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writer, a large portion of his works
being polemical. D. Dec. 8, 1691.

Baxter, Sylvester, an American
publicist, born in West Yarmouth,
Mass., Feb. 6, 1850; was educated in
Germany ; spent many years as a
newspaper correspondent in various
parts of the world ; "father" of the
Greater Boston movement.

Bay, an arm or inlet of the sea
extending into the land, with a wider
mouth proportionally than a gulf.

Bay, a berry, and especially one
from some species of the laurel ; also
the English name of the laurus nobilis.
A fine tree, with deep green foliage
and a profusion of dark purple or
black berries.

Bayadere, a name originally given
by the Portuguese to the singing and
dancing girls of Hindustan. They are
of two kinds those who are em-
ployed as priestesses in the temples,
and those who go about the country
as itinerants. The former class cele-
brate with song and dance the festi*



Bay City

vals of the gods ; the latter are em-
ployed by the grandees of India to
amuse and cheer them at their ban-
quets.

Bayamo, or San Salvador, a
town in the interior of the E. part of
the island of Cuba, situated in a fer-
tile and healthy district on the north-
ern slope of the Sierra Maestra. It is
connected by a railway With Manzan-
illa.

Bayard, or more properly Bayart,
Pierre du Terrail, Chevalier de,
called the " knight without fear and
without reproach " ; born in 1476, in
the castle of Bayard, near Grenoble,
was one of the most spotless charac-
ters of the Middle Ages. He was sim-
ple and modest; a true friend and
tender lover; pious, humane, and mag-
nanimous. He died April 30, 1524.

Bayard, Thomas Francis, an
American statesman and diplomatist,
born in Wilmington. Del., Oct. 29,
1828. He was admitted to the bar
in 1851 and practiced law until 1868,
when he succeeded his father, James
A. Bayard, in the United States
Senate. In the Democratic National
Convention of 1872 he received 15
votes for the presidential nomination,
and in 1880 and 18&4 his name was
voted on in the National conventions.
In 1885 Mr. Bayard was chosen Sec-
retary of State, and in 1892, was ap-
pointed United States Ambassador to
the Court of St. James, being the
first to bear that title. Mr. Bayard
filled this office with high honor to
himself and his country. During his
official residence in London he was
the recipient of marked attentions,
and by his public utterances and his
engaging personality promoted the
best feeling in both social and govern-
ment circles. He died in Dedham,
Mass., Sept. 28, 1898.

Bay City, city and capital of Bay
county, Mich., on the Saginaw river
and several railroads; 13 miles N. of
Saginaw; includes since 1905 the
former city of West Bay City, on
the opposite side of the river. The
city is a port of entry; is in a rich
farming section; and is engaged in
manufacturing, the salt industry, the
fisheries, and the cultivation of beet
sugar and chicory. Pop. (1910)
45,166.



Baycux

Bayenx, an ancient city of Nor-
mandy, in the French Department of
Calvados, on the Aure. The Gothic
cathedral the oldest, it is said, in
Normandy was rebuilt after a fire
by William the Conqueror, in 1077;
bat the present edifice dates mainly
from 1100 to the 13th century.

Baycnx Tapestry, a celebrated
roll of linen cloth or canvas, 214 feet
in length and 20 inches wide, contain*
Ing, in 72 distinct compartments, a
representation, in embroidery, of the
events of the Norman invasion of Eng-
land, from Harold's leave-taking of
Edward the Confessor, on his depart-
ure for Normandy, to the battle of
Hastings. It contains the figures of
623 men, 202 horses, 55 dogs, 505 ani-
mals of various kinds nt hitherto
enumerated, 37 buildings, 41 ships and
boats, and 49 trees in all 1,512 fig-
ures. These are all executed by the
needle, and are believed to have been
the handiwork of Matilda, the queen
of William the Conqueror, and by her
presented to the Cathedral of Ha. you x.
This piec of tapestry is exceedingly
valuable, lx>th as a work of art of the
referred to, and as correctly
represent ing the costume of the time.
It has been engraved, and several
works upon the subject nave been pub-
lished.

Bay Islands, a small group in the
Bay of Honduras, 150 miles 8. E. of
Knlizc. The cluster was proclaimed a
British colony in 1852, but in 1859
they were ceded to the Republic of
Honduras.

Bayle, Pierr, French critic and
miscellaneous writer, the son of a Cal-
vinfst preacher, born at Carlat (Lan-
guedoc) in 1047, died at Rotterdam
1700. His chief work is n Dictionary
of History and Criticism, which he
first published in 1. This work,
much enlarged, has passed through
many editions. It is a vast store-
house of farts, discussions, and opin-
ions, and though it was publicly << -n-
xured by the Rotterdam consistory for
its frequent impurities, its pervading
Hecptirism, nnd tacit atheism, it long
remained n favorite look both with
literary men and with men of the
world. The articlen in his dictionary,
in themselves, are generally of little
value, and serve only as a pretext for



Bayonet

the notes, in which the author dis-
plays, at the same time, his learning
and the power of his logic.

Bayley, James Roosevelt, an
American theologian, born in New
York city, Aug. 23, 1814; studied at
Trinity College, Hartford, and became
minister of the Protestant Episcopal
Church ; but, in 1842, was converted
to the Roman Catholic faith ; and, af-
ter studying at Paris and Rome, be-
came a priest in 1844. After serving
as secretary to Archbishop Hughes, be
was consecrated the first Bishop of
Newark, N. J., in 1853. In 1872 he
became Archbishop of Baltimore, Md.
He was the founder of Seton Hall
College and several other institutions.
He died in Newark, N. J., Oct. 3, 1877.

Bayley, William Shirley, an
American geologist, born in Baltimore,
Md, Nov. 10, 1801; graduated at
Johns Hopkins, in 1883; since 1887
has been Assistant Geologist of the
Lake Superior division of the United
States Geological Survey, and since
1886 associate editor of the "Ameri-
can Naturalist"

Baylor University, a coeduca-
tional institution in Waco, Tex. ; now
under the auspices of the Baptist
Church.

Bayly. Ada Ellen, an English
novelist, best known as EDNA LYAJLL.

Bayly, Thomas Haynes, an Eng-
lish song-writer and author; born in
Bath, Oct 13, 1797. After deserting
successively both law and church, Bay-
ly, during a short sojourn in Dublin,
first discovered his powers as a ballad
writer nnd achieved his earliest suc-
cesses. He died April 22, 1839.

Baynes, Thomas Spencer, an
English editor, born in Wellington,
Somerset, in 1823. He studied under
Sir William Hamilton at Edinburgh,
and in 1804 he was appointed to the
Chair of Logic, Rhetoric, and Meta-
physics in St. Andrews University, a
post he held till his death, in London,
in 1887.

Bayonet, a straight sharp-point-
ed weapon, generally triangular, in-
tended to be fixed upon the muzzle of
a rifle or musket, which is thus trans-
formed into a thrusting weapon. It
was probably invented about 1040, in
Bayonne (though this is doubtful).
but was not universally introduced



Bayonne

until after the pike was wholly laid
aside, in the beginning of the 18th cen-
tury. About 1690 the bayonet began
to be fastened by means of a socket
to the outside of the barrel, instead of
being inserted as formerly in the in-
side. A variety of the bayonet, called
the sword bayonet, is widely used.

Bayonne, a city in Hudson county,
N. J.; on New York harbor. Newark
bay, and the Contra] Railroad of
New Jersey; 7 miles S. W. of New
York city; is principally engaged in
shipping coal and refining petroleum;
and has a fine residential section.
Pop. (1910) 55,545.

Bayonne Conference, a confer-
ence held at Bayonne, in June, 1565,
between Charles IX. of France, the
queen mother, Catherine de Medic-is,
Elizabeth, Queen of Spain, and the
Duke of Alva, envoy of Philip II., to
arrange plans for the repression of the
Huguenots. It is generally believed
that the massacre of St. Bartholo-
mew's Day was determined upon at
this meeting.

Bayonne, Treaty of, a treaty of
peace agreed to May 4, 1808, and
signed on the next day, between Na-
poleon I. and Charles IV., King of
Spain. The latter resigned his king-
dom, and Napoleon I. engaged to main-
tain its integrity, and to preserve the
Roman Catholic religion. His son,
Ferdinand VII., confirmed the cession
May 10.

Bayrenth. See BEYBOUT.

Bayrlioffor, Karl Theodore, a
German Hegelian philosopher, and
radical politician, born in Marburg in
1812, was Professor of Philosophy
there, taking the chair in 1845. In
1846 his radical views caused his ex-
pulsion. During the brief rule of lib-
eralism in Hesse, be was chosen pres-
ident of the Chamber; but, in 1853.
he was forced to flee to the United
States. He died in Jordan, Wis., Feb.
3, 1888.

Bay Rum, an aromatic, spirituous
liquid, used by hair dressers and per-
fumers, prepared in the West Indies
by distilling rum in which bay leaves
have been steeped.

Bay Salt, a general term for
coarse grained salt, but properly ap-
plied to salt obtained by spontaneous



B as tan

or natural evaporation of sea water
in large shallow tanks or bays.

Bay Window, a window projecting
beyond the line of the front of a
house, generally either in a semi-hex-
agon or semi-octagon.

Bazaine, Francois, Achille, a
French military officer, born in Ver-
sailles, Feb. 13, 1811. He served in
Algeria, in Spain against the Carlists,
in the Crimean War, and joined the
Mexican expedition as general or di-
vision, in 1862, and, in 1864, was
made a marshal of France. He com-
manded the 3d Army Corps in the
Franco-Prussian War, when he capit-
ulated at Metz, after a seven weeks'
siege, with an army of 175,000 men.
For this act he was tried by court-
martial in 1871, found guilty of trea-
son and condemned to death. This
sentence was commuted to 20 years'
seclusion in the Isle St. Marguerite,
from which he escaped and retired to
Spain. He died in Madrid, Sept 23,
1888. His widow, who had clunk
faithfully to him in his adversity, and
had plotted successfully for his escape,
died in Mexico City, Jan. 8, 1900.
She was a woman of aristocratic birth
and much beauty.

Bazan, Emilia Par do, a Span-
ish author, born in Coruna, in 1852;
published works on history and phil-
osophy, and was the author of " Stud-
ies in Darwinism," " Saint Francis of
Assisi," and many novels. These,
translated into English, have become
very popular.

Bazar, an exchange; a market
place; a place where goods are ex-
posed for sale. Bazar is a term orig-
inally derived from the Arabic, and
literally signifies the sale or exchange
of goods. The name has of late years
been adopted in many American and
European cities, and is applied to
places for the sale of fancy goods, etc.

Baztan, or Bastan, a Pyrenean
valley in the extreme N. of Spain;
having a length of 9 miles, and an
average breadth of 4 miles. It is in-
habited by about 8.000 people, who
form, under Spanish supervision, a
sort of diminutive republic, at the
head of which is the mayor of Elizon-
do. The citizens of this republic rank
with the Spanish nobility and hold
special privileges, which were granted



Bdellium

them for former services to the Span-
ish crown.

Bdellium, in Scripture, is in He-
brew bedholachh, rendered in the Sep-
tuagint of Gen. ii: 12, anthrax (lit-
erally, burning coal). Some modern
writers, following the Septuagint
translation, make it a mineral, as are
the gold and the onyx stone, with
which it is associated in Gen. ii : 12.
Others think that it was the gum de-
scribed below; while the Rabbins, Bo-
chart, and Gesenius consider that it
was a pearl, or pearls.

Beach, Alfred Ely, an American
publisher and inventor, born in Spring-
field, Mass., in 1826; son of Moses
Yale Beach, editor of the old New
York " Sun." In 1846 he established
the " Scientific American," in connec-
tion with Orson D. Munn. For nearly
50 years he was editor of this paper
and director of its patent business. He
died in New York city, Jan. 1, 1896.

Beach, Amy Marcy Cheney, an
American composer, and one of the
chief of the few women who are dis-
tinguished as creative musicians. She
was born in New Hampshire, Sept. 5,
1867. Her most important works are
"The Gaelic Symphony," for full or-
chestra, a "Jubilate," written for the
dedication of the Woman's Building at
the Chicago Exposition, and a cyclus
of fourteen songs.

Beach, Moses Tale, an American
publisher and inventor, born 1800 ;
died 1868. He became owner of the
New York " Sun " three years after its
establishment. His inventions relate
to the manufacture of paper, and in-
clude a rag-cutting machine.

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Dis-
raeli, Earl of, an English states-
man and author; born in London,
England, Dec. 21, 1804 ; the eldest son
of Isaac D'Israeli, the well-known au-
thor of the " Curiosities of Litera-
ture " ; his mother also being of Jew-
ish race. Little is known of his early
education, though it is certain he
never attended a public school or a
university. In 1817 he was baptized
into the Church of England. He ac-
quired a good reputation as an author,
and sought eminence in politics.

His first appointment to office was
in 1852, when he became chancellor of
the exchequer under Lord Derby. In .'



Beale

February, 1868, he reached the
summit of his ambition, becoming
premier on the resignation of Lord
Derby, but being in a minority
after the general election he had
i to give up office the following Decem-
i ber. In 1874 he again became prime
minister with a strong Conservative
majority, and he remained in power
for six years. This period was marked
by his elevation to the peerage in
1876 as Earl of Beaconsfield, and by
the prominent part he took in regard
to the Eastern question and the con-
clusion of the treaty of Berlin in
1878, when he visited the German
capital.

In the spring of 1880 Parliament
was rather suddenly dissolved, and
the new Parliament showing an over-
whelming Liberal majority, he re-
signed office, though he still retained
the leadership of his party. Not long
after this, the publication of a novel
called " Endymion " (his last, " Lo-
thair," had been published 10 years
before) showed that his intellect was
still vigorous. His physical powers,
however, Were now giving way, and
he died April 19, 1881, after an ill-
ness of some weeks' duration. His
wife had died in 1872 after having
been created Viscountess Beaconsfield.

Bead Snake, a beautiful little
snake, variegated with yellow, car-
mine, and jet black. Though venom-
ous, it rarely uses its fangs. It is
about two feet long.

Beagle, a small hunting dog.

Beagle Island, an island discov-
ered by Admiral Fitzroy, during a
voyage in the " Beagle," to survey
Patagonia, in 1828-1834. The chan-
nel of the same name is on the S. side
of the Island of Tierra del Fuego.

Beal, George Lafayette, an
American military officer, born in Nor-
way, Me., May 21, 1825. When the
Civil War broke out, he was captain
of the Norway Light Infantry. On
Jan. 15, 1866, he was mustered out of
service with the brevet of Major-Gen-
eral of Volunteers. In 1880-:1885 he
was adjutant-general of Maine, and
in 1888-1894, State treasurer. He
died in Norway, Me., Dec. 11, 1896.

Beale, Edward Fitzgerald, an
American diplomatist, born in Wash-
ington, D. C., Feb. 4, 1822 ; graduated



Beale

at the United States Naval Academy
in 1842, and at the beginning of the
Mexican War was assigned to duty in
California, under Commodore Stock-
ton. After the war, he resigned his
naval commission and was appointed
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for
California and New Mexico. He was
commissioned a Brigadier-General in
the army by President Pierce. He
served in the Union army in the Civil
War, and at its close engaged in stock
raising in Los Angeles, Cal., till 1876,
when President Grant appointed him
United States Minister to Austria.
He died in Washington, D. C., April
22, 1893.

Beale, Lionel Smith, an English
physiologist and microscopist, born in
London, Feb. 5, 1828. He is a mem-
ber of the Royal Medical and Chirur-
gical, the Microscopical, and other
English and foreign societies, and is
the author of a number of medical and
scientific works.

Beall, John Young, a Confeder-
ate guerilla, born in Virginia, Jan. 1,
1835 ; was appointed an acting master
in the Confederate naval service in
1863. On Sept 19, 1864, he and a
number of followers were shipped on
the Lake Erie steamer " Philo Par-
sons " as passengers, and at a given
signal, took possession of the vessel,
making prisoners of the crew. They
also scuttled another boat, the " Isl-
and Queen," and tried to wreck a
railroad train near Buffalo, N. Y. In
spite of a proclamation of Jefferson
Davis assuming the responsibility of
this expedition, Beall was hanged on
Governor's Island, New York, Feb.
24, 1865, on the ground that, if act-
ing under orders, he should have
shown some badge of authority.

Beam, a long, straight and strong
piece of wood, iron, or steel, especially
when holding an important place in
some structure, and serving for sup-
port or consolidation ; often equivalent
to girder. In a balance it is the part
from the ends of which the scales are
suspended. In a loom it is a cylin-
drical piece of wood on which weavers
wind the warp before weaving; also,
the cylinder on which the cloth is
rolled as it is woven. In a ship, one
of the strong transverse pieces stretch-
ing across from one side to the other



Bean

to support the decks and retain the
sides at their proper distance ; hence,
a ship is said to be on her beam ends
when lying over on her side.

Beaming, the art of winding the
web on the weaver's beam in a manner
suitable for weaving, with regard to
firmness and evenness. It is to some
extent a special employment, followed
by workmen trained as beamers.

Bean, a well known cultivated
plant which may be primarily divided
into the garden bean and the field
bean. Of the former, there are numer-
ous sub-varieties. The earliest is the
mazagan, which is small seeded ; while
the largest is the Windsor. The field
bean runs into two leading sub-varie-
ties, a larger and a smaller one. The
navy bean is the common white bean
used as an article of diet.

The word is also applied to any
leguminous plant resembling a bean,
though not of the genuine genus. Such,
for example, as the Florida bean,
which is the seed, not the fruit, of a
West Indian plant. These seeds are
washed up on the Florida shore, and
are sometimes used as food, and some-
times they are polished and used as
ornaments.

Bean, Nehemiah S., an Ameri-
can inventor, born in Gilmanton, N.
H., in 1818; learned the machinist's
trade. In the winter of 1857-1858 he
built his first steam fire engine, which
he named the " Lawrence, and sold
it to the city of Boston. In 1859 be
took the management of the Amos-
keag Locomotive Works in Manches-
ter, where he had been employed in
1847-1850. During 1859 he built the
" Amoskeag Steam Fire Engine, No.
1," the first of a class of engines which
now is used everywhere. He died in
Manchester, N. H., July 20, 1896.

Bean, Tarleton Hoffman, an
American ichthyologist, born in Bain-
bridge, Pa., Oct. 8, 1846 ; graduated at
Columbian University in Washington,
in 1876. He was curator of the De-
partment of Fishes, United States
National Museum, in 1880-1895;
represented the United States Fish
Commission at the World's Colum-
bian Exposition in 1893, and at At-
lanta in 1895. Paris in 1900, and St.
Louis in 1904; became New York
State Fish Culturist in 1906.



Bear

Bear, the English name of the va-
rious species of plantigrade mammals
belonging to the ursus and some neigh-
boring genera. The term plantigrade,
applied to the bears, intimates that
they walk on the soles of their feet;
not, like the digitigrade animals, on
their toes. Though having six incisor
teeth in each jaw, like the rest of the
carnivora, yet the tubercular crowns
of the molar teeth show that their food
is partly vegetable. They grub up
roots, and, when they can obtain it,
greedily devour honey. They hiber-
nate in winter. The best known spe-
cies is ursus arctos, the brown bear,
the one sometimes seen dancing to the
amusement r* f children in the streets.
They are wild in this country, on the
continent of Europe, and in Asia.
The grizzly bear, black bear and Polar
bear are well known in menageries.

In Stock Exchange parlance, a
bear is one who contracts to sell on a
specified day certain stock not be-
longing to him, at the market price
then prevailing, on receiving imagi-
nary payment for them at the rate
which obtains when the promise was
maJe. It now becomes his interest
that the stock on which he has specu-
lated should fall in price ; and he is
tempted to effect this end by circulat-
ing adverse rumors regarding it ; while
the purchaser, called a " bull," sees it
to his advantage to make it rise. The
origin of the term is uncertain.

In astronomy, the word is applied
to one or other of two constellations,
Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, called
respectively the Great Bear and the
Little Bear. When the word Bear
stands alone, it signifies Ursa Major.

Beard, the hair that grows on the
chin, lips, and adjacent parts of the
face of men, and sometimes, though
rarely, of women. Its growth is the
distinctive sign of manhood.

Beard, Daniel Carter, an Amer-
ican artist and author, born in Cincin-
nati, O., June 21, 1850 ; first engaged
in civil engineering, but later stud-
ied art and has since become
known as a Book and magazine illus-
trator. He founded and became teach-
er of the Department of Animal Draw-
ing in the Woman's School of Applied
Design, believed to be the first class
of this character in the world.



Bear Lake

Beard, George Miller, an Amer-
ican physician and hygienic writer,
born at Montville, Conn., May 8,
1839 ; made a specialty of the study of
stimulants and narcotics, hypnotism,
spiritualism, etc. He died in New
York, Jan. 23, 1883.

Beard, Henry, an American paint-
er, born in Ohio, in 1841 ; son of
James Henry Beard, and nephew of
William Holbrook Beard ; served in
the Union army during the Civil
War; and, after his removal to New
York city, in 1877, was chiefly en-
gaged in illustrating books and period-
icals. He died in New York, Nov. 19,
1889.

Beard, James Henry, an Amer-
ican painter, born in Buffalo, N. Y.,
in 1814. In his childhood his parents
removed to Ohio. He became a por-
trait painter in Cincinnati, and paint-
ed the portraits of Henry Clay and
other distinguished men. He died in
Flushing, N. Y., April 4, 1893.

Beard, William Holbrook, an
American painter, born in Paines-
ville, O., April 13, 1825; brother of
James H. Beard ; was a traveling por-
trait painter from 1846 till 1851,
when he settled in Buffalo, N. Y. He
made many studies of decorative archi-
tecture. He died in New York city,
Feb. 20, 1900.

Beard Moss, a lichen of gray
color, forming a shaggy coat on many
forest trees.

Beardsley, Aubrey, an English
author and illustrator, born in Bright-
on, in 1874; died in Mentone, France,
March 16, 1898.

Beardsley, Samuel, an American
jurist, born in Hoosic, N. Y., Feb. 9,
1790. He became Associate Judge of
the Supreme Court of New York in
1844, and three years later succeeded
Judge Bronson as Chief Justice. On
his retirement he devoted himself to
the practice of his profession. He died
in Utica, N. Y., May 6, 1860.

Bearer Company, a British or-
ganization for removing wounded sol-
diers from the field of battle to the
dressing station or temporary hospital.

Bear Lake, Great, an extensive
sheet of fresh water in the Northwest
Territory of Canada.



Bear River

Bear River, a river of the United
States, 400 miles long ; rises in the N.
of Utah, and flows N. into Idaho;
turns abruptly S., re-enters Utah, and
empties into Great Salt Lake.

Bear's Grease, the fat of bears,
esteemed as of great efficacy in nour-
ishing and promoting the growth of
hair. The unguents sold under this
name, however, are in a great measure
made of hog's lard or veal fat, or a
mixture of both, scented and slightly
colored.

Beast Fables, stories in which
animals play human parts, a widely
spread primitive form of literature,
often surviving in more or less devel-
oped forms in the more advanced civ-
ilizations.

Beat, in music, the beating or pul-
sation resulting from the joint vibra-



Online LibraryGeorge Jotham HagarThe New world encyclopedia; a library of reference (Volume 1) → online text (page 38 of 91)