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who, in 1625, raised him to the Irish
peerage, his title being from Balti-
more, a fishing village of Cork. He
had previously obtained a grant of
land in Newfoundland, but, as this
colony was much exposed to the at-
tacks of the French, he left it, and ob-
tained another patent for Maryland.
He died (1632) before the charter was
completed, and it was granted to his
son, Cecil, who deputed the governor-
ship to his brother, Leonard.

Baluchistan, a country in Asia,
the coast of which is continuous with
the N. W. seaboard of India, bounded
on the N. by Afghanistan, on the W.
by Persia, on the S. by the Arabian
Sea, and on the E. by Sind. It has



an area of about 134,630 square miles,
and a population (1911) of 834,703.
In 1910 it was divided into (1) Brit-
ish and administered territory ; (2)
native States of Kalat and Las Bela ;
(3) and the Marri and Bugti tribal
areas. The British province had an
area of 54,228 square miles and pop.
of 414,412, and the native States
an area of 80,410 square miles and a
pop. of 420,291.

Balustrade, a range of balusters,
together with the cornice or coping
which they support, used as a parapet
for bridges or the roofs of buildings,
or as a mere termination to a struc-




BALUSTBADE.

ture; also serving as a fence or in-
closure for altars, balconies, terraces,
staircases, etc.

Balzac, Honore de, a French au-
thor, born at Tours, May 20, 1799;
died in Paris, August, 1850. From
1819 to 1830 he led a life of frequent
privation and incessant industry, pro-
ducing stories which neither found nor
deserved to find readers, and incurring
mainly through unlucky business
speculations a heavy burden of debt,
which harassed him to the end of his
career. He first tasted success in Ids
30th year on the publication of "The
Last of the Chouans," which was soon
afterward followed by "The Magic
Skin," a marvellous interweaving of
the supernatural into modern life, and
the earliest of his great works. After
writing several other novels, he formed
the design of presenting in the "Hu-
man Comedy" a complete picture of
modern civilization. All ranks, pro-
fessions, arts, trades, all phases of
manners in town and country, were to



Bambarra

be represented in bis imaginary sys-
tem of things. In attempting to carry
out this impossible design, he produced
what is almost in itself a literature.
His work did not bring him wealth ;
his yearly income, even when he was
at the height of bis fame, is said to
have rarely exceeded 12,000 francs.
In 1849, when his health had brok-
en ^ down, he traveled to Poland to
visit Madame Hanska, a rich Polish
lady, with whom he had corresponded
for more than 15 years. In 1850 she
became his wife, and three months
after the marriage, in August of the
same year, Balzac died at Paris.

Bambarra, one of the Sudan
States of Western Africa. The in-
habitants, a branch of the Mandigoes,
number about 2,000,000, and are su-
perior to their neighbors in intelli-
gence. The country is within the
French sphere.

Bamberger, Heinrich von, an
Austrian pathologist, born in Prague
in 1822 ; was graduated in medicine in
1847; became Professor of Special
Pathology and Therapeutics, first ir
the University of Wiirzburg, and, in
1872, in the University of Vienna. He
died in 1888.

Bambino, the figure of our Sa-
viour represented as an infant in
swaddling clothes. The " Santissimo
Bambino " in the Church of Ara Cceli
at Rome, a richly decorated figure
carved in wood, is believed to have a
miraculous virtue in curing diseases.

Bamboo, a giant grass some-
times reaching the height of 40 or
more feet, which is found everywhere
in the tropics of the Eastern Hemi-
sphere, and has been introduced into
the West Indies, the Southern States
of America, and various other regions
of the Western world. Bamboo is put
to all sorts of uses. Bows, arrows,
quivers, the shafts of lances, and
other warlike weapons can be made
from the stems of bamboo, as can
ladders, rustic bridges, the masts of
vessels, walking sticks, water pipes,
flutes, and many other objects. The
leaves are everywhere used for weav-
ing and for packing purposes. Finally,
the seeds are eaten by the poorer class-
es in parts of India ; and in the West
Indies the tops of the tender shoots
are pickled.



Bancroft

Ban, Bann, Banne, Bain, or

Bane, a proclamation, public notice,
or edict respecting a person or thing.

I. Military and feudal : A procla-
mation in time of war.

II. Historical. The ban of the em-
pire : A penalty occasionally put in
force under the old German Empire
against a prince who had given some
cause of offense to the supreme au-
thority.

III. Law, etc. Banns (plural) :
The publication of intended marriages,
proclamation that certain parties
named intend to proceed to marriage,
unless any impediment to their union
be proved to exist.

Ban, in Austro-Hungary : (1)
Formerly : A title belonging to the
warden of the Eastern Marshes of
Hungary. (2) Now : The Viceroy of
Temesvar, generally called the Ban of
Croatia. The territory he rules over
is called a banat or banate.

Banana, a fruit originally East
Indian, but much cultivated in warm
countries over the whole globe.

Banana, an island in West Afri-
ca, N. of the mouth of the Kongo;
also a seaport of the Kongo Free
State on_ the island. It has lost com-
mercial importance in recent years.

Banana-Bird, a bird belonging to
the family sturnidse (starlings), and
the sub-family oriolinse, or orioles. It
is tawny and black, with white bars
on the wings. It occurs in the West
Indies and the warmer parts of Con-
tinental America.

Banat, a large and fertile region
in Hungary, consisting of the coun-
ties of Temesvar, Torontal and Kris-
so; principal town, Temesvar. The
region originally belonged to Hun-
gary; was occupied by the Turks in
1652-1716; and was reunited to Hun-
gary in 1779. The population ex-
seeds 1,500,000.

Banca, an island belonging to the
Dutch East Indies, between Sumatra
and Borneo, 130 miles long, with a
width varying from 10 to 30; pop.
80,921, a considerable proportion be-
ing Chinese. II is celebrated for its
excellent tin, of which the annual yield
is above 4,000 tons.

Bancroft, Aaron, a Unitarian
clergyman, born in Reading, Mass.,
Nov. 10, 1755 ; graduated at Harvard,



Bancroft

in 1778 ; became pastor in Worcester
in 1785, where he remained nearly 50
years. Besides a great number of ser-
mons his works include a " Life of
George Washington" (1807). He
was the father of the historian, George
Bancroft. He died at Worcester,
Mass., Aug. 19, 1839.

Bancroft, George, an American
historian, born near Worcester, Mass.,
Oct. 3, 1800. He was educated at
Harvard and in Germany, where he
made the acquaintance of many liter-
ary men of note. In 1824 he pub-
lished a translation of Heeren's " Poli-
tics of Ancient Greece," and a small
volume of poems, and was also em-
ployed in collecting materials for a
history of the United States. Between
1834 and 1840 three volumes of his
history were published. In 1845 he
was appointed Secretary of the Navy,
and effected many reforms and im-
provements in that department. He
was American Minister to England
from 1846 to 1849, when the Univer-
sity of Oxford conferred on him the
honorary degree of D. C. L. He took
the opportunity, while in Europe, to
perfect his collections on American
history. He returned to New York in
1849, and began to prepare for the
press the fourth and fifth volumes of
his history, which appeared in 1852.
The sixth appeared in 1854, the sev-
enth in 1858, the eighth soon after,
but the ninth did not appear until
1866. From 1867 to 1874 he was
Jlinister Plenipotentiary at the Court
of Berlin. The 10th and last volume
of his great work appeared in 1874.
An additional section appeared, first
as a separate work, in 1882 : " His-
tory of the Formation of the Constitu-
tion of the United States," and the
whole came out in six volumes in
1884-1885. He settled in Washing-
ton on returning from Germany, in
1875, and died there, Jan. 17, 1891.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe, an
American historian, born in Granville,
Ohio, May 5, 1832. In 1852 he went
to California to establish a book busi-
ness, and began to collect documents,
maps, books and MSS. for a complete
" History of the Pacific States " from
Mexico to Alaska. In 1905 he gave
his library of 60,000 volumes and 500
original MSS. to the University of
California.

E. 13.



Band Fish

Bancroft, The, a steel gunboat of
the United States navy ; built express-
ly for a practice ship for the cadets of
the United States Naval Academy;
launched in 1892.

Bandai-San, a volcano in Japan;
140 miles N. of Tokio. Its summit
consists of several peaks, the highest
of which is 6,035 feet above the ocean,
and 4,000 feet above the surrounding
plain. On July 15, 1888, there was a
terrible explosion of steam which
blew out a side of the mountain, mak-
ing a crater more than a mile in width,
and having precipitous walls on three
sides. The debris of broken rock and
dust poured down the slope and over
an area of 27 square miles, killing 461
persons and covering many villages.

Banda Islands, a group belonging
to Holland, Indian Archipelago, S. of
Ceram, Great Banda, the largest, be-
ing 12 miles long by 2 broad. They
are beautiful islands, of volcanic ori-
gin, yielding quantities of nutmeg.
Goenong Api, or Fire Mountain, is a
cone-shaped volcano which rises 2,320
feet above the sea. Pop. about 7,000.

Banda Oriental, a State of South
America, now usually called UBU-

GUAY.

Bandel, Ernst von, a Bavarian
sculptor, born in 1800, at Ansbach ;
studied art at Munich, Nuremberg,
and Rome ; and from 1834 lived chiefly
at Hanover, engaged off and on, for
40 years, on his great monument of
Arminius, near Detmold, 90 feet high,
which was unveiled by the Emperor
Wilhelm on Aug. 16, 1875. He died
near Donauworth, Sept. 25, 1876.

Bandelier, Adolph Francis
Alphonse, a Swiss-American archae-
ologist, born in Berne, Aug. 6, 1840;
settled early in the United States,
where he did important work under
the Archaeological Institute of Amer-
ica. His studies were chiefly among
the Indians of New Mexico and
Arizona, Central America and Mexico.
He published many papers on the sub-
ject. Died March 19, 1914.

Band Fish. The red band fish.
It is about 15 inches long. Its bril-
liant appearance, when seen moving
in the water, has suggested the names
of fire-flame and red ribbon, by which
it is also known. The home of the
genus is in Japanese waters.



Bandicoot

Bandicoot, the largest known spe-
cies of rat, attaining the weight of
two or three pounds, and the length,
including the tail, of 24 to 30 inches.
It is a native of India, and is very
abundant in Ceylon. Its flesh is said
to be delicate and to resemble young
pork, and is a favorite article of diet
with the coolies.

Bandiera, Attilio and Emilio,
two brothers of a Venetian family,
lieutenants in the Austrian navy, who
attempted a rising in favor of Italian
independence in 1843. The attempt
was a failure, and they fled to Corfu ;
but, misled by false information they
ventured to land in Calabria with 20
companions, believing that their ap-
pearance would be the signal for a
general insurrection. One of their
accomplices had betrayed them, and
the party was captured at once by the
Neapolitan police. Attilio and Emilio
were shot along with seven of their
comrades in the public square of Co-
senza, on July 25, 1844.

Bandinelli, Baccio, son of a fa-
mous goldsmith of Florence, and one
of the best sculptors of his time, was
born at Florence in 1493. Among his
best works are his colossal group of
" Hercules," with Cacus at his feet,
his " Adam and Eve," his copy of the
" Laocoon," and the exquisite bassi-
rilievi which adorn the choir of the
Duomo in Florence, where he died in
1560.

Bauer, Johan Gnstafsson, a
Swedish general in the Thirty Years'
War, born in 1596 ; made his first
campaigns in Poland and Russia, and
accompanied Gustavus Adolphus, who
held him in high esteem, to Germany.
After the death of Gustavus, in 1632,
he had the chief command of the
Swedish army, and, in 1634, invaded
Bohemia, defeated the Saxons at Witt-
stock, Sept. 24, 1636, and took Tor-
gau. He ravaged Saxony again in
1639, gained another victory at Chem-
nitz, and, in 1640, defeated Piccolo-
mini. In January, 1641, he very near-
ly took Ratisbon by surprise. He
died in 1641.

Bang, Herman, a Danish novel-
ist, born in 1857. He came into no-
tice about 1879, from which time he
published a number of novels and
some poems. He died in 1912.



Bangkok

Bangalore, a town of Hindustan,
capital of Mysore, and giving its name
to a considerable district in the E. of
Mysore State. Pop. 180,366.

Bangkok, the capital city of Siam,
situated on both banks of the Menam,
about 20 miles from its mouth. The
population in 1910, 628,675, nearly
half of whom are Chinese, the others,
including Burmese, Annamese, Cam-
bodians, Malays, Eurasians, and Eu-
ropeans. The foreign trade of Siam
centers in Bangkok, and is mainly in
the hands of the Europeans and Chi-
nese. The approach to Bangkok by
the Menam. which can be navigated
by ships of 350 tons burden (large
sea-going ships anchor at Paknam, be-
low the bar at the mouth of the
river), is exceedingly beautiful. The
internal traffic of Bangkok is chiefly
carried on by means of canals, there
being only a few passable streets in
the whole city. Horses and carriages
are rarely seen, except in the neigh-
borhood of the palaces. The native
houses on land of bamboo or other
wood, like the floating fiouses are
raised upon piles, six or eight feet
from the ground, and are reached by
ladders. The circumference of the
walls of Bangkok, which are 15 to 30
feet high, and 12 broad, is about 6
miles.

Bangkok is now the permanent res-
idence of the King. The palace is sur-
rounded by high walls, and is nearly
a mile in circumference. It includes
temples, public offices, accommodation
for officials and for some thousands of
soldiers, with their necessary equip-
ments, a theater, apartments for a
crowd of female attendants, and sev-
eral Buddhist temples, or chapels.
Several of the famous white elephants
are kept in the courtyard of the pal-
ace. Throughout the interior are dis-
tributed the most costly articles in
gold, silver, and precious stones. The
chief exports are rice, sugar, pepper,
cardamoms, sesame, hides, fine woods,
ivory, feathers, and edible birds' nests.
The imports are tea, manufactured
silks and piece goods, opium, hard-
ware, machinery, and glass wares. In
1893, a treaty was concluded at Bang-
kok, by which Siam made large ces-
sions to France, two French gunboats
having forced their way to the capital
after an ineffective defense.



Bangor

Bangor, city, port of entry, and
capital of Penobscot county, Me.; at
juriction of the Penobscot and Ken-
duskeag rivers and on the Maine
Central railroad; 140 miles N. E. of
Portland; has exceptional power for
manufacturing from the Penobscot
river; is chiefly engaged in the lum-
ber industry; and is the seat of a
noted theological seminary. Pop.
(1910) 24,803.

Bangs, John Kendrick, an
American humorist and editor, born
in Yonkers, N. Y., May 27, 1862. He
was long famous for his light verse
and humorous stories.

Bangs, Lemuel Bolt on, an

American physician ; born in New
York, Aug. 9, 1842 ; was president of
the American Association of Genito-
urinary Surgeons (1895) and editor
of "American Text-Book of Genito-
Urinary Diseases." D. Oct. 4, 1914.

Bangweolo (also called Bemba),
a great Central African lake, discover-
ed by Livingstone in 1SG8, which is
150 miles long by 75 in width, and
3,700 feet above the sea. On its S.
shore Livingstone died.

Banian, or Banyan, an Indian
trader, or merchant, one engaged in
commerce generally^ but more particu-
larly one of the great traders of West-
ern India, as in the seaports of Bom-
bay, Kurrachee, etc., who carry on a
large trade by means of caravans with
the interior of Asia, and with Africa
by vessels.

Banim, John, an Irish novelist,
dramatist, and poet, born in Kilkenny,
April 3, 1798 ; died in Kilkenny, Aug.
13, 1842.

Banishment (the act of putting
under ban, proclamation, as an out-
law), a technical term for the punish-
ment of sending out of the country
under penalties against return.

Banister, John, an Anglo-Amer-
ican scientist, born in England ; set-
tled in the West Indies, and later in
Virginia, in the vicinity of James-
town, where he devoted himself to the
study of botany. He died in 1692.
His son, JOHN, born in Virginia, was
educated in England, and studied law
there ; became Colonel in the Virginia
militia; member of the Virginia As-
sembly ; and prominent in the patri-



Bank Note

otic conventions of the Revolutionary
period ; was a Representative from
Virginia in the Continental Congress
in 1778-1779, and one of the signers
of the Articles of Confederation. He
died near Hatchers Run, Va., in 1787.

Banjermassin, a former Sultan-
ate in the S. E. of Borneo, with an
area of 5,928 square miles, and a pop-
ulation of about 300,000, chiefly Mo-
hammedans. Tributary to Holland
since 1787, it was annexed on the
death of the last Sultan in 1857, and
is now governed by the Dutch Resi-
dent for the S. and E. of Borneo, who
has an assistant at Martapura, where
the Sultans formerly lived.

Banjo, a musical instrument with
five strings, having a head and neck
like a guitar, with a body or sound-
ing-board hollow at the back, and
played with the hand and fingers. It
is the favorite instrument of the plan-
tation negroes of the Southern States
and their imitators, and seems to have
had its origin in the bandore, a musi-
cal instrument like a lute or guitar,
invented by John Ross or Rose, a fa-
mous violin-maker, about 15G2.

Bank, primarily an establishment
for the deposit, custody and repay-
ment on demand, of money ; and ob-
taining the bulk of its profits from the
investment of sums thus derived and
not in immediate demand. The term
is a derivative of the banco or bench
of the early Italian money dealers. ^

Bank Acceptances, commercial
notes for discouut which the Federal
Reserve Banking Act of 1913 per-
mitted National banks to accept. This
system of financing trade has been in
operation abroad for many years and
to some extent in the United States,
but has never been extended to do-
mestic business lest the credit privi-
lege should be overdone. The process
is about the same as having an ordi-
nary note discounted at a bank, but is
largely restricted to foreign business.

Bankes, Henry, an English
statesman and historian ; born in Lon-
don in 1757 ; died Dec. 17, 1834.

Bankiva Fowl, a fowl living wild
'in Northern India, Java, Sumatra, etc.

Bank Note, an engraved certifi-
cate representing its face value in spe-
cie. In the production of bank notes,
the principal purpose is to render their



Bankruptcy Laws



Bank*



forgery impossible, or at least easy of
detection. This is sought to be effect-
ed by peculiarity of paper, design, and
printing.

In the United States, the bank notes
at present in circulation are manufac-
tured by the Government Bureau of
Engraving and Printing, the paper
being made by a private concern, un-
der a patented process, the chief in-
gredients being a mixture of linen
and cotton fiber, into which are in-
troduced threads of silk, so arranged
as to be perceptible after the notes
are printed. This style of paper is
furnished only to the government. Su-
perior skill is exercised in engraving
the plates, nearly all parts of them
being executed by the geometrical
lathe and the ruling machine the work
of which it is impossible to imitate
successfully by hand. The printing of
the notes is done in colored inks of the
best quality, sometimes as many as
four shades being used. The great ex-
pense of the machines used in the en-
graving, and the superior quality of
the work generally, renders successful
counterfeiting almost impossible. The
notes, when badly worn, are returned
to the United States Treasury, other
notes being issued in their stead.

Bankruptcy Laws, regulations
passed by a competent authority with
a view to distributing the property of
an insolvent equitably among his cred-
itors and free the debtor from further
obligation. In England, before 1841,
only a tradesman could be a bankrupt.
This distinction was then abolished.
It was abolished in the United States
in 1869. The act " to establish a
uniform system of bankruptcy
throughout the United States," was
passed by both Houses of the 55th
Congress, and by the approval of Pres-
ident McKinley, became a law on July
1, 1898.

The provisions under which a man
can be thrown into bankruptcy against
his will are as follows: (1) Where a
man has disposed of his property with
intent to defraud. (2) Where he has
disposed of his property to one or
more creditors to give a preference to
them. (3) Where he has given a
preference through legal proceedings.
(4) Where a man has made a volun-
tary assignment for the benefit of his
creditors generally. (5) Where a



man admits in writing that he is bank-
rupt. The last two provisions are
practically voluntary proceedings. Un-
der the common law, a man is consid-
ered insolvent when he cannot pay his
debts when they are due ; under the
new law, he is deemed insolvent only
when his property, fairly valued, is in-
sufficient to pay his debts. Only two
offenses are cited under the new law :
one when property is hidden away
after proceedings in bankruptcy have
been begun, and the other when per-
jury is -discovered. Discharges are to
be denied in only two cases ; one, in
which either of the offenses detailed
has been committed, and the other,
when it is shown that fraudulent
books have been kept. The term of
imprisonment for either of these of-
fenses is not to exceed two years.

The law provides a complete sys-
tem throughput the United States, and
for its administration by the United
States courts in place of the different
systems formerly in existence in the
various States administered by State
courts. In bankruptcy proceedings, a
bankrupt debtor may turn over all his
property to the court, to be adminis-
tered for the benefit of his creditors,
and then get a complete discharge
from his debts. A bankrupt may of
his own motion offer to surrender his
property to the administration of the
United States court and ask for his
discharge in voluntary bankruptcy, or
creditors may apply to the court to
compel a bankrupt to turn over his
property to be administered under the
act for the benefit of the creditors in
voluntary bankruptcy. The bankrupt
who has turned over all his property
and conformed to the provisions of the
act, is entitled to a judgment of court
discharging him from any future lia-
bility to his creditors.

Banks, Sir Joseph, an English
naturalist, born in London in 1743.
He died in 1820, and bequeathed his
collections to the British Museum.

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss, an

American legislator and soldier, born

in Waltham, Mass., Jan. 30, 1816. At

first a factory worker, he studied law,

and became successively a member of

the State and National Legislatures.

He was Speaker of Congress in 1856,

, and in 1858, and in 1859 he was elect-

I ed Governor of his native State. On



Banks



Banks



the outbreak of the Civil War, he took
a command in the army, at first on
the Potomac, then at New Orleans,
and finally on the Red river. Relieved
of his command in 1864, he re-entered
Congress, voting mainly with the Re-
publican party. He died in Waltham,
Sept. 1, 1894.

Banks, Thomas, an English
sculptor, born in 1735. He died in
1805.

Banks in ike United States,
financial institutions comprising (1)
National banks; (2) Suite banks;
and (3) savings banks, consisting of
(a) mutual savings banks; and (b)
stock savings banks. These are gen-
eral throughout the entire country.
In addition to these, are (1) co-opera-
tive banks, common to New England,
especially Massachusetts; (2) loan and
trust companies, established in nearly
all the large cities; and (3) building
and loan associations, now represented
in most of the States and Territories.
The last three classes partake of some
of the features of regular banking, es-
pecially in the reception of money on
deposit, subject to call, and the pay-
ment of interest thereon. The first
three kinds of banks only are heie



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