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the controversy still goes on.

Bacon, Henry, an American paint-
er, born in Haverhill, Mass., in 1839.
He served in the Civil War, studied
art in Paris under Cabanel and Ed-
ward Frere, and painted, among oth-
ers, " Boston Boys and Gen. Gage "
*' Paying the Scot ; " etc.

Bacon, John, an English sculp-
tor, born in London, Nov. 24, 1740.
He died Aug. 4, 1799.

Bacon, John Mosby, an Ameri-
can military officer, born in Kentucky,
April 17, 1844; served in the Union
army, through the Civil War; was
appointed Captain in the 9th United
States Cavalry, in I860, and Colonel
of the 8th Cavalry, in 1897. On May
4. 1898, he was appointed Brigadier-
General of Volunteers and placed in
command of the Department of Da-
kota. In October of that year he put
down the outbreak of the Pillager
band of the Chippewa Indians in Cass
county, Minn. Subsequently, he was
assigned to duty in Cuba, with head-
quarters at Neuvitas, till May 8, 1899,
when he was retired. D. Mch. 19, 1913.

Bacon, Leonard, an American
clergyman, born in Detroit, Mich.,
Feb. 19, 1802 ; graduated at Yale in
1820, after which he studied theology
at Andover, Mass. * In 1825 he became
pastor of the First Congregational
church in New Haven, Conn., where
he died Dec. 24, 1881. He was joint-
editor of the "Independent" for 16
years and from 1866-1871 was Prof,
of Didactic Theology at Yale.

Bacon, Nathaniel, an Anglo-
American lawyer, born in Suffolk,
England, Jan. 2, 1642 ; became the
leader in BACON'S REBELLION (q. v.)
in Virginia, and died Oct. 29, 1676.

Bacon, Robert, American states-
man, b. Cape Cod, Mass., 1858; was
graduated at Harvard in 1880 ; mem-
er of the banking firm of J. Pierre-
pont Morgan & Co., in 1894-1903;
U. S. Assistant Secretary of State in
1905-9; Ambassador to France in
1909-12.

Bacon, Roger, an English monk,
and one of the most profound and
original thinkers of his day, was born
about 1214, near Ilchester, Somerset-
shire. He died in Oxford, in 1294.



Bactria

Baconian Philosophy, the in-
ductive philosophy of which it is some-
times said that Lord Bacon was the
founder. This, however, is an exag-
gerated statement. What Lord Bacon
did for this mode of ratiocination was
to elucidate and systematize it; to
point out its great value, and to bring
it prominently before men's notice;
lending it the support of his great
name at a time when most of his con-
temporaries were satisfied with the
barren logic of the schools. The great
triumphs of modern science have aris-
en from a resolute adherence on the
part of its votaries to the Baconian
method of inquiry.

Bacon's Rebellion, a popular
uprising of the Virginian colonists,
headed by Nathaniel Bacon, in pro-
test against certain government abus-
es, which prevailed under the ad-
ministration of Sir William Berkeley.
Bacon compelled Berkeley to take
refuge on* a warship, and burned
all the public buildings at Jamestown.
He died at the most critical moment,
and the rebellion came to an end.

Bacteria, a class of very minute
microscopic organisms or microbes
which are regarded as of vegetable
nature, and as being the cause of ac-
companiment of various diseases, as
well as of putrefaction, fermentation,
and certain other phenomena. Some
of the better known of these organ-
isms are so exceedingly minute, that
under the highest power of improved
microscopes they appear no larger
than the periods of ordinary type.
Various classifications have boen pro-
posed for them, for they differ largely
in size, form, and mode of multiplica-
tion.

Bacteriology, that branch of
biology which treats of bacteria. The
study of these microscopic organisms
has developed into one of the most
important branches of modern bio-
logical science. Their importance to
mankind rests chiefly in the fact that
their nourishment consists of albumi-
nous substances, which they convert
into complex chemical compounds,
many of which are highly poisonous.

Bactria, a province of the an-
cient Persian empire^ lying N. of the
Paropamisus (Hindu Rush) Moun-
tains, on the Upper Oxus. It corre-




i', I9IO, BY I. E. WRIGHT

ORDERSAND DECORATIONS OF HONOUR, PLATE I

i. Order of Christ (Pontifical) ; 2. Society of the Cincinnati (United States) ; 3. Order of the Thistle, with Collar
Attachment (Great Britain, Scotland); 4. Order of the Garter the Great George, with Collar Attachment
(Great Britain) ; 5. Order of St. Gregory the Great (Pontifical) ; 6. Order of the Golden Fleece (Spain) ; 7. Guelfic
Order of Hanover; 8. Order of the Bath, Military Class (Great Britain) ; 9. Grand Army of the Republic (United
States); 10. Order of St. Michael and St. George (Great Britain); n. Order of the Rose (Brazil); 12. Order of
St. Patrick, with Collar Attachment (Great Britain, Ireland) ; 13. Order of the Holy Ghost (France) ; 14. Order
of the Tower and Sword (Portugal); 15. Order of the Holy Sepulchre (Pontifical); 16. Legion of Honour ( France)
17. Military Order, Loyal Legion (United States); 18. Order of the Star of India (England, India); 19, Order of
St. Andrew (Russia).



Baczko



Badger



sponded pretty nearly with the mod-
ern Balkh. Here many scholars locate
the original home of the Aryan or
Indo-European family of nations. Its
capital, Bactra, or Zariaspa, was also
the cradle of the Zoroastrian religion.

Baczko, Ludwig von, a German
historian and scholar, born in Lick,
Prussia, June 8, 1756 ; died March 27,
1823.

Badajoz, the fortified capital of
the Spanish province of Badajoz, on
the left bank of the Guadiana. It
was besieged by Wellington on March
16, and taken April 6, 1812, by one of
the most bloody assaults in history,
the British charging over the dead
bodies of their comrades.

Badakshan, a territory of Cen-
tral Asia, tributary to the Ameer of
Afghanistan. The inhabitants profess
Mohammedanism. Pop. 100,000.

Badeau, Adam, an American mil-
itary officer, born in New York city,
Dec. 29, 1831; educated at private
schools. He served with gallantry in ,
the Union army during the Civil War ;
was on the staff of General Sherman
in 1862-1863, and secretary to Gen-
eral Grant in 1864-1869; and in the
latter year was retired with the rank
of Captain in the regular army and of
Brevet Brigadier-General of Volun-
teers, and was appointed Secretary of
Legation in London. He was Consul-
General in London, 1870-1881, and
during this period was given leave of
absence to accompany General Grant
on his tour around the world (1877-
1878). In 1882-1884 he was Consul-
General in Havana. After the death
of General Grant he brought suit
against his heirs for payment of ser-
vices which he asserted had been ren-
dered in the preparation of General
Grant's " Memoirs," but lost his case.
He died in Ridgewood, N. J., March
19. 1895.

Baden, Grand Duchy of, one of
the more important States of the Ger-
man empire, situated in the S. W. of
Germany^ to the W. of Wiirtemberg.
It is divided into four districts, Con-
stance, Freiburg, Karlsruhe, and
Mannheim ; has an area of 5,819
square miles; pop. (1910) 2,142,833.
Baden sends three members to the
German Bundesrath, or Federal Coun-
cil, and 14 deputies to the Diet. Two-



thirds of the population are Roman
Catholics, the rest Protestants.

Baden-Baden, a town in the
Grand Duchy of Baden ; pop. (1910)
22,066. It is chiefly celebrated for
its medicinal springs, which were
known at the time of the Romans. Its
gaming tables, the most renowned in
Europe, were closed with the rest of
the licensed German gaming houses in
1872.

Baden-Powell, Robert Steven-
son Smyth, a British military offi-
cer ; born in London, Feb. 22, 1857.
In the war in South Africa in 1899-
1902, he signally distinguished himself
by his defense of Mafeking, Cape Col-
ony. In recognition of his heroism, the
queen promoted him to be a Major-
General. See BOY Scours.

Badeni, Connt Cassimir Felix,
an Austrian statesman ; born in Po-
land, Oct 14, 1846; Prime Minister
of Austria-Hungary, 1895; died, 1909.

Badge, a distinctive device, em-
blem, mark, honorary decoration, or
special cognizance, used originally to
identify a knight or distinguish his
followers, now worn as a sign of of-
fice or licensed employment, as a token
of membership in some society, or gen-
erally as a mark showing the relation
of the wearer to any person, occupa-
tion, or order.

Badger, a plantigrade, carnivorous
mammal, allied both to the bears and
to the weasels, of a clumsy make,
with short, thick legs, and long claws
on the fore feeL The species known
are the American and European.
The American badger is only found
in the remote W. sections of the Unit-
ed States and in some parts of the
British possessions in North America.
It is more carnivorous than the Eu-
ropean badger. The weight of the
American species is from 14 to 18
pounds.

Badger, George Edmund, an
American statesman, born in New-
bern, N. C., April 13, 1795; was grad-
uated at Yale College in 1813, and
was a judge and U. S. Senator.
He served in the State Convention
called to pass on the question of se-
cession, although oposed to that
measure, and after making a strong
speech in defense of the Union, was
afterward known as a member of the



Badger

Conservative Party. He died in Ral-
eigh, N. C., April 13, 1866.

Badger, Oscar L., an American
naval officer, born in Windham, Conn.,
Aug. 12, 1823; entered the United
States navy, Sept. 9, 1841 ; became
Lieutenant-Commander, July 16,
1862; Commander, July 25, 1866;
Captain, Nov. 25, 1872 ; Commodore,
Nov. 15, 1881 ; and was retired Aug.
12, 1885. He served on the steamer
" Mississippi " during the Mexican
War, taking part in the attack on Al-
varado, in 1846; led the party that
attacked and destroyed the village of
Vutia, Fiji Islands, while on the sloop
"John Adams," in 1855-1856; and
in the Civil War commanded the iron-
clads " Patapsco " and " Montauk,"
in the operations in Charleston harbor
in 1863 ; and was Acting Fleet Cap-
tain on the flag ship " Weehawken "
in the attack on Fort Sumter, Sept.
1, 1863. He died in Concord, Mass.,
June 20, 1899.

Badgley, Sidney Rose, a Cana-
dian architect, born near Kingston,
Ont, May 28, 1850. He has planned
and erected churches in almost all
parts of Canada and the United States.

Badliam, Charles, an English ed-
ucator, born in Ludlow, July 18,
1813; died in Sydney, Australia, Feb.
26, 1884.

Badlam, Stephen, an American
military officer, born in Milton, Mass.,
March 25, 1748; entered the Revolu-
tionary army in 1775 ; became com-
mander of the artillery, in the Depart-
ment of Canada. On the announce-
ment of the adoption of the Declara-
tion of Independence, he took posses-
sion of the heights opposite Ticonder-
oga, and named the place Mt Inde-
pendence. Subsequently he rendered
good service at Fort Stanwix, and in
1799 was made Brigadier-General. He
died in Dorchester, Mass., Aug. 24,
1815.

Bad Lands, tracts of land in the
N. W. part of the United States. The
absence of vegetation enables the rains
to wash clean the old lake beds, and
in many instances to disclose remark-
able fossils of extinct animals. They
were first called Bad Lands (mau-
yaises terres) by the French explorers
in the region of the Black Hills in
South Dakota.



Baffin

Badminton, a popular game, close-
ly resembling lawn tennis, played with
battledore and shuttlecock on a rec-
tangular portion of a lawn.

Badrinath, a peak of the main
Himalayan range, in Garhwal dis-
trict, Northwestern Provinces, India;
23,210 feet above the sea. On one of
its shoulders, at an elevation of 10,400
feet, stands a celebrated temple of
Vishnu, which some years attracts aa
many as 50,000 pilgrims.

Baedeker, Karl, a German pub-
lisher, born in 1801 ; originator of a
celebrated series of guide-books for
travelers. He died in 1859.

Baeyer, Adolf von, a German
chemist, born in Berlin, Oct. 31, 1835 ;
son of Johann Jakob Baeyer ; became
Professor of Chemistry at Strasburg
in 1872, and at Munich, in 1875, suc-
ceeding Liebig at the latter. He made
many important discoveries in organic
chemistry, especially cerulein, eosin,
and indol.

Baeyer, Johann Jakob, a Prus-
sian geometrician, born in Miiggels-
heim, Nov. 5, 1794 ; died in Berlin,
Sept 10, 1885.

Baez, Buenaventura, a Domin-
ican statesman, born in Azua, Haiti,
about 1810 ; aided in the establish-
ment of the Dominican Republic; was
its President in 1849-1853 ; was then
expelled by Santa Ana and went to
New York city; was recalled in 1856,
on the expulsion of Santa Ana, and
again elected President; and was re-
elected President in 1865 and 1868.
During his last term, he signed treat-
ies with the United States (Nov. 29,
1869), for the annexation of Santo
Domingo to the United States, and for
the cession of Samana Bay. The
treaties failed of ratification in the
United States Senate and caused the
downfall of Baez. He died in Porto
Rico, March 21, 1884.

Baffin, William, an English nav-
igator and discoverer, believed to have
been born in London about 1584.
In 1615 he took service as pilot
of the " Discovery," in search of a
northwest passage, and made a care-
ful examination of Hudson Strait
His recorded latitudes and notes
of the tides are in remarkable
agreement with those of a later date.
In the following year, with Capt By-



Baffin Land

lot, he discovered, charted, and named
Smith Sound, and several others, and
explored the large inlet now associated
with his name. His last voyages,
1616-1621, were to the East. At
the siege of Ormuz, which the Eng-
lish were helping the Shah of Persia
to recover from the Portuguese, he
was killed, Jan. 23, 1622.

Baffin Land, a Canadian island,
crossed by the Arctic Circle; area,
236,000 square miles.

Baffin Sea (erroneously styled a
Bay), a large expanse of water in
North America, between Greenland
and the lands or islands N. of Hudson
Bay. This sea was discovered by the |
English navigator, Baffin, in 1616, |
while in search of a passage to the '
Pacific Ocean.

Bagamoyo, a town of German
East Africa, on the coast opposite the
island of Zanzibar; pop. (1899),
about 13,000. It is- an important trad-
ing station for ivory, gum and caout-
chouc.

Bagasse, the sugar cane in its dry,
crushed state, as delivered from the
mill, and after the main portion of its
juice has been expressed ; used as fuel
in the su|;ar factory, and called also
cane trash.

Bagatelle, a game played on a
long, flat board, covered with cloth
like a billiard-table, with spherical
balls and a cue, or mace.

Bagby, George William, an
American physician and humorist,
born in Buckingham co., Va., Aug. 13,
1828; died in Richmond, Va., Nov.
29, 1883.

Bagdad, capital of the Turkish
vilayet and city of the same name, in
the southern part of Mesopotamia
(now Irak Arabi). Bagdad was found-
ed in 762, by the Caliph Almansur,
and raised to a high degree of splen-
dor, in the 9th century, by Haroun A)
Raschid. It is the scene of a number
of the tales of the " Arabian Nights."
In the 13th century it was stormed by
Hulaku, grandson of Genghis-Khan,
who caused the reigning caliph to be
slain, and destroyed the caliphate. The
vilayet has an area of 54,540 square
miles, and an estimated population of
900,000, and the city an estimated
population of 225,000. Germany had

E. IS.



Bagley

a concession for the construction of
a railway which would extend the An-
atolian line from Konia to Adana,
Mosul, Bagdad, and Bassa, with many
branch lines, but the great war inter-
rupted the work. See APPENDIX :
World War.

Bagehot, Walter, an English
economist, born in Somersetshire, Feb.
3, 1826 ; died March 24, 1877.

Baggage, a term supposed to be
derived from the old French word
bague, meaning bundle. As ordinar-
ily used, it includes trunks, valises,
portmanteaus, etc., which a traveler
carries with him on a journey.

Baggesen, Jens, a Danish poet ;
born in Korsor, Zealand, Feb. 15,
1764; died in Hamburg, Oct 3, 1826.

Bagirmi, or Baghermi, a coun-
try in Central Africa, bounded on the
W. by Bornu and a portion of Lake
Tchad, and with the powerful Sultan-
ate of Wadai to the N. E. Its area
is estimated at nearly 71,000 square
miles. The country was first vis-
ited by Earth in 1852. Most of it
was recognized as in the German
sphere by the Anglo-German agree-
ment of 1893; but it came under
French control in 1900.

Bagley, Wortn, an American na-
val officer, born in Raleigh, N. C.,
April 6, 1874 ; was graduated at the
United States Naval Academy in
1895 ; promoted to Ensign, July 1,
1897, and was detailed as inspector to
the new torpedo-boat " Winslow " in
November following. This boat went
into commission the next month, and
he was appointed her executive officer.
In April, 1898, the "Winslow" was
assigned to the American fleet off the
coast of Cuba, and on May 9, while
on blockading duty at the harbor of
Cardenas, with the " Wilmington "
and " Hudson," drew the fire of sev-
eral Spanish coast-guard vessels. All
the American vessels escaped untouch-
ed. Two days afterward, the three
vessels undertook to force an entrance
into the harbor, when they were fired
on by Spanish gunboats. The " Wins-
low " was disabled, and with difficulty
was drawn out of range of the en-
emy's guns. The " Wilmington " then
silenced the Spanish fire, and as the
action closed, Ensign Bagley and four
sailors on the " Winslow " were in-



Bagpipe

stantly killed by a shell, be being the
first American naval officer to fall in
the war with Spain.

Bagpipe, a musical wind instru-
ment of very great antiquity, having
been used among the ancient Greeks
for many ages, and is the favorite
musical instrument of the Scottish
Highlanders.

Bagration, Peter Ivanovich,
Prince, a Russian general, descended
from the royal family of the Bagra-
tidse of Georgia and Armenia, born in
1765. In the campaign of 1812, he
commanded the Second Russian Army
of the West He was mortally wound-
ed in the battle of Borodino, and died
Oct. 7, 1812.

Bahama Channel, Old and New,
two American channels; the former
separates the Great Bahama Bank and
Cuba; the latter, also called the Gulf
of Florida, is between the Great and
Little Bahama Banks and Florida,
and forms a part of the channel of the
great Gulf Stream, which flows here
at the rate of from 2 to 5 miles an
hour.

Bahama Islands, or Lncayos, a
group of islands in the West Indies,
forming a colony., belonging to Great
Britain, lying N. E. of Cuba and S. E.
of the coast of Florida, the Gulf
Stream passing between them and the
mainland. They extend a distance of
upward of GOO miles, and are said to
be 29 in number, besides keys and
rocks innumerable. Of the whole
group about 20 are inhabited, the
most populous being New Provi-
dence, which contains the capital,
Nassau, the largest being Andros,
100 miles long, 20 to 40 broad. They
are low and flat, and have in many
parts extensive forests. Total area,
4,404 square miles. Pop. (1911) 55,-
944.

Bahia, formerly San Salvador, a
city of Brazil, on the Bay of All
Saints, in the State of Bahia. The
harbor is one of the best in South
America ; and the trade, chiefly in
sugar, cotton, coffee, tobacco, hides,
piassava, and tapioca, is extensive.
Pop. (1911) 290,000. The State, area,
164,649 square miles ; pop. about 2.-
118,000, has much fertile land, both
along the coast and in the interior.



Ball

Bahia Honda, a seaport of Cuba,
on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico,
and lying on a small bay, bearing the
same name. The town and bay are
about 50 miles W. of Havana, being
commanded by a small fort.

Bahr, Johann Christian Felix,
a German philologist, born at Darm-
stadt, June 13, 1798; died Nov. 29,
1872.

Bahrein Islands, a group of
islands in the Persian Gulf, in an in-
dentation on the Arabian coast. The
Bahrein Islands are chiefly noted for
their pearl-fisheries, which were known
to the ancients, and which employ in
the season from< 2,000 to 3,000 boats
with from 8 to 20 men each. Total
pop., est. at 110,000.

Bahr-el-Ghazal, the name of the
old Egyptian province which incloses
the district watered by the southern
tributaries of Bahr-el-Arab and Bahr-
el-Ghazal, since the overthrow of the
Khalifa in 1899 known as the Anglo-
Egyptian Sudan. Slatin Pasha has
drawn attention both to the fertility
of the province and to its strategical
importance. To the W. of it lies the
Ubangi district of French Kongo ; and
it was thence that Major Marchand
made his way through the Bahr-el-
Ghazal to Fashoda in the summer of
1898.

Bahr Yusuf , or Bahr el Yusnf ,
an artificial irrigation channel from
the left bank of the Nile below Sint.
to the Fayum ; 270 miles long. Ac-
cording to Koptic traditions it was
constructed during Joseph's adminis-
tration.

Baikal, an extensive lake of East-
ern Siberia; crescent-shaped, and sur-
rounded by high and wild mountains
rising 3,000 to 4.000 feet above its
surface. Length, S. W. to N. E., 370
miles; breadth, 20 to 70 miles; alti-
tude, about 1,400 feet; greatest ascer-
tained depth, 4,500 feet; average
depth of its southern part, about 800
feet

Bail. (1) Of persons: Those who
stand security for the appearance of
rn accused person. The word is a col-
loctive one, and not used in the plural.
They were so called because formerly
the person summoned was bailie 1 , that
is, given into the custody of those who
were security for his appearance.



Bailey

(2) Pecuniary security given by re-
sponsible persons that an individual
charged with an offense against the
law will, if temporarily released, sur-
render when required to take his trial.

Bailey, Gamaliel, an American
journalist, born in Mount Holly, N.
J., Dec. 3, 1807; with J. G. Birney,
founded the anti-slavery journal, the
"Cincinnati Philanthropist" (1836),
the office of which was destroyed by a
mob, though it continued to be pub-
lished till 1847. He established the
well-known newspaper, the Washing-
ton "National Era 5 ' (1847), in
which the famous novel, " Uncle Tom's
Cabin," appeared first. He died at
sea, June 5, 1859.

Bailey, Jacob "Whitman, an
American scientist, born in Auburn,
Mass., April 29, 1811; was graduated
at the United States Military Acad-
emy, in 1832; and from 1834 till his
death was Professor of Chemistry,
Mineralogy and Geology at the Mili-
tary Academy. He was the inventor
of the Bailey indicator and of many
improvements in the microscope, in
the use of which he achieved high dis-
tinction; and he is regarded as the
pioneer in microscopic investigation.
He was President of the American As-
sociation for the Advancement of Sci-
ence in 1857; held membership in the
principal scientific associations of the
world ; and was the author of numer-
ours papers on the results of his re-
searches. He died in West Point, N.
Y., Feb. 26, 1857.

Bailey, James Montgomery, an
American author, born in Albany, N.
Y., Sept. 25, 1841; died in Danbury,
Conn., March 4, 1894.

Bailey, Joseph, an American mil-
itary officer, born in Salem, O., April
28, 1827 ; entered the Union army as a
private in 1861, and signally distin-
guished himself in the Red River cam-
paign under Gen. N. P. Banks, in
1864, by building a dam and deepen-
ing the water in the channel, which
enabled Admiral Porter's Mississippi
flotilla to pass the Red River rapids
in safety, and so escape a perilous sit-
uation. For this engineering feat,
Bailey, who, before entering the army
was a plain farmer, was breveted
Brigadier-General, promoted Colonel,
voted the thanks of Congress, and



Bailiff

presented by the officers of the fleet
with a sword and purse of $3,000.
Subsequently, he was promoted to full
Brigadier-General, and was engaged
on engineering duty till his resigna-
tion, July 7, 1865. He died in Ne-
vada, Mo., March 21, 1867.

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, an Amer-
ican horticulturist and editor, born in
South Haven, Mich., March 15, 1858;
became chairman of the Roosevelt
Commission on Country Life in 1908.

Bailey, Philip James, an English
poet, born in Nottinghamshire, April
22, 1816; died Sept. 6, 1902.

Bailey, Samuel, an English po-
litical and mental philosopher, born
in Sheffield, in 1791; died in 1870.

Bailey, Theodorus, an American
naval officer, born in Chateaugay, N.
Y., April 12, 1805; entered the navy
in 1818; served on the W. coast of
Mexico during the Mexican War;
commanded frigate " Colorado," of
the Western Gulf Blockading Squad-
ron, in 1861-1862; and in the last
year commanded the right column of
Admiral Farragut's squadron in the



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