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passage of Forts St. Philip and Jack-
son, and led the fleet at the capture of
the Chalmette batteries and the city of
New Orleans. In 1862-1865 he com-
manded the East Gulf Blockading
Squadron. He was commissioned
Rear-Admiral and retired in 1866.
! He died in Washington, D. C., Feb. 10,

Bailey, Vernon, an American
scientist, born in Manchester, Mich.,
June 21, 1863; received a university
education ; and became chief field
naturalist of the United States Bio-
logical Survey.

Bailey, William Whitman, an
American botanist, born in West
Point, N. Y., Feb. 22, 1843. He was
educated at Brown and Harvard, hav-
ing been a pupil of Prof. Asa Gray.
In 1867 he was botanist of the United
States Geological Survey of the 40th

Earallel; in 1867-1869 assistant li-
rarian of the Providence Athenaeum.
He was Professor of Botany at Brown
University in 1881-1906. He died
Feb. 20, 1914.

Bailiff, essentially a person in-
trusted by a superior with power of
superintendence. In the United States
the word bailiff has no precise mean-



ing. The term is most frequently
used to denote a court officer whose
duty it is to take charge of juries and
wait upon the court.

Baillie, Joanna, a Scotch author ;
born in Bothwell, near Glasgow, Sept..
11, 1762 ; died Feb. 23, 1851.

Baillie, Robert, the " Scottish
Sidney," was a native of Lanarkshire,
who first came into notice in 1676
through his rescue of a brother-in-law,
the Rev. Mr. Kirkton, from the
clutches of Archbishop Sharp's prin-
cipal informer. In 1683 he took a
prominent part in a scheme of emi-
gration to South Carolina, as he saw
no other refuge 7 from the degrading
tyranny of the government. Accused
of conspiring against the King's life,
and of hostility to monarchical gov-
ernment, he was tried at Edinburgh
and condemned to death upon evidence
at once insignificant and illegal. The
sentence was carried into execution-
on the very day that it was passed,
Dec. 24, 1684.

Bailly, Jean Sylvain, a French
astronomer and statesman, born in
Paris, Sept. 15, 1736. The Revolu-
tion drew him into public life. As
mayor of Paris his moderation and im-
partial enforcement of the law failed
to commend themselves to the people,
and his forcible suppression of mob
violence, July 17, 1791, aroused a
storm which led to his resignation.
He was condemned by the Revolu-
tionary Tribunal, and executed on
Nov. 12, 1793.

Bailment, " a delivery of a thing
in trust for some special object or
purpose, and upon a contract, express
or implied, to conform to the object
or purpose of the trust." (Story, on
" Bailment.") The party who deliv-
ers the thing bailed to another is call-
ed the bailor; the one receiving it is
called bailee. Various degrees of dili-
gence are required of the bailee, ac-
cording to the nature of the bailment.

Baily, Edward Hodges, an Eng-
lish sculptor, born at Bristol in 1788.
He died in London in 1867.

Bain, Alexander, a Scotch writer
on mental philosophy and education,
born in Aberdeen in 1818. His most
important works are " The Senses and
the Intellect" (1855); "The Emo-
tions and the Will" (1859), together

forming a complete exposition of the
human mind. He died Sept., 1903.

Bain, Alexander, a Scotch elec-
trician, born in Watten, Caithness, in
1810; went to London and began a
series of electrical experiments in
1837 ; invented electric fire alarm and
sounding apparatus, and the auto-
matic chemical telegraph by which
high speed telegraphy was for the first
time possible. He died in 1877.

Bainbridge, 'William, an Amer-
ican naval officer, born in Princeton,
N. J., May 7, 1774 ; became a Captain
in 1800 ; and commanded the frigate
" Philadelphia " in the war against
Tripoli. In 1812 he was given com-
mand of a squadron including the
" Constitution," " Essex," and " Hor-
net." With the " Constitution " as
his fiagship, he conquered, in Decem-
ber of that year, the British frigate
" Java," carrying 49 guns. Later he
commanded a squadron in the Medi-
terranean, and was afterward station-
ed at various American coast cities.
He died in Philadelphia, July 28, 1833.

Bairaktar (more correctly Bai-
rak-dar), signifying "standard bear-
er," the title of the energetic Grand
Vizier Mustapha. Born in 1755, of
poor parents, he entered the military
service at an early age, and rose to
high command. He deposed the Sul-
tan Mustapha IV., and when the
Janissaries revolted, demanding Mus-
tapha's restoration, and besieged the
seraglio, Bairaktar defended himself
bravely. When he saw that the flames
threatened to destroy the palace, and
that he was in danger of falling alive
into his enemies' hands, he strangled
Mustapha, threw his head to the be-
siegers, and. then blew himself up.

Bairam, the name of the only
two festivals annually celebrated by
the Turks and other Mohammedan
nations. The first closes the fast of
the month Ramadhan or Ramazan.
The second commemorates Abraham's
offering of Isaac.

Baird, Absalom, an American
military officer, born in Washington,
Pa., Aug. 20, 1824; was graduated at
the United States Military Academy
and assigned to the artillery in > 1849.
He became Captain and Major in the
regular army in 1861, and in the vol-
unteer army was commissioned a


Brigadier-General, April 28, 1862, and
brevetted Major-General, September
1864, for his conduct in the Atlanta
campaign. On March 13, 1865, he
was brevetted Major-General, United
States army, for his meritorious ser-
vices in the field during the war. In
1885, he was promoted Brigadier-
General and Inspector-General, Unit-
ed States army, and in 1888 was re-
tired. He died July 14, 1905.

Baird, Charles 'Washington, an
American historian and religious
writer, son of Robert Baird : born at
Princeton, N. J., Aug. 28, 1828; died
in Rye, N. Y., Feb. 10, 1881.

Baird, Henry Carey, an Ameri-
can political economist, nephew of
Henry C. Carey, bora in Bridesburg,
Pa., in 1825. He was a publisher at
Philadelphia. A strong protectionist,
his economical views generally were
similar to those of his distinguished
uncle, and made public in numerous
pamphlets. He died Dec. 31, 1912.

Baird, Henry Martyn, an Amer-
ican author and educator, born in
Philadelphia, Pa., 1832; died 1906.

Baird, Robert, an American his-
torian, born in Fayette county, Pa.,
Oct. 6, 1798; died at Yonkers, N. Y.,
March 15, 1863.

Baird, Spencer Fullerton, a
distinguished American naturalist,
born at Reading, Pa., Feb. 3, 1823.
His writings cover nearly every branch
of natural history. He died at Wood's
Holl, Mass., Aug. 19, 1887.

Bairenth, or Bayrenth, a city
and capital of the Bavarian province
of Upper Franconia, 43 miles N. N.
E. of Nuremberg by rail. A mag-
nificent National theater for the per-
formance of Wagner's music, finished
in 1875, was in the following year
opened with a grand representation of
his Nibelungen trilogy. On Feb. 14,
1883, the great master (who died in
Venice) was buried in the garden of
his villa here.

Baize, a sort of coarse woolen fab-
ric with a rough nap, now generally
used for linings, and mostly green or
red in color.

Bajazet, or Bayazeed, I., an Ot-
toman Sultan, born 1347, succeeded
his father, Amurath I., in 1389. He
was the first of his family who as-
sumed the title of Sultan. After de-


feating Hungarians, Germans, and
French ac Nicopoli, on the Danube,
Sept. 28, 1396, Bajazet is said to
have boasted that he would feed
his horse on the altar of St. Peter
at Rome. His progress, however,
was arrested by a violent attack
of the gout. Bajazet was prepar-
ing for an attack on Constantinople,
when he was interrupted by the ap-
proach of Timur the Great, by whom
he was defeated at Angora, in Ana-
tolio, July 28, 1402. He was taken
captive, and died about nine months
afterward, at Antioch in Pisidia. He
was succeeded by Mohammed I. Mod-
ern writers reject as a fiction the story
of the iron cage in which Bajazet was
said to have been imprisoned.

Baker, Sir Benjamin, an Eng-
lish engineer, born near Bath, in 1840.
In 1877 he superintended the removal
of Cleopatra's Needle from Egypt to
London. In conjunction with Sir
John Fowler he drew the plans for
the great bridge over the Firth of
Forth. He died May 19, 1907.

Baker, Benjamin W., an Amer-
ican educator, born in Coles county,
111., Nov. 25, 1841 ; was brought up on
a farm ; served in the Union army
through the Civil War ; was graduated
at the Illinois State Normal Univer-
sity in 1870; became a Methodist
Episcopal clergyman in 1874 ; and was
financial secretary of the Illinois Wes-
leyan University in 1883-1893 ; presi-
dent of Chaddock College in 1893-
1898; of the Missouri Wesleyan Col-
lege in Cameron, in 1898-1906; then
pastor in Florida.

Baker, Edward Dickerson, an
American soldier and politician, born
in London, England, Feb. 24, 1811;
came to the United States in youth.
He was elected to the Illinois Legisla-
ture in 1837, became a State Senator
in 1840, and was sent to Congress in
1844. He served under General Scott
in the war with Mexico and was elect-
ed United States Senator from Oregon
in 1860. He entered the Federal army
at the outbreak of the Civil War, and
was killed at the battle of Ball's Bluff,
Oct. 21, 1861.

Baker, Frank, an American zool-
ogist ; was graduated in the medical
department of Columbian University
in 1880 : was Professor or Anatomy in
the University ot Georgetown ; and



became superintendent of the National
Zoological Park, in Washington. D. C.,
in 1900.

Baker, Harriette Newell
(Woods) (pseudonyms " Madeline
Leslie" and "Aunt Hatty"), an
American writer of juvenile stories,
born in 1815. She was a daughter of
Rev. Leonard Woods and wife of Rev.
Abijah R. Baker; died in 1893.

Baker, John Gilbert, an English
botanist, born in Guisbrough, York-
shire, Jan. 13, 1834; was appointed
assistant curator at the herbarium at
Kew in 1866. His voluminous writ-
ings include works on the flora of dis-
tricts so diverse as the North of Eng-
land, Madagascar, and Brazil.

Baker, Lafayette C., an Ameri-
can detective, born in Stafford, N. Y.,
Oct. 13, 1826 ; was chief of the Secret
Service Bureau during the Civil War ;
and reached the military rank of Brig-
adier-General. He superintended the
EursuSt of Wilkes Booth, President
incoln's assassin. He died at Phila-
delphia, Pa., July 2, 1868.

Baker, Marcus, an American
cartographer, born in Kalamazoo,
Mich., Sept 23, 1849; was graduated
at the University of Michigan in 1870 ;
became connected with the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, in
1873, and with the United States Geo-
logical Survey, in 1886; and was
made secretary of the United States
Board on Geographic Names. He was
cartographer to the Venezuela Bound-
ary Commission, and after spending
many years surveying and exploring
prepared, with William H. Dall, the
"Alaska Coast Pilot." He died Dec.
12, 1903.

Baker, Newton. Diekl, an Amer-
ican lawyer ; born in Martinsburg, W.
Va., Dec. 3, 1871 ; was private secre-
tary to Postmaster-General Wilson in
1896-7; began law practice in 1897;
was city solicitor of Cleveland, O., in
1902-12 ; mayor of that city in 1912-
14 and 1914-16 ; and was appointed
Secretary of War March 7, 1916. He
was recognized for many years as a
leader of the Ohio bar and of the mu-
nicipal reform movement in Cleveland.

Baker, Sir Samuel White, a
distinguished English traveler ; born
in London, June 8, 1821. He was
trained as an engineer, and at the age

! of 24 he went to Ceylon, where he

I founded an agricultural settlement at
Nuwara Eliya in 1847. In the early

! part of 1861, accompanied by his (sec-
ond) wife, he set out for Africa on a
journey of exploration. When he had

; ascended the Nile as far as Gondokoro
he met Speke and Grant returning
after their discovery of the Victoria
Nyanza lake, and learned from them
that another large lake in the district
had been spoken of by the natives.
This lake he determined to discover,
and after many adventures he and his
wife beheld the Albert Nyanza from a
height on March 14, 1864. On his re-
turn home he was received with great
honor and was knighted. In 1869 he
returned to Africa as head of an ex-
pedition sent by the Khedive of Egypt
to suppress the slave trade and to an-
nex and open up to trade a large part
of the newly explored country, being
raised to the dignity of pasha. He re-
turned home in 1873, having finished
his work, and was succeeded by the
celebrated Gordon. In 1879 he explor-
ed the island of Cyprus, and subse-
quently he traveled in Asia and
America. He died Dec. 30, 1893.

Baker, William Bliss, an Amer-
ican artist, born in New York in
1859, and is especially noted for his
landscapes. He died in Ballston, N.
Y., in 1889.

Baker, Mount, an occasionally
active volcano in Whatcom county,
Wash., belonging to the Cascade Range ;
very active in 1880; height 10,827 ft.
Baker's Dozen, a familiar phrase
said to have originated in an old cus-
tom of bakers who, when a heavy pen-
alty was inflicted for short weight,
used to give a surplus to avoid all
risk of incurring a fine.

Baking Powder, a mixture of bi-
carbonate of soda and tartaric acid,
usually with some flour added. The
water of the dou?h causes the libera-
tion of carbonic acid, which makes the
bread ' rise.'

Bakony Wald, a thickly-wooded
mountain range dividing the Hunga-
rian plains, famous for the herds of
swine fed on its mast.

Bakshish, an Eastern term for a
present or gratuity. A demand for
bakshish meets travellers in the East
i everywhere from Egypt to India.



Baku, a Russian port on the W.
shore of the Caspian, occupying part
of the peninsula of Apsheron, and a
noted centre of oil production. Some
of the wells have had such an
outflow of oil as to be unmanageable,
and the Baku petroleum now com-
petes successfully with r.ny other in
the markets of the world. Baku is
the station of the Caspian fleet, is
strongly fortified, and has a large
shipping trade. Pop. (1913) 232,200.

Bakuniu, Michael, a Russian
anarchist, the founder of Nihilism,
born in 1814 of rich and noble family.
Wherever he went, he was influential
for disturbance, and after undergoing
imprisonment in various States, wan
handed over to Russia, in 1851, by
Austria, imprisoned for five year^, and
finally set to Siberia. Escaping thence
through Japan, he joined Herzen in
London, on the staff of the " Kolo-
kol." His extreme views, however,
ruined the paper and led to a quarrel
with Marx and the International ; and
having fallen into disrepute with his
own party in Russia, he died suddenly
and almost alone at Berne, in 1878.
He demanded the entire abolition of
the State as a State, the absolute
equalization of individuals, and the
extirpation of hereditary rights and
of religion, his conception of the next
stage of social progress being purely
negative and annihilatory.

Balaam, a heathen seer, invited
by Balak, King of Moab, to curse the
Israelites, but compelled by miracle to
bless them instead (Num. xxii-xxiv).

Balaena, the genus which includes
the Greenland, or right whale, type of
the family balaenidse, or whale-bone

Balseniceps, a genus of wading
birds, belonging to the Sudan, inter-
mediate between the herons and storks,
and characterized by an enormous bill,
broad and swollen, giving the only
known species (also called shoe-bird)
a peculiar appearance.

Balsenidse, the true whales, the
most typical family of the order ceta-
cea and the suborder cete. They are
known by the absence of teeth and the
presence in their stead of a horny sub-
stance called whale-bone, or baleen.

Balaenoptera, fin-back whales. A
genus of balaenidse, characterized by

the possession of a soft, dorsal fin, and
by the shortness of the plates of ba-
leen. Balaenoptera boops is the north"
ern rorqual, or fin-fish, called by sail-
ors the finner. It is the largest of
known animals, sometimes reaching
100 feet in length.

Balaklava, a small seaport in the
Crimea, 8 miles S. S. E. Sebasto-
pol. In the Crimean War it was
captured by the British, and a
heroically fought battle took place
here (Oct. 25, 1854), ending in the
repulse of the Russians by the British.
The charge of the Light Brigade was
at this battle.

Balance, an instrument employed
for determining the quantity of any
substance equal to a given weight.

Balance Electrometer, an in-
strument invented by Cuthbertson for
regulating the amount of the charge
of electricity designed to be sent
through any substance.

Balance of Power, a political
principle which first came to be rec-
ognized in modern Europe in the 16th
century, though it appears to have
been also acted on by the Greeks in
ancient times, in preserving the re-
lations between their different States.
The object in maintaining the balance
of power is to secure the general in-
dependence of nations as a whole, by
preventing the aggressive attempts of
individual States to extend their ter-
ritory and sway at the expense of
weaker countries.

Balance of Trade, a term for-
merly used by political economists to
signify an excess of imports over ex-
ports, or of exports over imports in
the foreign trade of a country, which
required to be balanced by an export
or import of the precious metals.
After the outbreak of the great war in
Europe the world's balance of trade
came to the United States because it
was the greatest source of supplies.

Balata, the product of the bullet-
tree its milk or juice, in fact
which is a large forest tree, ranging
from Jamaica and Trinidad to Ven-
ezuela and Guiana. The tree grows
to a height of 120 feet, and has a
large, spreading head. A tree of aver-
age size yields three pints of milk. The
milk is dried in hollow wooden trays.
When it is sufficiently dry it is re-


moved from the trays in strips and
hung up on lines to harden.

Balbo, Count Cacsare, an Ital-
ian author, born at Turin, in 1789.
He is chiefly remarkable from the fact
that his first important work, " Le
Speranze d'ltalia," published in 1844,
may be regarded as having given the
programme of the Moderate Party of
Italian politics, and as having to-
gether with the writings of d'Azeglio,
Durando, and others, created the Lib-
eral Party, in opposition to the Re-
publican Party as represented by Maz-
zini. Balbo was an accomplished
historian and translator. He died
in June, 1853.

Balboa, Vasco Nunez de, a cel-
ebrated Spanish discoverer, born at
Xeres de los Caballeros, in 1475. He
accompanied Rodrigo de Bastidas in
his expedition to the New World, and
first settled in Haiti (or, as it was
then termed, Hispaniola). Though
an adventurer in search of fortune, his
great ambition seems to have been to
extend the boundaries of geographical
knowledge, and especially to be able
to announce to Europe the existence
of. another great ocean. On Sept 1,
1513, he began his perilous enterprise.
Accompanied by a small band of fol-
lowers, he began to tread the almost
impenetrable forests of the Isthmus of
Darien, and, guided by an Indian
chief, named Ponca, clambered up the
rugged gorges of the mountains. At
length, after a toilsome and danger-
pus journey, Balboa and his compan-
ions approached, on Sept. 25, the sum-
mit of the mountain range, when Bal-
boa, leaving his followers at a little
distance behind, and advancing alone
to the W. declivity, was the first to
behold the vast unknown ocean, which
he afterward took solemn possession
of in the name of his sovereign, and
named it the Pacific Ocean, from the
apparent quietude of its waters. Sur-
rounded by his followers, he walked
into it, carrying in bis right hand
a naked sword, and in his left the
banner of Castile, and declared the
sea of the South, and all the regions
whose shores it bathed, to belong to
the crown of Castile and Leon. Dur-
ing his absence, however, a new gov-
ernor had been appointed to super-
sede Balboa in Haiti ; where, on his
return, jealousy and dissensions


springing up between them, Balboa,
accused of a design to rebel, was be-
headed in 1517, in violation of all
forms of justice.

Balcony, a gallery or projecting
framework of wood, iron or stone,
in front of a house, generally on a
level with the lower part of the win-
dows in one or more floors.

Baldachin, a structure in form
of a canopy, supported by columns,
and often used as a covering for in-
sulated altars.

Bald Mountain, the name of
several eminences in the United
States, of which the following are
the principal: (1) In Colorado,
height, 11,493 feet; (2) in Califor-
nia, height, 8,295 feet; (3) in Utah,
height, 11,976 feet; (4) in Wyom-
ing, in the Wind River Range, height,
10,760 feet; and, (5) in North Car-
olina, height 5,550 feet. The last
one was the cause of much excite-
ment in May, 1878, because of inexpli-
cable rumblings which lasted for about
two weeks. The mountain shook as
if in the throes of an earthquake,
immense trees and rocks were hurled
down its sides, and, for a time, fears
were entertained lest a volcanic erup-
tion should follow. A subsequent ex-
amination showed that a large sec-
tion of the mountain had been split
asunder, but no further disturbance

Baldness, an absence of hair on
the head. Congenital baldness (com-
plete absence of hair at birth) is
sometimes met with ; but, in most
cases, is only temporary, and gives
place, in a few years, to a natur-
al growth of hair. Occasionally, how-
ever, it persists through life. Senile
baldness (calvities) is one of the most
familiar signs of old age. It com-
mences in a small area at the crown,
where the natural hair is first re-
placed by down before the skin be-
comes smooth and shining. From
this area the process extends in all
directions. It is more common in
men than women. A precisely simi-
lar condition occurs not unfrequently
at an earlier age (presenile baldness).
It is generally due to hereditary ten-
dency ; but is favored by keeping the
head closely covered, especially with
a waterproof cap. The best author-


ities agree that this form of bald-
ness is incurable.

Great loss of hair frequently fol-
lows severe illnesses or other causes
which produce general debility. As
health returns, the hair usually re-
turns with it.

Baldric, a broad belt formerly
worn over the right or left shoulder
diagonally across the body, often high-
ly decorated and enriched with gems,
and used not only to sustain the
sword, dagger, or horn, but also for
purposes of ornament, and as a mili-
tary or heraldic symbol. The fashion
appears to have reached its height in
the 15th century. In the United
States it now forms a part of the
uniform of Knights Templar and oth-
er fraternal organizations.

Baldwin, the name of a long line
of sovereign Counts of Flanders, of
whom the most celebrated was Bald-
win IX., who became, afterward, Em-
peror of Constantinople, under the
name of Baldwin I.

Baldwin II., the last Frank Em-
peror of Constantinople, born in 1217.
He was the son of Pierre de Courte-
nay, and succeeded his brother Robert
in 1228. Driven from his throne he
died in obscurity in 1273.

Baldwin, Charles H., an Amer-
ican naval officer, born in New York
city, Sept. 3, 1822. He entered the
navy as a midshipman, in 1839. Serv-
ing on the frigate " Congress " during
the war with Mexico, he figured in
several sharp encounters near Mazat-
lan. He commanded the steamer "Clif-
ton " at the passage of Forts Jackson
and St. Philip, and at the first attack
on Vicksburg. He became Rear-Ad-
miral in 1883, receiving the command
of the Mediterranean Squadron. He
died in New York city, Nov. 17, 1888.

Baldwin, Frank Dwight, a U. S.
military officer; born in Michigan,
June 26, 1842; entered the volunteer
army in 1861 and the regular army in
1866 ; became colonel of the 4th United
States Infantry, July 26, 190! ; and
was promoted Brigadier-General, U. S
A., June 9, 1902. He was awarded a
Congressional medal of honor for ser-
vice at the battle of Pine Tree Greet
Ga., July 20, 1864, and another for
gallantry in an action against Indians
in Texas. He greatly distinguished


himself in the Philippines, in the early
part of 1902.

Baldwin, James Mark, an Amer-
ican psychologist, born in Columbia,
S. C., Jan. 12, 1861; educated at
Princeton College, Leipsic, Berlin, and
Tubingen Universities; President of
the American Psychological Associa-
tion in 1897-1898.

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