Copyright
George Jotham Hagar.

The New world encyclopedia; a library of reference (Volume 1) online

. (page 3 of 91)
Online LibraryGeorge Jotham HagarThe New world encyclopedia; a library of reference (Volume 1) → online text (page 3 of 91)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Neb. Nebraska.



Abbreviations



Neb. Nehemiah.

N. e. i. Non est inventus, he is not

found.
Nem. con., or nem. diss. Nemine con

tradicente, or nemine dissentiente, no

one opposing ; unanimously.
Neth. Netherlands.
Neut Neuter (gender).
Nev. Nevada.

New Test, or N. T. New Testament.
N. F. Newfoundland.
N. G. New Granada ; Noble Grand. ]
N. H. New Hampshire ; New Haven.
N. H. H. S. New Hampshire His-i

torical Society.
Ni. pri. Nisi prius.
N. J. New Jersey.
N. L Non liquet, it does not appear. |
N. lat. North latitude.
N. M. New Measurement.
N. M. New Mexico.
N.-N.-E. North-north-east.
N.-N.-W. North-north-west.
N, O. New Orleans.
No. Numero, number.
NoL Pros. Nolle prosequi, unwilling

to proceed.

Nom., or nom. Nominative.
Non con. Not content; dissenting

(House of Lords).

Non cul. Non culpabilis, Not guilty, i
Non obst. Non obstante, notwith-l

standing.

N. o. p. Not otherwise provided for.
Non pros. Non prosequitur, he does

not prosecute.
Non seq. Non sequitur, it does not

follow.

No., or Nos. Numbers.
Nov. November.
N. P. Notary Public.
N. P. D. North Polar Distance.
N. s. Not specified.
N. S. New Style (after 1752) ; No-
va Scotia.
N. S. J. C. Our Saviour Jesus

Christ (Noster Salvator Jesus

Christus).

N. T. New Testament.
N. u. Name or names unknown.
Num. Numbers ; Numeral.
N. V. New Version.
N, V. M. Nativity of the Virgin

Mary.

N.-W. North-West
N.-W. T. North- West Territory.
N. Y. New York.
N. Z. New Zealand.

O. Ohio

Ob. Obtit, he or she died.



Obad. Obadiah.

Obs. Obsolete ; Observatory ; Obser-
vation.

Obt, or Obdt Obedient

Oct., or 8vo. Octavo, eight pages.

Oct. October.

O.-F. Odd-Fellow, or Odd-Fellows.

Okl. Oklahoma.

O. G. Outside guardian.

O. H. M. S. On his or her Majesty's
Service.

Old Test, or O. T. Old Testament

Olym. Olympiad.

O. M. Old Measurement

Ont Ontario.

Opt. Optics.

Or. Oregon.

Orig. Originally.

Ornith. Ornithology.

Os. Osmium.

O. S. Old Style; Outside Sentinel.

O. T. Old Testament

O. U. A. Order of United Americans.

Oxf. Gloss. Oxford Glossary.

Oxf. Oxford.

Oxon. Oxonia, Oxonii, Oxford.

Oz. Ounce.

P. Pondere, by weight

P., or p. Page ; Part ; Participle.

Pa., or Penn. Pennsylvania.

Pal. Palaeontology.

Par. Paragraph.

Par. Pas. Parallel passage.

Parl. Parliament.

Pat Of. Patent Office.

Pathol. Pathology.

Pay t Payment.

P. B. Primitive Baptist.

P. B. Philosophies Baccalaureits,
Bachelor of Philosophy.

P. C. Patres Conscripti, Conscript
Fathers; Senators.

P. C. Privy Council; Privy Coun-
cilor.

P. C. P. Past Chief Patriarch.

P. C. S. Principal Clerk of Sessions.

P. D. Philosophic Doctor, Doctor
of Philosophy.

Pd. Paid.

P. E. Protestant Episcopal.

P. E. I. Prince Edward Island.

Penn. Pennsylvania.

Pent Pentecost.

Per. Persia; Persian.

Per, or pr. By the, or per Ib.

Per an. Per annum, by the year.

Per cent. Per centum, by the hun-
dred.

Peri. Perigee.

Peruv. Peruvian.



Abbreviations



Abbreviations



Pet. Peter; Petrine.

P. G. Past Grand.

Phar. Pharmacy.

Ph. B. Philosophies Baccalaureus,
Bachelor of Philosophy.

Ph. D. Philosophies Doctor, Doctor
of philosophy.

Phil. Philip ; Philippians ; Philos-
ophy ; Philemon.

Phila., or Phil. Philadelphia.

Philem. Philemon.

Philom. PhUomathes, a lover of
learning.

Philomat h. Philomathematicus, a
lover of the mathematics.

Phil. Trans. Philosophical Trans-
actions.

Phren. Phrenology.

Pinx., or pxt. Pinxit, he (she) paint-
ed it.

P.-L. Poet-Laureate.

PL, or Plur. Plural.

Plff. Plaintiff.

Plupf. Pluperfect.

P. M. Post meridiem, afternoon,
evening.

P. M. Postmaster ; Passed Midship-
man.

P. M. G. Postmaster-General.

P. O. Post-Office.

P. of H. Patrons of Husbandry.

Pop. Population.

Port. Portugal, or Portuguese.

P. P. Parish priest.

P. P. C. Pour prendre conge, to take
leave.

Pp., or pp. Pages.

PP. Patres, Fathers.

Pph. Pamphlet.

P. Q. Previous Question.

P. R. Populus Romanus, the Roman
people.

P. R. Prize Ring; Porto Rico; the
Roman People (Populus Romanus).

P. R. A. President of the Royal
Academy.

P, R. C. Post Romam conditam,
from the building of Rome.

Preb. Prebend.

Pref. Preface.

Pref. Preferred.

Prep. Preposition.

Pres. President.

Presb. Presbyterian.

Prin. Principally.

Prob. Problem.

Proc. Proceedings.

Prof. Professor.

Pron. Pronoun ; Pronunciation.

Prop. Proposition.

Prot. Protestant.



Prot. Epis. Protestant Episcopal.

Pro tern. Pro tempore, for the time
being.

Prov. Proverbs ; Provost.

Prov. Province.

Prox. Proximo, next (month).

P. R. S. President of the Royal So-
ciety.

Prs. Pairs.

Prus. Prussia ; Prussian.

P. S. Post scriptum, Postscript.

P. S. Privy Seal.

Ps. Psalm, or Psalms.

Pt. Part; Pint; Payment; Point;
Port

Pt. Platinum.

P. T. O. Please turn over.

P.-twp. Post-township.

Pub. Publisher ; Publication ; Pub-
lished ; Public.

Pub. Doc. Public Documents.

P. v. Post-village.

P. W. P. Past Worthy Patriarch.

Pwt. Pennyweight ; pennyweights.

Q Quasi, as it were ; almost.

Q. Queen.

Q. Question.

Q. d. Quasi dicat, as if he should say ;

quasi dictum, as if said ; quasi dix-

isset, as if he had said.
Q. e. Quod est, which is.
Q. e. d. Quod erat demonstrandum,

which was to be proved.
Q. e. f. Quod erat faciendum, which

was to be done.
Q. e. i. Quod erat inveniendum,

which was to be found out.
Q. 1. Quantum libet, as much as you

please.

Q. M. Quartermaster.
Qm. Quomodo, how ; by what means.
Q. M. G. Quartermaster-General.
Q. p., or q. pi. Quantum placet, as

much as you please.
Qr. Quarter.
Q. S. Quarter Sessions.
Q. s. Quantum suffidt, sufficient

quantity.

t. Quart.

u., or qy. Quaere, inquire ; query.

uar. Quarterly.

ues. Question.
Mess. Queen's Messenger.

ue. Quebec.
Q. v. Quod vide, which see ; quantum

vis, as much as you will.

R. Recipe, take.

R. Regina, Queen.

R. River; Rood; Rod.



Abbreviations



Abbreviations



R. A. Royal Academy ; Royal Aca-
demician.

R. A. Royal Arch.

R. A. Royal Artillery.

R. C. Roman Catholic.

RC. Rescriptum, a counterpart.

R. D. Rural Dean.

R. E. Reformed Episcopal.

R. E. Royal Engineers.

Rec. Recipe, or Recorder.

Reed. Received.

Rec. Sec. Recording Secretary.

Rect. Rector ; Receipt

Ref. Reference.

Ref. Reformed ; Reformation ; Ref-
erence.

Ref. Ch. Reformed Church.

Reg. Register ; Regular.

Reg. Prof. Regius Professor.

Regr. Registrar.

Regt. Regiment.

Rel. Religion.

Rep. Representative ; Reporter.

Repts. Reports.

Retd. Returned.

Rev. Reverend ; Revelation ( Book
of) ; Review ; Revenue ; Revise.

Rhet. Rhetoric.

R. H. S. Royal Humane Society ;
Royal Historical Society.

R. I. Rhode Island ; in stock reports,
Rock Island, a railway.

R. I. H. S. Rhode Island Historical
Society.

R. M. Royal Marines ; Royal Mail.

R. M. S. Royal Mail Steamer.

R. N. Royal Navy.

R. N. R. Royal Navy Reserve.

Ro. Recto, right-hand page.

Robt Robert.

Rom. Romans (Epistle to the).

Rom. Cath. Roman Catholic.

R. P. Reformed Presbyterian.

R. P. Regius Professor, the King's
Professor.

R. R. Railroad.

R. R. June. Railroad Junction.

R. R. Sta. Railroad Station.

R. S. Recording Secretary.

Rs. Responsus, to answer ; Rupees.

R. S. A. Royal Society of Anti-
quaries : Royal Scottish Academy.

R. S. V. P. Repondez, s'il vous plait,
answer, if you please.

R. T. S. Religious Tract Society.

Rt Hon. Right Honorable.

Rt. Rev. Right Reverend.

Rt. Wpful. Right Worshipful.

Russ. Russia ; Russian.

R. V. Revised Version.

R. W. Right Worthy.



R. W. D. G. M. Right Worshipful

Deputy Grand Master.
R. W. G. R. Right Worthy Grand

Representative.
R. W. G. S. Right Worthy Grand

Secretary.
R. W. G. T. Right Worthy Grand

Treasurer ; Right Worshipful Grand

Templar.
R. W. G. W. Right Worthy Grand

Warden.
R. W. J. G. W. Right Worshipful

Junior Grand Warden.
R. W. S. G. W. Right Worshipful

Senior Grand Warden.
Ry. Railway.

S. Solidus, a shilling.

S. South; Saint; Scribe; Sulphur;
Sunday ; Sun ; Series.

S. Afr. South Africa.

S. A. South America ; South Austra-
lia.

S. a. Secundum artem, according to
art.

Sam. Samuel.

Sansc., or Sansk. Sanscrit, or Sans-
krit.

Sard. Sardinia.

S. A. S. Societatis Antiquariorum
Socius, Fellow of the Soc. of An-
tiquaries.

Sat. Saturday.

Sax. Saxon ; Saxony.

Sax. Chron. Saxon Chronicle.

S. C. Senatus Consultum, a decree
of the Senate; South Carolina.

Sc. Sculpsit, he (or she) engraved it.

Sc. B. Bachelor of Science

Sc., or scil. Scilicet, namely.

Scan. Mag. Scandalum magnatum,
scandal of the great or prominent.

Schol. Scholium, a note.

Schr. Schooner.

Sclav. Sclavonic.

Scot. Scottish ; Scotland.

Scr. Scruple.

Scrip. Scripture.

Sculp. Sculpsit, he (or she) en-
graved it.

S. D. Salutem dicit, sends health ;
South Dakota.

S.-E. South-East.

Sec. Secretary ; Second.

Sec. Leg. Secretary of Legation.

Sec. leg. Secundum legem, according
to law.

Sec. reg. Secundum regulam, accord-
ing to rule.

Sect. Section.

Sem. Semlle, it seems.



Abbreviations



Abbreviation*



Sem. Seminary.

Sen. Senate ; Senator ; Senior.

Sept. September ; Septuagint.

Seq. Sequentia, following ; sequitur,
it follows.

Ser. Series.

Serg. Sergeant.

Serg.-Maj. Sergeant-Major.

Servt. Servant.

Sess. Session.

S. G. Solicitor-General.

Shak. Shakespeare.

S. H. S. Societatis Histories Socius,
Fellow of the Historical Society.

Sic. Doubtful ; literally.

S. I. M. Soc. for Increase of the
Ministry.

Sing. Singular.

S. Isl. Sandwich Islands.

S. J. Society of Jesus.

S. J. C. Supreme Judicial Court.

S. lat. South latitude.

S. M. State Militia; Short Meter;
Sergeant-Major; Sons of Malta.

S. M. Lond. Soc. Cor. Societatis
Mcdicce Londonensis Socius Cor.,
Corresponding Member of the Lon-
don Medical Soc.

Soc. Isl. Society Islands.

Sol. Solomon ; Solution.

SoL-Gen. Solicitor-General.

S. of Sol. Song of Solomon.

Sp. Spain ; Spanish.

S. P. A. S. Societatis Philosophies
Americana Socius, Member of the
American Philosophical Society.

S. P. G. Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel.

Sp. gr. Specific gravity.

S. P. C. A. Society for the Preven-
tion of Cruelty to Animals.

S. P. C. C. Society for the Preven-
tion of Cruelty to Children.

S. P. Q. R. Senatus Populusque Ro-
manus, the Senate and people of
Rome.

S. P. R. L. Society for the Promo-
tion of Religion and Learning.

Sq. ft. Square foot, or square feet.

Sq. in. Square inch, or inches.

Sq. m. Square mile, or miles.

Sq. yd. Square yard.

Sr. Senior.

S. R. I. Sacrum Romanum Impe-
rium. Holy Roman Empire.

S, R. S. Societatis Regies Socius,
Fellow of the Royal Society.

S. S. Sunday-school.

SS. Saints.

SS., or ss. Scilicet, to wit.

Ss. Semis, half ; Ses sions.



S.-S.-E. South-south-east.

S.-S.-W. South-south-west.

St. Saint; Street; Strait.

Stat. Statute.

S. T. B. Bachelor of Sacred Theol-
ogy.

S. T. D. Sacrce Theologies Doctor,
Doctor of Divinity.

Ster., or Stg. Sterling.

S. T. P. Sacrce Theologies Profess-
or, Professor of Divinity.

Str. Steamer.

S ub j. S ub j uncti ve.

Subst. Substantive.

Sun., or Sund. Sunday.

Sup. Supreme.

Sup. Supplement ; Superfine.

Supt. Superintendent.

Surg. Surgeon ; Surgery.

Surg.-Gen. Surgeon-General.

Surv. Surveyor.

Surv.-Gen. Surveyor-General.

S. v. Sub verbo, under the word or
title.

S.-W. South-west

Sw. Swiss.

Swe. Sweden ; Swedish ; Sweden-
borg ; Swedenborgian.

Switz. Switzerland.

Syn. Synonym ; Synonymous.

Syr. Syriac.

T., or torn. Tome, volume.

Tab. Table; Tabular.

Tan. Tangent.

T. E. Topographical Engineers.

Tenn. Tennessee.

Ter. Territory.

Tex. Texas.

Text. Rec. Textus Receptus, Received
Text.

Tf. Till forbid.

Th., or Thurs. Thursday.

Theo. Theodore.

Theol. Theology ; Theological.

Theoph. Theophilus.

Thess. Thessalonians.

Tho'. Though.

Thos. Thomas.

Thro'. Through.

Tim. Timothy.

Tit. Titus.

T. O. Turn over.

Tob. Tobit.

Topog. Topography ; Topographical.

Tp. Township.

Tr. Transpose ; Translator ; Trans-
lation ; Trustee.

T r a n s. Translator ; Translation J
Transactions ; Transpose.

Treas. Treasurer.



Abbreviations

Trin. Trinity.
Tues., or Tu. Tuesday.
T. S. Twin screw.
Tr. S. Triple screw.
Tur. Turkey.
Hyp. Typographer.

U. Union.

U. B. United Brethren.

U. C. Upper Canada.

U. C. Vrbe condita, year of Rome.

U. J. C. Utriusque Juris Doctor,
Doctor of both Laws.

U. K. United Kingdom.

U. K. A. Ulster King-at-Arms.

Ult Ultimo, last ; of the last month.

Unit. Unitarian.

Univ. University.

Univt. Universalist

U. P. United Presbyterian.

U. S. United States.

U. s. Ut supra, or uti supra, as
above.

U. S. A. United States Army.

U. S. A. United States of America.

U. S. M. United States Mail.

U. S. M. United States Marines.

U. S. M. A. United States Military
Acad.

U. S. M. C. United States Marine
Corps.

U. S. M. H. S. United States Ma-
rine Hospital Service.

U. S. N. United States Navy.

U. S. N. A. United States Naval
Acad.

U. S. S. United States Senate.

Ut Utah.

V. Village.

V., or vid. Vide, see.

V. Violin.

Vt Vermont.

V., or vs. Versus, against ; Versicu-
lo, in such a verse.

Va. Virginia.

Val. Value.

Vat. Vatican.

V. C. Victoria Cross ; Vice-Chair-
man ; Vice-Chancellor.

V. D. L. Van piemen's Land.

V. D. M. Verbi Dei Minister, Minis-
ter of God's word.

Ven. Venerable.

Ver. Verse.

V. Q, Vicar General.

V. g. Verbi gratia, as for example.

Vice-Pres., or V. P Vice-President.

Vise. Viscount.

Viz., or vL Videltcet, *o wit ; name-
ly; that is to say.



Abbreviation*

Vo. Verso, left-hand page.
Vol. Volume.

V. R. Victoria Regina, Queen Vic-
toria.

V. S. Veterinary Surgeon.
Vul. Vulgate \. Version ) .

W. West

Wash. Washington.

W. B. M. Woman's Board of Mis-
sions.

W. C. A. Woman's Christian Asso-
ciation.

W. C. T. U. Women s Christian
Temperance Union.

Wed. Wednesday.

Wf. Wrong font.

W. F. M. S. Woman's Foreign Mis-
sionary Society.

W. H. M. A. Woman's Home Mis-
sionary Association.

W. I. West Indies.

Wis. Wisconsin.

Wisd. Wisdom (Book of).

Wk. Week.

W. M. Worshipful Master.

Wm. William.

W. M. S. Wesleyan Missionary So-
ciety.

W. N. C. T. U. Woman's National
Christian Temperance Union.

W.-N.-W. West-north-west.

W.-S.-W. West-south-west.

W T t Weight.

Wyo. Wyoming.

W. Va. West Virginia.

X., or Xt Christ.
Xmas., or Xm. Christmas.
Xn., or Xtian. Christian.
Xnty., or Xty. Christianity.
Xper., or Xr. Christopher.

Yd. Yard.

Ym. Them.

Y. M. C. A. Young Men's Christian
Association.

Y. M. C. U. Young Men's Christian
Union.

Yn. Then.

Yr. Year.

Yrs. Years; Yours-

Y. W. C. A.^- Young Women's Chris-
tian Association.

Zach. Zachary.
Zech. Zechariah.
Zeph. Zephaniah.
Zool. Zoology.

&. And.



A. B. C. Mediators



Abdul-Medjid



A. B. C. Mediators, the diplo-
matic representatives in the United
States of Argentina, Bolivia, and
Chile, who, under an offer of friendly
offices by their respective governments,
attempted a settlement of the contro-
versies between the United States and
Mexico. Several conferences were
held at Niagara Falls and Washing-
ton in 1914-15, and a plan was draft-
ed for the restoration of order in Mex-
ico, but no practical results followed.

Abdallah-Ibn-Yarim, Moham-
medan conqueror of Spain, known as
"Theologian." He died 1058.

Abd-el-Kader, very renowned by
the persevering courage with which he
opposed the aggressions of the French
against his country, born in Oran in
1807. He preached a holy war against
the French occupation of Algiers, and
called upon the faithful to rise and
expel the infidels. For a period of 15
years he contrived to defend his coun-
try, and fight against the encroach-
ments of France ; but in 1847 he was
compelled to surrender himself a pris-
oner. He died May 26, 1883.

Abd-er-Rahman I., a Caliph of
Cordova, born in Damascus in 731.
He founded a Moorish dynasty in
Spain, made Cordova his capital and
became an independent sovereign. The
mosque at Cordova (now used as a
cathedral), ornamented with rows of
cupolas, supported by 850 pillars of jas-
per, was built by him. He died in 787.

Abdication, Royal, a resignation
of sovereign power, forced or volun-
tary. Noted modern instances include
Napoleon in 1814 and 1815; Charles
X., of France, in 1830; Louis Phi-
lippe, in 1848 ; Alexander of Bulgaria,
in 1886; King Milan of Servia, in
1889; William of Wied, Mpret (Em-
peror) of Albania, in 1914 ; and Czar
Nicholas of Russia and King Constan-
tine of Greece, both in 1917. King
Manoel of Portugal was dethroned by
a revolution in 1910.

Abd-nl-Aziz, the 323 Sultan of
the Ottoman Turks, was born Feb. 9,
1830, and succeeded his brother, Abd-
ul-Medjid, in 1861. His government
had great difficulties to contend with
in the Cretan insurrection, the strug-
gle of Rumania and Servia for full
autonomy, and finally the outbreak of
Mohammedan fanaticism. In 1871 the



Sultan strove to get the succession
settled upon his son, instead of his
nephew Murad, in accordance with
Turkish custom. At last a conspiracy
forced him to abdicate the throne,
May 30, 1876. Four days later, the
unhappy Sultan was found dead, it is
almost certain by foul play.

Abdul-Hamid II., 34th Sultan
of Turkey, born Sept. 22, 1842, the
second son of Sultan Abdul-ul-Medjid ;
succeeded to the throne in 1876, on
the deposition of his brother, Murad
V. Defeated in the war of 1877-1878
with Russia, he was compelled by the
Treaty of Berlin to surrender a small
portion of territory in Europe and
Asia, to recognize the independence of
the vassal States in Europe, and to
acknowledge Bulgaria as a tributary
principality. In 1895-1896, during the
massacres of the Armenians, he took
an active part in the negotiations
with the European powers. In 1897,
Greece forced war on Turkey in be-
half of the Cretans, and in 1898, after
another uprising in Crete, Great
Britain and Russia forced Turkey to
evacuate the island. A constitution
granted Turkey in 1876, before his
accession, was quickly suppressed by
him, and he ruled despotically until

1908, when he was forced to restore
it by a revolutionary party known as
the Young Turks. A legislative as-
sembly was elected and a large meas-
ure of liberty granted, but in April,

1909, a reactionary movement at Con-
stantinople led to the occupation of the
city by troops favoring the Young
Turks party, and the deposition and
exile to Salonica of the Sultan. He was
succeeded by his brother, Mohammed-
Reshad, under the title of Mohammed
V. At the outbreak of the war of the
Balkan States against Turkey, in 1912,
Abdul-Hamid was removed to Con-
stantinople, through fear that Russia
might restore him to the throne dur-
ing the excitement of the war.

Abdul-Medjid, a Sultan of Tur-
key, born April 23, 1822 ; succeeded to
the throne July 1, 1839, at the early
age of 17. The great event of his
reign was the Crimean War, in which
France and England allied themselves
with Turkey against the encroach-
ments of Russia, and which was ter-
minated by the fall of Sehastopol af-
ter a long siege, in 1856. He was sue-



Abdurrahman Klian

ceeded by his brother, Abdul Azia
Khan. He died June 25, 1861.

Abdurrahman Khan, Ameer of
'Afghanistan; born in Kabul in 1844;
was the eldest son of Ufzul Khan, and
nephew of the Ameer Shere Ali. In
July of 1880 he was formally chosen
by the leading men of Kabul and ac-
knowledged by the British Indian Gov-
ernment as Ameer of Afghanistan.
From the British Indian Government
he received a subsidy of $800,000 a
year, with large gifts of artillery, ri-
fles, and ammunition to improve his
military force. In March, 1900, he
declared his sympathy with England.
He died in Kabul, Oct. 3, 1901.

Abel, the second son of Adam and
brother of Cain. The latter was a
tiller of the ground ; Abel a shepherd.
Both brought their offerings before
the Lord; Cain, the first-fruits of the
ground ; Abel, the firstlings of the
fiock. God accepted the offering of
Abel ; the offering of Cain he rejected.
The latter, instigated by envy, mur-
dered his brother in the field.

Abel, Sir Frederick Augustus,
an English chemist, born in London
in 1827. Was president of the Brit-
ish Association in 1890. Died London,
Sept. 8, 1902.

Abel, Niels Henrik, a Norwe-
gian mathematician, born at Findo,
Aug. 5, 1802. He became a lecturer
at the University of Christiania, and
the school of engineering there. His
works deal mainly with the theory of
elliptical functions, which his discov-
eries greatly enriched. He died young,
April 6, 1829.

Abelard, (or Abailard), Pierre,
a monk of the order of St. Benedict,
equally famous for his learning and
his passion for Heloise; born in 1079,
near Nantes, in the little village of
Pallet, which was the property of his
father Berenger. His inclination led
him to prefer a literary life ; and in
order to devote himself fully to philos-
ophy he ceded his patrimony to his
brothers. He studied poetry, rhetoric,
philosophy, jurisprudence, and theol-
ogy, the Greek, Hebrew, and Latin
languages ; but scholastic philosophy
chiefly engaged his attention. Having
learned all that Brittany could teach
him, he went to Paris, the university
of which attracted students from all
parts of Europe^ Guillaume de Cham-



___ Abelard

peaux, a follower of Anselm and an
extreme Realist, was the most skillful
disputant of his time, and Abelard,
profiting by his instructions, was often
victorious over his master in contests
of wit and logical acumen. The
friendship of Qhampeaux was soon
succeeded by enmity ; and Abelard,
who had not yet completed his 22d
year, removed to Melun, whither he
was soon followed by a multitude of
young men, attracted from Paris by
his great reputation. Hostility still
pursued him, but he left Melun for
Corbeil, nearer the capital, where he
was still more admired and persecuted.
Soon after he ceased teaching to re-
cruit his strength ; and after two
years returned to Paris, and found
that his former teacher had removed
to a monastery outside the city.

He again joined issue with him and
gained so complete a triumph that he
opened in Paris a school of rhetoric,
the fame of which soon deprived all
the others of their pupils. Shortly
afterward he was appointed to his ri-
val's chair in the cathedral school of
Notre Dame, where he educated many
distinguished scholars, among whom
were the future Pope Celestin II., Pe-
ter of Lombardy, Bishop of Paris, Be-
renger, Bishop of Poictiers, and St.
Bernard.

At this time there resided close to
Notre Dame a young lady, by name
Heloise, niece of the canon Fulbert,
then of the age of 17, and remarkable
for her beauty, genius, and varied ac-
complishments. Abelard became in-
spired with such violent love for He-
loise as to forget his duty, his lectures,
and his fame. Heloise was no less
susceptible. Under the pretext of fin-
ishing her education, he obtained Ful-
bert's permission to visit her, and
finally became resident in his house.
His conduct in abusing the confidence
which had been placed in him opened
the eyes of Fulbert. He separated the
lovers, but too late. Abelard fled with
her to Brittany, where she was de-
livered of a son, who died early. Abe-
lard now resolved to marry her secret-
ly. Fulbert gave his consent, the mar-
riage was performed, and in order to
keep it secret Heloise remained with
her uncle, while Abelard retained his
former lodgings, and continued his
lectures. Abelard, however, carried



Ibercrombie



Ab er crombie



her off a second time, and placed her
in the convent of Argenteuil.

Fulbert erroneously believed it was
intended to force her to take the veil,
and under the influence of rage sub-
jected Abelard to mutilation. He be-
came, in consequence, a monk in the
abbey of St. Denis, and Heloise took
the veil at Argenteuil. After time had
somewhat moderated his grief he re-
sumed teaching. At the Council of
Soissons (1121), no defense being per-
mitted him, his " Essay on the Trin-
ity " was declared heretical, and he
was condemned to burn it with his
own hands. Continued persecutions
obliged him at last to leave the abbey
of St. Denis and to retire to a place
near Nogent-sur-Seine, where he built
a rude hut in which he determined to
live a hermit's life. Even here, how-
ever, students flocked to him, and they
built him an oratory, which he dedi-
cated to the Holy Ghost and hence



Online LibraryGeorge Jotham HagarThe New world encyclopedia; a library of reference (Volume 1) → online text (page 3 of 91)