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considered.

The first bank in the United States
was organized in Philadelphia in 1780,
and a Bank of North America was
planned in 1781 and opened in 1782.
The Massachusetts Bank was incor-
porated in 1784; that of New York
was chartered in 1791, although, since
1784, under Alexander Hamilton's
" Articles of Association," it had
been doing business. Alexander Ham-
ilton also originated a plan for a
United States bank, with a capital of
$10,000,000, three-fourths to be paid
in United States stock, at 6 per cent.,
which plan was adopted and approved
by Washington in 1791. The bank
was reorganized in 1816 with a capital
of $35,000.000, the United States sub-
scribing $7,000,000, with interest at 6
per cent., but in consequence of a gen-
eral financial depression, was, the
next year, in great danger of failure.
Congress refusing to renew the char-
ter, a State bank, called the United
States bank, was chartered in Penn-
sylvania, and eventually failing, the
whole account was settled in 1856.



The $28,000,000 deposited by share-
holders was totally lost, while the Gov-
ernment realized $6,093.167 upon its
investments of stock. State banks
were afterward chartered in the inter-
ests of individual and dominant polit-
ical parties. The charters were some-
times fraudulently obtained and cur-
rency issued to three times the amount
of their capital, and, in 1814, 1837,
and 1857, many of them suspended
payment A reform movement in
bank currency was inaugurated in
Massachusetts in 1825, and a " safety-
fund " system, recommended by Mr.
Van Buren, adopted in 1829. In 1838
the Free Bank Act passed the New
York Legislature, which authorized
any number of persons to form a bank-
ing association, subject to certain
specified conditions and liabilities.

On Feb. 25, 1863, the National
banking system was organized, but the
act establishing it was modified by
that of June 3, 1864. This provided
for a National Bank Bureau in the
Treasury Department, whose chief
officer is the Comptroller of the Cur-
rency. Under it National banks could
be organized by any number of indi-
viduals, not less than five, the capital
t9 be not less than $100,000 except in
cities of a population not exceeding
6,000 ; in these banks could be estab-
lished with a capital of not less than
$50,000. In cities having a popula-
tion of 50,000 the capital stock could
not be less than $200,000. One third
of the capital was required to be in-
vested in United States bonds, which
were deposited in the Treasury for se-
curity, upon which notes were issued
equal in amount to 90 per cent, of the
current market value, but not exceed-
ing 90 per cent of the par value ; and
these notes were receivable at par in
the United States for all payments to
and from the Government, except for
duties on imports, interest on the pub-
lic debt, and in redemption of the na-
tional currency. On March 3, 1865,
an act was passed by which the cir-
culation of the State banks was taxed
10 per cent., which drove their notes
out of existence.

Various laws have since been passed
in relation to National banks. On
March 14, 1900, President McKin-
ley approved a new currency act,
which, among other things, established



Bannock

the gold dollar as the standard unit of
value, and placed at a parity with
that standard all forms of money is-
sued or coined by the United States.
The bill also made a number of im-
portant changes in the regulations
governing National banks. The new
law permitted National banks, with
$25,000 capital, to be organized in
places of 3,000 inhabitants or less,
whereas the minimum capital previ-
ously was $50,000. It also permitted
banks to issue circulation on all
classes of bonds deposited up to the
par value of the bonds, instead of 90
per cent, of their face, as before.

More recent features of banking inj
the United States are the Oklahoma
scheme for guaranteeing the deposits
of banks, which Attorney-General
Bonaparte nullified, as far as Na- j
tional banks were concerned, in 1908 ; j
the combined savings and insurance j
banks of Massachusetts, known as !
"Brandeis banks," established in I
1908 ; the 1 SCHOOL SAVINGS BANKS i
(or. v.) founded by J. H. Thiry, in j
New York, in 1885; and the POSTAL'
SAVINGS BANKS (q. v.), established
by Congress in 1910. At the special
session of Congress in 1913 an elabo-
rate scheme was introduced for re-
forming the national banking laws.
This resulted in the establishment of
the Federal Reserve System, under
which it was obligatory for National
banks and permissible for State banks
to become associated in the new organ-
ization (see FEDEBAL RESERVE SYS-
TEM; FEDERAL FARM BANKS).

On Nov. 17, 1916, there were 7,584 i
National banks in operation, having a
combined capital of $1,071,116,000;
deposits, $12,489,279,000; circulation,
$665,259.000; loans and discounts,
$8,345,784,000; reserve, $2,472,622,-'
000 ; and resources, $15,520,205,000.

Bannock, a tribe of North Amer-
ican Indians belonging to the Shoshoni
stock. They are divided into two sec-
tions, inhabiting Nevada and Montana.

Bannockbnrn, a village of Stir?
lingshire, Scotland, 3 miles S. S. E. of
Stirling, on the Bannock Burn, a lit-
tle affluent of the Forth. In the great
battle of Bannockburn, fought on June
24, 1314, Robert Bruce, with 30,000
Scotch, gained a signal victory over
Edward II., with 100,000 English, and
secured his throne and the independ-



Bantry Bay

ence of Scotland. The English are
said to have lost 30,000, and the
Scotch 8,000 men. Not far off was
fought the battle of Sauchieburn. In
September, 1903, it was reported that
Andrew Carnegie was negotiating to
acquire ownership of the battlefield in
order to preserve it as a national
memorial.

Banquo, a famous Scottish thane
of the llth century. In conjunction
with Macbeth, cousin of -Duncan, the
King, he obtained a victory over the
Danes, who had landed on the Scot-
tish coast. Macbeth, shortly after-
ward, violently dethroned Duncan,
and caused him to be secretly assass-
inated. Banquo, though not an ac-
complice, was a witness of the crime ;
and being subsequently regarded by
Macbeth with fear and suspicion, the
latter invited him and his son to sup-
per, and hired assassins to attack
them on their return home during the
darkness of night. Banquo was slain,
but the youth made his escape.
Shakespeare has interwoven this oc-
currence with the theme of his tragedy
of " Macbeth."

Banshee, a fay, elf, or other su-
pernatural being, supposed by some of
the peasantry in Ireland and the Scot-
tish Highlands to sing a mournful dit-
ty under the windows of the house
when one of the inmates is about to
die.

Bantam, a variety of the common
domestic fowl, originally brought from
the East Indies, and supposed to de-
rive its name from the above town. It
is remarkable for its small size, being
only about one pound in weight, and
for a disposition more courageous and
pugnacious than even that of a game-
cock.

Banting, William, an English*
man of notable corpulence, born in
1797, who, by adopting a simple diet
was able to relieve himself of his su-
perfluous flesh. The dietary recom-
mended was the use of butcher's meat
principally, and abstinence from beer,
farinaceous food, and vegetables. He
died in 1878.

Bantry Bay, a deep inlet in the
S. W. extremity of Ireland, in County
Cork. Here a French force attempted
to land in 1796. The coast around is
rocky and high.



Bantu

Bantu, the ethnological name of
a group of African races dwelling be-
low about 6 N. lat, and including the
Kaffirs, Zulus, Bechuanas, the tribes
of the Loango, Kongo, etc., but not
the Hottentots.

Banvard, John, an American
artist, poet, and dramatist, born in
New York about 1820 ; died in 1891.

Banvard, Joseph, an American
Baptist clergyman and historian,
brother of the preceding, born in New
York in 1810; died in 1887.

Banyan Tree, a species of the
genus ficus. It is regarded as a
sacred tree by the Hindus.




BANYAN TREK.

Bapanme, a small town of N.
France, 15 miles S. S. E. of Arras
and 25 miles N. W. of St. Quentin,
the scene of the great battle of Jan.
3, 1871, when the Germans were
forced back behind Somme. The town
also figures in the Peace of the
Pyrenees, in 1659, by which it was
ceded to Louis XIV., and in the great
Arras campaign of 1917. See APPEN-
DIX: World War.

Baptism (from the Greek baptize,
from bapto, to immerse or dip), a rite
which is generally thought to have
been usual with the Jews even before
Christ, being administered to prose-
lytes. From this baptism, however,
that of St. John the Baptist differed



Baptist*

because he baptized Jews also as a
symbol of the necessity of perfect
purification from sin. Christ himself
never baptized, but directed his disci-
ples to administer this rite to converts
(Matt xxviil: 19); and baptism,
therefore, became a religious ceremony
among Christians, taking rank as a
sacrament with all sects which ac-
knowledge sacraments. Three modes
of administering the rite have been
adopted immersion, pouring and
sprinkling. The question, on which
I there have been innumerable disputes,
, turns upon the meaning of the Greek
I preposition following the verb. The
j advocates of baptism by immersion, as
the only valid form, claim that the
I preposition is "in ;" the advocates of
sprinkling contend that the preposi-
1 tion is, "with." The Greek Church
adopted the custom of immersion ; but
the Western Church adopted or al-
lowed the mode of baptism by pouring
or sprinkling, since continued by most
Protestants.

Baptists, a Protestant denomina-
tion based on the belief that immer-
sion is the only Scriptural mode of
baptism, and that those only are proper
subjects for this ceremony who are
converted and profess personal faith
!n Christ. They thus reject both in-
fant baptism and baptism by sprink-
ling or pouring of water as invalid.
There are, however, other sects, in-
cluding the Mennonites, the Chris-
tians, the Disciples of Christ, etc., who
accept the prominent principles of the
Baptists in whole or in part, and yet
are not classified with them, owing to
some minor differences. The Baptists
reject the name of Anabaptists as a
term of reproach, holding that it is in-
correct, because their members gener-
ally receive the rite on their admis-
sion to the church, and because they
were not identified with the Baptists
of Munster. The Baptists first ap-
peared in Switzerland, in 1523, and
soon spread to Germany, Holland, and
other continental countries, whence
they were driven to England by perse-
cution on account of their rejection of
infant baptism. The history of the
Baptists in England prior to the 16th
century is still a matter of contro-
versy. The first regularly organized
church was Arminian, and was estab-
lished in 1610 or 1611. A Calvinistic



Baptist

Baptist Church was founded about
1633. Those holding Arminian views
received the name of General Bap-
tists, and those holding Calvinistic
views the name of Particular Baptists.
In 1640 there were seven Baptist con-
gregations in London.

The Baptists in the United States
spring historically from the English
and Welsh Baptists ; but the first Bap-
tist church was organized by Roger
Williams, who was a minister in the
Massachusetts Colony previous to his
immersion. He was persecuted for
holding principles which inclined to
Anabaptism, and for antagonizing the
authorities of the colony in ecclesiasti-
cal matters. After being immersed,
in 1639, by Ezekiel. Holliman, whom
he in turn immersed with 10 others,
he organized a Baptist Church in
Providence, R. I. In 1644 he obtained
a charter which granted to the people
of Rhode Island entire freedom of
conscience. There were other Bap-
tists, however, who emigrated from
England in the 17th century, and, be-
fore the end of the 18th century, be-
came numerous in New England, New
York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Geor-
gia, and other States. In all the
British colonies, excepting Rhode Is-
land, the Baptists were persecuted for
a long time. In Massachusetts laws
were issued against them in 1644 ; sev-
eral of them were imprisoned in 1651 ;
others exiled in 1669; and a Baptist
meeting-house was closed in 1680.
New York issued laws against them in
1662, and Virginia in 1664. This per-
secution had greatly abate'd at the be-
ginning of the 18th century. After
the Revolutionary War the Baptists
increased with great rapidity, especial-
ly in the South and Southwestern
States, and have steadily increased
ever since.

There are at present three bodies of
Regular Baptists, the Northern, the
Southern, and the Colored, all of
whom agree in doctrinal and ecclesias-
tical principles, but each has its own
associations, State Conventions, and
general missionary and other associa-
tions. In 1845 a controversy concern-
ing slavery, which had been going on
for some time, caused a division be-
tween the Baptists in the Northern
and those in the Southern States, af-
ter which the Northern Baptists con-



Baptiii

tinued to support the Home Mission
Society and the American Baptist
Missionary Union, on an anti-slavery
basis. In 1879 the question of re-
uniting the divisions was agitated, but
nothing was accomplished. The
Southern Division is the largest branch
of white Baptists. After the division
of 1845 the Southern churches estab-
lished the Southern Baptist Conven-
tion, which holds annual meetings,
where the promotion and direction of
the denominational interests are con-
sidered, such as Sunday-schools, and
home and foreign missions. It is com-
posed of representatives from associa-
tions, other organizations, and from,
the churches. The Colored Baptists
compose the largest body of Regular
Baptists, although many Colored Bap-
tists are not members of this division ;
those only being included who have
separate churches, State Conventions,
and associations. The Colored Bap-
tists of the North are generally mem-
bers of churches belonging to white as-
sociations. In 1866 the first State
Convention of Colored Baptists was
organized in North Carolina, the sec-
ond in Alabama, and the third in Vir-
ginia, both in 1867, and the fourth in
Arkansas in 1868. There are (1900)
Colored conventions in 15 States and
the District of Columbia. Besides
these associations there are the Amer-
ican National Convention, which delib-
erates upon questions of general con-
cern ; the Consolidated American Mis-
sionary Convention, the General As-
sociation of the Western States and
Territories, the New England Mission-
ary Convention, and the Foreign Mis-
sionary Convention of the United
States.

Besides the three large divisions of
Baptists, there are 10 smaller ones.
(1) Six Principle Baptists date back
to Roger Williams and the year 1639
for their origin. They. differ from the
Regular Baptists in holding the Ar-
minian instead of the Calvinistic
creed, and in the practice of the laying
on of hands in the reception of mem-
bers. (2) Seventh Day Baptists, in
the United States, date their origin
back to 1671, when Stephen Mumford,
from England, organized the first
church in Newport, R. I. Their only
difference from other Baptists is found
in their keeping the seventh day as



Baptist

"the Sabbath of the Lord." (3)
Freewill Baptists. The first church
of this sect was founded by Benjamin
Randall in New Durham, N. H., in
1780. At first their organizations
were called simply Baptist churches,
but later the word " Freewill " was
applied to them, in allusion to their
doctrine concerning the freedom of the
will. (4) Original Freewill Baptists
date back to 1729, when a number of
General Baptist churches were found-
ed in North Carolina. In 1759 many
of these general churches became Cal-
vinistic. Those which did not join the
Calvinistic association were called
" Freewillers," because they held the
doctrine of the freedom of will. (5)
General Baptists are thus named, be-
cause they originally differed from the
Regular Baptists in holding that the
atonement was for the whole race and
not merely for those effectually called.
They date back to the beginning of the
18th century. (6) Separate Baptists
originated in the great Whitefield revi-
val. In doctrine they generally agree
with the Freewill Baptists. (7) Unit-
ed Baptists. A sect which sprang
from the opposition to the great revi-
val of George Whitefield. They hold
moderate Calvinistic views. (8) Bap-
tist Church of Christ. A sect organ-
ized in 1808 in Tennessee, where half
their number is found. They have a
mild form of Calvinism with a general
atonement. (9) Primitive Baptists
are variously known as Primitive, Old
School, Regular, and Antimission
Baptists. Their organization occurred
about 1835. They do not believe in
the establishment of Sunday-schools,
mission, Bible, and other societies,
which they hold are unscriptural be-
cause they are human institutions.
(10) Old Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit-Pre-
destinarian Baptists. A conservative
body of Baptists who are strongly Cal-
vinistic, believing firmly in predestina-
tion. The phrase " Two-Seed " is un-
derstood to mean their belief that
there are two seeds, one of the good
and one of the evil. The doctrine is
supposed to have been originated by
Elder Daniel Parker, who preached in
Tennessee in 1806-1817, in Illinois till
1836, and later in Texas, where he
died.

All Baptist denominations are con-
gregational in polity, with the possible



Barataria Bay

exception of the Original Freewill
Baptists. Each church, under its of-
ficers of pastor and deacons, manages
its own affairs. According to a spe-
cial Census report on " Religious
Bodies" (2 vols., 1910), there were
in the United States in 1906, 14 dis-
tinct Baptist bodies, with a total of
54,880 organizations, 52,338 places of
worship, 43,790 ministers, 5,662,234
communicants, property valued at
$139,842,656. and 2,898,914 Sunday
school scholars.

Baptist Young People's Union
o America, an association repre-
senting numerous young people's so-
cieties connected with the Baptist
Churches in all the States and in
Canada. Organized in June, 1891, in
Chicago, 111., which place has since
been its headquarters.

Bar, in hydrography, a bank of
sand, silt, etc., opposite the mouth of a
river, which obstructs or bars the en-
trance of vessels. The bar is formed
where the rush of the stream is ar-
rested by the water of the sea, as the
mud and sand suspended in the river
water are thus allowed to be deposited.
It is in this way that deltas are form-
ed at the mouths of rivers. The navi-
gation of many streams is kept open
only by constant dredging.

Barabbas, a noted robber in
Christ's time, who was awaiting
j death for sedition and murder. It
1 was a custom of the Roman govern-
j ment to conciliate the Jews, to re-
lease one Jewish prisoner, whom
they might choose, at the yearly
Passover. Pilate desired thus to re-
lease Jesus, but the Jews demanded
Barabbas.

Baracoa, a seaport town in the
province of Oriente, Cuba; on the
N. E. coast; 90 miles E. N. E. of
Santiago; is the oldest settlement in
Cuba and one of the oldest in the
New World (1514); has a small, shal-
low harbor. Pop. (1907) 27,852.

Baranoff Island, one of the Alex-
ander Islands, Alaska. It is about
75 miles long. On its coast is the
town of Sitka. The island derives its
name from the Russian trader, Bar-
anofif, who, in 1799, took possession
of it.

Barataria Bay, in the S. E. part
1 of Louisiana, extending N. from the



Baratier



Barbecue



Gulf of Mexico, between the parishes
of Jefferson and Plaquemine. This
bay is about 15 miles long by 6 wide.
It, and the lagoons branching out of
it, were rendered notorious about the
years 1810-1812 as being both the
headquarters and rendezvous of the
celebrated Lafitte and his buccaneers.

Baraticr, Johann Fhilipp, a
German litterateur, remarkable for
the precocity of his intellect, was born
in 1721. At the age of 7 he under-
stood Greek and Hebrew, and two
years later he compiled a Hebrew dic-
tionary. He was 13 when he trans-
lated the " Itinerary of Benjamin of
Tudela." Excess of work and, per-
haps, a too rapid development of his
intellectual faculties brought about a
languid malady, and, at the age of 19
years he died.

Barbacan, a projecting watch
tower, or other advanced work, be-
fore the gate of a castle or forti-
fied town. The term barbacan was
more especially applied to the out-
work intended to defend the draw-
bridge, which in modern fortifications
is called the tete du pont.

Barbadoes, or Barbados, the
most eastern of the West India Is-
lands, first mentioned in 1518, and
occupied by the British in 1625 ;
length 21 miles, breadth, 13; area,
106,470 acres, or 166 square miles ;
mostly under cultivation. Capital,
Bridgetown. It is more densely peo-
pled than almost any spot in the
world, the population on Dec. 31, 1914,
being estimated at 176,397, or over
1,062 to the square mile. The climate
is very hot, though moderated by the
constant trade winds ; and the island
is subject to dreadful hurricanes.

Barbaro, Francesco, one of the
most distinguished Italian authors of
the 15th century, born at Venice, in
1398; died in 1454.

Barbaroux, Charles Jean Ma-
rie, one of the greatest of the Giron-
dists, was born at Marseilles, March
6, 1767. He opposed the party of
Marat and Robespierre, and even di-
rectly accused the latter of aiming at
the dictatorship; consequently, he
was, in May, 1793, proscribed as a
royalist and an enemy of the Repub-
lic. He fled to Calvados, and thence
with a few friends to the Gironde,



where he wandered about the coun-
try, hiding himself as he best could
for about 13 months. At last, on the
point of being taken, he tried to shoot
himself ; but the shot miscarried, and
he was guillotined at Bordeaux, June
25, 1794.

Barbary, a general name for the
most northerly portion of Africa, ex-
tending about 2,600 miles from
Egypt to the Atlantic, with a breadth
varying from about 140 to 1,550
miles; comprising Morocco, Fez, Al-
geria, Tunis and Tripoli (including
Barca and Fezzan). The principal
races are the Berbers, the original
inhabitants, from whom the country
takes its name ; the Arabs, who con-
quered an extensive portion of it dur-
ing the times of the caliphs ; the Bed-
ouins ? Jews, Turks, and the French
colonists of Algeria, etc. The coun-
try, which was prosperous under the
Carthaginians, was, next to Egypt,
the richest of the Roman provinces,
and the Italian States enriched them-
selves by their intercourse with it.
In the 15th century, however, it be-
came infested with adventurers who
made the name of Barbary corsair a
terror to commerce, a condition of
things finally removed by the French
occupation of Algeria.

Barbary Ape, or Magot, a mon-
key the macacus inuus, found in
the N. of Africa, and of which a col-
ony exists on the Rock of Gibral-
tar. It is the only recent European
quadrumanous animal. It is some-
times called the magot, and is the spe-
cies occasionally exhibited, when
young, by showmen in the streets,

Barbazan, Arnanld Gnilhem,
Sire de, a French captain, who waa
distinguished by Charles VI. with the
title of " Chevalier Sans Reproche,"
and by Charles VIII. with that of
" Restaurateur du Royaume et de la
Couronne de France," born about the
end of the 14th century. He was kill-
ed at Bullegneville, in 1432.

Barbecne. 1. A beef dressed
whole, as is done in an election cam-
paign. To do this, the carcass of the
animal, split to the backbone, is laid
upon a large gridiron, under and
around which is placed a charcoal fire.

2. A large gathering of people, gen-
erally in the open air, for a social en-



Barbel

tertainment or a political rally, one
leading feature of which is the roast-
ing of animals whole to furnish the
numerous members of the party with
needful food.

Barbel. 1. A small fleshy thread
or cord, of which several hang from
the mouth of certain fishes.

2. A knot of superfluous flesh grow-
ing in the channels of a horse's mouth.

Barber, one who shaves beards and
dresses hair. In early times the op-
erations of the barber were not
confined, as now to shaving, hair-
dressing, and the making of wigs;
but included the dressing of wounds,
blood-letting, and other surgical op-
erations. It seems that in all coun-
tries the art of surgery and the art
of shaving went hand in hand. The
title of barber-chirurgeon, or barber-
surgeon, was generally applied to bar-



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