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bers. The State of New York in 1903
adopted a law regulating the business
of barbers, enforcing stringent sani-
tary rules in their shops, and appoint-
ing a commission to enforce the law.

Barber, Edward Atlee, an
American archaeologist, born in Balti-
more, Md., Aug. 13, 1851 ; was grad-
uated at Williston Seminary in 1869,
end was assistant naturalist in the
United States Geological Survey in
1874-1875. Subsequently be was en-
gaged in gold dredging. His writ-
ings include a history of the ancient
Pueblos and a large number of mag-
azine articles on ceramics.

Barber, Francis, an American
general, born at Princeton, N. J.,
1751 ; died 1783. He graduated at
what is now Princeton University in
1767, entered the Revolutionary Army
as a major in 1776, and rose steadily
through meritorious service to the rank
of Adjutant-General. He was acci-
dently killed by a falling tree, after re-
covering from severe wounds received
at the battles of Momnouth, Newton,
and at Yorktown.

Barber, John Warner, an Amer-
ican author, born in Windsor, Conn.,
in 1798 ;. died in 1885. His writings
were mainly historical and include :
State Annals ; " Historical Scenes in
the United States," " Religious
Events," " Elements of General His-
tory," " Our Whole Country, Histori-
cal and Descriptive."


Barberini, a celebrated Floren-
tine family, which since the pontifi-
cate of Maffeo Barberini (Urban
VIII., 1623 to 1644), has occupied a
distinguished place among the nobil-
ity of Rome.

Barberry, or Berberry, the Eng-
lish name of the berberis. The com-
mon barberry is planted in gardens
or in hedges, being an ornamental
shrub, especially when covered with
a profusion of flowers or loaded with
fruit It has yellow flowers with an
unpleasant smell, which, however, are
much frequented by bees. Their juice
is acid, hence they are used for pre-
serves and confectionery.

Barber's Itch, a disease of the
skin of the face caused by the en-
trance of a fungus into the hair folli-
cles of the beard.

Barbet. Birds haying short,
conical bills, with stiff bristles at the
base, short wings, and broad and
rounded tails. It is from the bristles,
which have an analogy to a beard,
that the name is derived. These birds
are found in the warmer parts of both
hemispheres, the most typical coming
from South America.

Barbette, a mound of earth on
which guns are mounted to be fired
over the parapet.

In fortification. En barbette:
Placed so as to be fired over the top
of a parapet, and not through em-

Barbiano, Abrecht da, an Ital-
ian military officer ; formed the first
regular company of Italian troops or-
ganized to resist foreign mercenaries,
about 1379. This organization, named
the " Company of St. George," proved
to be an admirable school, as from its
ranks sprang many future officers of
renown. He became Grand Consta-
ble of Naples in 1384, and died in

Barbier, Henri Auguste, a
French poet, born in Paris, April 29,
1805; died in Nice, Feb. 13, 1882.

Barbier, Jules, a French drama-
tist, born in Paris; 1825: d. 1901.

Barbieri, Giovanni Francesco,
otherwise known as GUERCINO (the
squinter) DA CENTO, an eminent and
prolific historical painter, born near
Bologna in 1590. He died in 1666.


brated still-life and animal painter,
was a brother of Guercino; born
1596, died 1640.

Barbour, Erwin Hinckley, an
American geologist, born near Ox-
ford, O. ; was graduated at Yale Col-
lege in 1882 ; was assistant paleontol- j
ogist in the United States Geolog-
ical Survey in 1882-1888; Stone Pro-
fessor of Natural History and Geol-
ogy in Iowa College in ISS^lSdl ;
became Professor of Geology in the
University of Nebraska, and acting
State Geologist in 1891 ; and curator
of the Nebraska State Museum in j
1892. In 1893 he took charge 9f the
annual Morrill geological expeditions,
and since then he has also been en-
gaged in the United States Geologi-
cal and Hydrographic Surveys.

Barbour, John, a Scottish poet,
born about 1616. His great epic,
" The Bruce," tells the story of Rob-
ert Bruce and the battle of Ban-
nockburn. It was written in 1375
and brought him favor from the King.
He died in Aberdeen, March 13, 1395.

Barbour, John Humphrey, an
American educator, born in Torring-
ton, Conn., May 29, 1854. He was
rector of Grace Church, Hartford, till
1889, and then became Professor of
New Testament Literature and In-
terpretation at the Berkeley Divinity
School. He died in Middletown,
Conn., April 29, 1900.

Barbour, William McLeod, a
Congregational clergyman, born in
Fochabers, Scotland, May 29, 1827;
professor in Bangor Theological Sem-
inary in 1868-1877; Professor of Di-
vinity and college pastor in Yale,
1877-1887 ; became principal and Pro-
fessor of Theology in the Congrega- j
tional College in Montreal, Canada, '
in 1887. He died in 1892.

Barca, a commissariat of the Ital-
ian colony of Eritrea ; area, 12,700
square miles; pop. (1908) 36,862;!
capital, Agordat. The name was ;
formerly applied to the whole country
extending along the N. coast of Africa, ;
between the Great Syrtis (now the
Gulf of Sidra) and Egypt, and
bounded on the W. by Tripoli, and
on the S. by the Libyan Desert. It
was at one time considered a depart-
ment of Tripoli ; at another as an in-

Barclay de Tolly

dependent province, governed directly
from Constantinople.

Barcelona, the most important
manufacturing city in Spain, in prov-
ince of same name; pop. (1910) 587,-
411. The province of Barcelona has
an area of 2,681 square miles, and
pop. 1,163,242. Barcelona manufac-
tures silk, woolens, cottons, lace, hats,
firearms, etc., which form its princi-
pal exports. It imports raw cotton,
coffee, cocoa, sugar, and other colo-
nial produce ; also Baltic timber, salt
fish, hides, iron, wax, etc. Next to
Cadiz it is the most important port
in Spain. The harbor was extended
and its entrance improved in 1875.
Barcelona is noted for labor disturb-

Barclay, Robert, the apologist of
the Quakers, born in 1648, at Gor-
donstown, Moray, and educated at
Paris, where be became a Roman
Catholic. Recalled home by his fa-
ther, he followed the example of the
latter and became a Quaker. His first
treatise in support of his adopted
principles, published at Aberdeen in
the year 1670, under the title of
" Truth Cleared of Calumnies," to-
gether with his subsequent writings,
did much to rectify public sentiment
in regard to the Quakers. He died
in 1690. He was a friend of and
had influence with James II.

Barclay de Tolly, Michael*
Prince, a Russian military comman-
der, of Scottish descent, born in Li-
vonia in 1755. He began his military
career in the campaigns against the
Turks, the Swedes, and the Poles.
He was wounded at Eylau, when he
was made lieutenant-general. In
March, 1808, he surprised the Swedes
at Umea, by a march of two days
over the ice which covered the Gulf
of Bothnia. He was made governor-
general of Finland, and, in 1809, ap-
pointed Minister of War. He was
author of the plan of operations which
was followed with signal advantage
by the Russian army in the campaign
of 1812. After the battle of Baut-
zen, May 26, 1813, he was appointed
commander-in-chief of the Prusso-
Russian army ; and under him Witt-
genstein commanded the Russians;
Bliicher the Prussians ; and the
Grand Duke Constantine the Impe-
rial Guard. .On the day the allies _enr

Barclay- Allardice


tered Paris he was created General
Field-Marshal. He died in 1818.

Barclay- Allardice, Robert,
known as Captain Barclay, the pe-
destrian, was born in 1779, and suc-
ceeded to the estate of Urie, near
Stonehaven, in 1797. He died May
8, 1854. His feat of walking 1,000
miles in 1,000 consecutive hours took
place at Newmarket, in June to July,

Barcocliba, or Barcokecas
("son of a star"), a famous Jewish
impostor, whose real name was Sim-
eon, and who lived in the 2d cen-
tury A. D. After the destruction of
Jerusalem by Titus, the Jews, at dif-
ferent periods, sought to regain their
independence ; and Barcochba, seeing
his countrymen still impatient of the
Roman yoke, resolved to attempt their
emancipation. With this view he
sought to sound the dispositions of
his co-religionists of Egypt, Mesopo-
tamia, Greece, Italy and Gaul, and
sent forth emissaries, who traveled
over all the provinces of the Roman
Empire. When all was ready Bar-
cochba, solemnly announced himself
as King and Messiah, and seized by
surprise on many fortified places. All
who refused to submit to him, par-
ticularly the Christians, were put to
death. The revolt was crushed by
the Romans after a five years' conflict
in which Barcochba perished miser-

Bard, a poet by profession, espe-
cially one whose calling it was to
celebrate in verse, song, and play the
exploits of the chiefs or others who
patronized him, or those of contem-
porary heroes in general. Bards of
this character flourished from the
earliest period among the Greeks, and
to a lesser extent among the Ro-
mans. Tacitus seems to hint at their
existence among the Germanic tribes.
It was, however, above all, among the
Gauls and other Celtic nations that
they flourished most.

Bard, Samuel, an American phy-
sician, born in Philadelphia, April 1,
1742 ; practiced in Philadelphia and
New York ; was the principal mover
in the establishment of the medical
school of Kings (Columbia) College;
president of the New York College of
Physicians and Surgeons that suc-

ceeded the medical school. He died
in Hyde Park, N. Y., May 24, 1821.

Barebone, or Barbone, Praise-
God, a member of the legislative body
assembled by Cromwell in 1653, after
the dissolution of the Long Parlia-
ment. The royalists facetiously dis-
tinguished him by calling the con-
vention "Barebone's Parliament."

Barefooted Friars, monks who
use sandals, or go barefoot. They are
not a distinct body, but may be found
in several orders of mendicant friars
for example, among the Carmel-
ites, Franciscans, Augustinians. There
were also barefooted nuns.

Barents, Willem, a Dutch navi-
gator. He was one of the early Arc-
tic explorers; his attempt being to
find a northeast passage to China. In
his first voyage he reached lat. 77-
78', and in his last, 80 11'. He com-
manded several exploring expeditions
around Nova Zembla and Spitzber-
gen, on one of which he had seven
vessels loaded with rich goods for
Eastern trade. In the summer of
1596, he set out with two ships,
were frozen in at Ice Haven in Sep-
tember. The following June they at-
tempted to reach the mainland in
boats, but most of them were lost.

Barliam, Rev. Richard Harris,
a humorous writer, born in 1788 at
Canterbury ; educated at Paul's School,
London, and at Brasenose, Oxford. He
published an unsuccessful novel, Bald-
win, wrote nearly a third of the arti-
cles in Gorton's Biographical Diction-
ary, and contributed to Blackwood's
Magazine. In 1824 he was appointed
priest in ordinary of the chapel-royal,
and afterwards rector of St. Mary
Magdalene and St. Greorgy-by-St-
Paul, London. In 1837, on the start-
ing of Bentley's Miscellany, he laid
the main foundation of his literary
fame by the publication in that period-
ical of the Ingoldsby Legends. He
died in 1845.

Bariatinski, Alexander Ivano-
vich., Prince, a Russian field-mar-
shal, born in 1814, and educated with
the future Czar, Alexander II. While
a young officer in the hussars, some
love passages with a Grand Duchess
caused his transfer to the Caucasus,
where his success against the famous
Shamyl secured him, in 1852, the rank


of lieutenant-general. He died in Ge-
neva, March 9. 1879.

Baring, family name of the found-
ers of one of the greatest financial
and commercial houses in the world ;
now known as Baring Brothers & Co.
The father of the founders was JOHN
BARING, a German cloth manufac-
turer, who started a small business
at Larkbear, near Exeter, England,
in the first half of the 18th century.
Two of his sons, FRANCIS and JOHN
(1730-1816), established in London
in 1770 the now existing house.

In 1885, the then head of the firm, i
Edward Charles Baring, was raised to
the peerage, as Baron Revelstoke.

Barite, or Baryta, a mineral
called also baroselenite, sulphate of
baryta and heavy spar. It is found
In the United States and on the conti-
nent of Europe. It is sometimes trans-
parent, sometimes opaque.

Baritone, or Barytone, a male
voice, the compass of which partakes
of those of the common bass and
the tenor, but does not extend so far
downward as the one, nor to an equal
height with the other.

Barium, the metallic basis of bary-
ta, which is an oxide of barium ; spe-
cific gravity 4 ; symbol Ba. It is only
found in compounds, such as the com-
mon sulphate and carbonate, and was
isolated by Davy for the first time in
1808. It is a yellow, malleable metal,
which readily oxidizes, decomposes wa-
ter, and fuses at a low temperature.

Bark, the exterior covering of the
stems of exogenous plants. It is
composed of cellular and vascular tis-
sue, is separable from the wood, and
is often regarded as consisting of four
layers. Bark contains many valua-
ble products, as gum, tannin, etc. ;
cork is a highly useful substance ob-
tained from the epiphloeum ; and the
strength and flexibility of bast make
it of considerable value. Bark used
for tanning is obtained from oak,
hemlock-spruce, species of acacia,
growing in Australia, etc. Angos-
tura bark, Peruvian, or cinchona bark,
cinnamon, cascarilla, etc., are useful

Bark, or Barque, a three-masted
vessel of which the foremast and
mainmast are square-rigged, but the
mizzenmast has fore-and-aft sails only.


Bark, Peruvian, is the bark of
various species of trees of the genus
cinchona, found in many parts of
South America, but more particularly
in Peru, and haying medicinal proper-
ties. Its medicinal properties depend
upon the presence of quinine, which
is now extracted from the bark, im-
ported, and prescribed in place of
nauseous mouthfuls of bark.

Barker, Albert S., an American
naval officer, born in Massachusetts,
March 31, 1843 ; was graduated at the
United States Naval Academy in
1859 ; served on the frigate " Missis-
sippi " in the operations to open the
Mississippi river in 1861-1863, taking
part in the bombardment and passage
of Forts Jackson and St. Philip and
the Chalmette batteries, the capture of
New Orleans, and the attempted pas-
sage of Port Hudson, where his vessel
was destroyed. He became Captain
May 5, 1892; commanded the cruiser
" Newark " during the war with
Spain ; subsequently succeeded to the
command of the battleship " Oregon,"
which he took to Manila; became a
Rear- Admiral, and was placed in com-
mand of the Norfolk Navy Yard in
1899 ; and in July, 1900, became com-
mandant of the Brooklyn Navy Yard.
He died Jan. 29, 1916.

Barker, Fordyce, an American
physician, born in Wilton, Franklin
co., Me., May 2, 1819; died in New;
York city, May 30, 1891.


Barker, Matthew Henry, an

English novelist ; born at Deptford in
1790. Died in London, June 29, 1846.

Bark Louse

Bark Louse, or Scale Insect.

The bark lice are very small insects,
whose females are wingless, their bod-
ies resembling scales. They sting the
bark of trees with their long, slender
beak, drawing in the sap, and, when
very numerous, injure or kill the tree.
On the other hand, the males have two
wings, but no beak, and take no food.

Barksdale, "William, an Ameri-
can statesman and military officer,
born in Rutherford county, Tenn.,
Aug. 21, 1821. He entered Congress
in 1853, but gave up his seat when his
State seceded, and took command of a
regiment of Mississippi volunteers. He
was made a Brigadier-General after a
campaign in Virginia, and was killed
at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863.

Barley. Barley is the hardiest of
all the cereals, and was originally a
native of Asia, but it is now cultivated
all over the world, even as far N. as
Lapland. In former times, it was
largely used as an article of food, but
the greater proportion of the barley
now grown is used in the preparation
of malt and spirits.

Barleycorn, John, a personifica-
tion of the spirit of barley, or malt
liquor, often used jocularly, and in
humorous verse.

Barlow, Francis Channing, an
American military officer, born in
Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 9, 1834; was
graduated at Harvard College in 1855 ;
studied law in New York, and prac-
ticed there. In 1861 he enlisted as a
private in the 12th Regiment, New
York State National Guard, which
was among the first troops at the
front He was promoted Lieutenant
after three months' of service; Colo-
nel during the siege of Yorktown ; dis-
tinguished himself in the battle of
Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines, for which
he was promoted Brigadier-General ;
fought in almost every subsequent bat-
tle of the Army of the Potomac. He
was severely wounded at Chancellors-
ville, May 2, 1863, and at Gettysburg,
July 1, 1863. He was mustered out
of the service with the rank of Major-
General of volunteers. In 1866-1868,
he was Secretary of State of New
York; in 1871 became Attorney-Gen-
eral; and in 1873 resumed law prac-
tice in New York. He died in New
York city, Jan. 11, 1896.


Barlow, Joel, an American poet
and diplomatist ; born in Reading,
Conn., March 24, 1754. In the course
of his adventurous career he fell
in with the French army and was a
sharer in its memorable retreat from
Russia. Being overcome by cold and
privation, he died near Cracow, Dec.
22, 1812.

Barmecides, an illustrious family
of Khorassan, the romance of whose
history is equally familiar to Eu-
ropeans and Americans in the " Thou-
sand and One Nights " (Arabian
Nights' Entertainments), and to Ori-
entals in the pages of their historians
and poets; and who flourished at the
Court of the early Abbasside Caliphs.
BarmeCj or Barmek, the founder of
the family, transmitted the honors con-
ferred on him by the Caliph Abd-al-
Malik to his son, Khalid, and from
him they passed to his son, Yahia,
who, becoming tutor to the famous
Haroun-al-Raschid, acquired an influ-
ence over that Prince; which, with
Haroun's personal affection for the
family, carried his sons, Fadl, or Fazl,
Giaffar, Mohammed, and Mousa, to
the highest dignities of the Court. The
virtues and munificence of the Bar-
mecides were, for a long period, dis-
played under favor of Haroun, as well
as to the admiration of his subjects;
but one of the brothers, Giaffar, hav-
ing at last become an object of suspi-
cion to the cruel and treacherous ca-
liph, Yahia and his sons were sudden-
ly seized, Giaffar beheaded, and the
others condemned to perpetual impris-
onment. The year 802 is assigned as
the date of this tragedy.

Barnabas, St., or Joseph, a dis-
ciple of Jesus, and a companion of the
Apostle Paul. He was a Levite, and
a native of the Isle of Cyprus, and is
said to have sold all his property, and
laid the price of it at the feet of the
apostles (Acts iv: 36, 37). He was a
beloved fellow laborer with Paul.

Barnacle, a common crustacean
belonging to the group of stalked cir-
ripedia. It fixes itself to the bottoms
of vessels and other inanimate and
also animate objects, and its head
being thus attached kicks food into its
mouth with its legs. The term is often
applied to persons who are superfluous
fixtures in some institution or organ-


Barnard, Edward Emerson, an
[American astronomer, born in Nash-
ville, Tenn., Dec. 16, 1857; graduated
at Vanderbilt University in 1887 ; was
astronomer in Lick Observatory, Cali-
fornia, in 1887-1895, and then became
Professor of Astronomy in Chicago
University and Director of the Yerkes
Observatory. His principal discover-
ies are the fifth satellite of Jupiter in
1892, and 16 comets. He has made
photographs ef the Milky Way, the
comets, nebulae, etc. The French Acad-
emy of Sciences awarded him the Le-
lande gold medal in 1892, and the
Arago gold medal in 1893, and the
Royal Astronomical Society of Great
Britain gave him a gold medal in 1897.
He is a member of many American
and foreign societies, and a contribu-
tor to astronomical journals.

Barnard, Frederick Augustus
Porter, an American educator, born
in Sheffield, Mass., May 5, 1809 ; was
graduated at Yale College in 1828 ; in-
structor there in 1830 ; Professor of
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy
in the University of Alabama in 1837-
1848, and afterward of Chemistry and
Natural History till 1854; Professor
of Mathematics and Astronomy in the
University of Mississippi, 1854-1861 ;
its president in 1856-1858; and its
Chancellor in 1858-4861. He was
president of Columbia College, New
York city, in 1864-1888. He died 1889.

Barnard, Henry, an American
educational reformer, born at Hart-
ford, Conn., in 1811 ; died there in
1900. He was graduated at Yale in
1830; entered the legal profession, be-
came interested in politics, and during
service in the legislature distinguished
himself by his interest in the public
school system, and the vigor with
which he urged reforms. He was in
succession School Commissioner of R.
I. ; Superintendent of Schools in Con-
necticut ; President of the University
of Wisconsin ; President of St. John's
College, Annapolis, and was first Uni-
ted States Commissioner of Education.
He organized the Bureau, and in his
reports suggested or supported the re-
forms that have since been made.

Barnard College, an educational
(non-sectarian) institution for women
only, in New York city; organized in
1889, and named in honor of Fred-
erick A. P. Barnard, through whose

Bar* Burners

efforts its foundation was largely due.
It was made essentially a part of Co-
lumbia University, certain courses of
study in the University and the use of
its library being open to the students
of Barnard. In January, 1900, the
college was formally incorporated with
Columbia University.

Bn.rE.ardo, Thomas J., an Eng-
lish philanthropist; founder of the
Barnardo Homes for homeless chil-
dren ; had his attention first turned in
this direction by the condition in
which he found a boy in a ragged
school in East London in 1866. Fol-
lowing up the subject, he began to
rescue children who had found their
only shelter at night under archways,
or in courts and alleys. These were
introduced to his homes, where they
received an industrial training, were
saved from a possible career of crime,
and enabled to achieve an honorable
position in life. He died in 1905.

Barnato, Barney, a South Afri-
can speculator. His real name is be-
lieved to have been Bernard Isaac. He
was born in London, England, about
1845, of Hebrew parents. He began
business there as a dealer in diamonds,
and in five years earned enough to buy
shares in the Kimberley diamond mines.
He established a partnership with Ce-
cil Rhodes, and, when, in 1886, gold
was discovered, secured possession of
the greater part of the region. He
committed suicide by jumping from
the deck of the steamer " Scot," bound
from Cape Town to Southampton,
June 14, 1897.

Barnave, Antoine Pierve
Joseph Marie, a French orator, was
born at Grenoble in 1761. The Con-
stituent Assembly appointed him their
President in January, 1791. After the
flight of- the King, he defended Lafay-
ette against the charge of being privy
to this step, and, upon the arrest of
the royal family, was sent, with Petion
and Latour-Maubourg, to meet them,
and to conduct them to Paris. When
the correspondence of the court fell
into the hands of the victorious party,
Aug. 10, 1792, they pretended to have
found documents which showed him
to have been secretly connected with
it, and he was guillotined Nov. 29,

Barn Burners, the nickname given
to the radical element of the Demo-

Barnegat Bay

cratic Party in New York State, which
supported Van Buren in the campaign
of 1848.

Barnegat Bay, a bay on the E.
coast of New Jersey, about 25 miles
in length. Barnegat Inlet connects
the bay with the Atlantic.

Barnes, Albert, an American
Presbyterian minister, born in Rome,
N. Y., Dec. 1, 1798. For 37 years
pastor of the First Presbyterian
Church in Philadelphia ; he was best
known by his " Notes " on the New
Testament (of which over 1,000,000
volumes are said to have circulated),
Isaiah, Job, Psalms, etc. He died at
Philadelphia, Dec. 24, 1870.

Barnes, Joseph K., an American
medical officer, born in Philadelphia,
July 21, 1817 ; was educated in the

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