Sir George, an English ex-
plorer, born in Stockport, Nov. 6,
1796. He died in London, June 23,
1878, after visiting both polar regions.

Backgammon, a favorite game of
calculation. It is played by two
persons, with two boxes, and two dice,
upon a quadrangular table, or board,
on which are figured 24 points, or
fle'ches, of two colors, placed alter-
nately. The board is divided into four
compartments, two inner and two
outer ones, each containing six of the
24 points (alternate colors). The
players are each furnished with 15
men, or counters, black and white.

Backliuysen, Ludolf, a cele-
brated painter of the Dutch school,
particularly in sea pieces, born in
1631. He died in 1709.

Backus, Truman Jay, an Amer-
ican educator, born in Milan, N. Y.,
Feb. 11, 1842; was graduated at the
University of Rochester in 1864 ; and
became President of the Packer Col-
legiate Institute in Brooklyn, N. Y.
After going to Brooklyn he served on
several State commissions. Died 1908.

Bacolor, a town in the Island of
Luzon, Philippine Islands; 10 miles
N. W. of Manila.

Bacon, a word applied to the
sides of a pig which have been cured
or preserved by salting with salt and
saltpeter, aad afterward drying with
or without wood smoke.

Bacon, Alice Mabel, an Ameri-
can educator, born in New Haven,
Conn., Feb. 26, 1858; was educated


privately and took the Harvard exam-
inations in 1881 ; taught at the Hamp-
ton Normal and Agricultural Insti-
tute in 1883-1888, and in Tokio, Ja-
pan, in 1888-1889; returned to the
Hampton Institute in 1889, and found-
ed the Dixie Hospital for training
colored nurses in 1890.

Bacon, Benjamin Wismer, an
American educator, born in Litchfield,
Conn., Jan. 15, 1860; in 1896 became
Professor of New Testament Criticism
and Exegesis in Yale University.

Bacon, Edwin Mnnroe, an
American editor and author of many
historical works relating to Boston
and New England ; also of "Direct
Election and Law Making by Popular
Vote ;" born in Providence, R. I., Oct.
20, 1844.

Bacon, Francis, Viscount St. Al-
bans, one of the most remarkable men
of whom any age can boast ; a reform-
er of philosophy, by founding it on
the observation of nature, after it
had consisted, for many centuries, of
scholastic subtleties and barren dia-
lectics ; born in London, Jan. 22, 1561,
his father being Sir Nicholas Bacon,
lord keeper of the great seal. He
contracted an advantageous mar-
riage; was made solicitor-general
and then attorney-general ; in 1617
became lord keeper of the seals; in
1618 was made lord high chancellor
and created Baron of Verulam, and in
1621 Viscount St Albans. He might
have lived with splendor without de-
grading his character by those acts
which stained his reputation. He
was accused before the House of
Lords of having received money for
grants of offices and privileges under
the seal of State. He was unable to
justify himself, and, desiring to avoid
the mortification of a trial, confessed
his crimes and threw himself on the
mercy of the peers, beseeching them
to limit his punishment to the loss of
the high office which he had dishon-
ored. The lords sentenced him to
pay a fine of 40,000, and to be im-
prisoned in the Tower during the
pleasure of the king. He was also
declared forever incapable of place or
employment, and forbidden to sit in
Parliament or to appear within the
verge of the court. He survived his
fall only a few years, and died in


Highgate, April 9, 1626. Efforts have
been made to prove him the real au-
thor of the works of Shakespeare, and

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