George Jotham Hagar.

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called Paraclete. Being subsequently
appointed abbot of St. Gildas de Ruys,
in Brittany, he invited Heloise and her
religious sisterhood, on the dissolution
of their monastery at Argenteuil, to re-
side at the above oratory, and re-
ceived them there. He lived for some
10 year? at St. Gildas. Ultimately,
however, he fled from it and lived
for a time in other parts of Brittany.

St. Bernard of Clairvaux, the lead-
ing opponent of the rationalistic school
of Abelard, laid his doctrines before
the Council of Sens, in 1140, had them
condemned by the Pope, and obtained
an order for his imprisonment. Abe-
lard appealed to the Pope, published
his defense, and went to Rome. Pass-
ing through Cluny, he visited Peter the
Venerable, who was abbot there. This
humane and enlightened divine effect-
ed a reconciliation between him and
his enemies, but Abelard resolved to
end his days in retirement. The se-
vere penances which he imposed upon
himself, together with the grief which
never left his heart, gradually con-
sumed his strength, and he died, a pat-
tern of monastic discipline, in 1142,
at the abbey of St. Marcel, near Cha-
lon-sur-Saone. Heloise begged his
body, and had him buried in the Para-
clete, of which she was at that time
the abbess, with the view of reposing
in death by his side. In 1800 the
ashes of both were carried to the

Museum of French Monuments at
Paris, and in November, 1817, were
deposited under a chapel within the
precincts of the church of Monamy.
The small chapel, in the form of a
beautiful marble monument, in which
the figures of the ill-fated pair are
seen reposing side by side, is now one
of the most interesting objects in the
Parisian cemetery of Pere la Chaise.

Abelard was distinguished as a
grammarian, orator, logician, poet,
musician, philosopher, theologian, and
mathematician. As a philosopher he
founded an eclectic system commonly,
but erroneously, termed Conceptual-
ism, which lay midway between the
prevalent Realism, represented in its
most advanced form by William of
Champeaux, and extreme Nominalism,
represented in the teaching of his other
master Roscellin, and largely ap-
proached the Aristotelian philosophy.
In ethics Abelard placed much empha-
sis on the subjective intention, which
he held to determine the moral value
as well as the moral character of man's
action. Along this line his work is
notable, owing to the fact that his
successors did little in connection with
morals, for they did not regard the
rules of human conduct as within the
field of philosophic discussion. His
love and his misfortunes have secured
his name from oblivion ; and the man
whom his own century admired as a
profound dialectician is now celebrated
as the martyr of love. The letters of
Abelard and Heloise have been often
published in the original and in trans-
lations. Pope's poetical epistle
" Eloisa to Abelard " is founded on
them. Abelard's autobiography, en-
titled " Historia Calamitatum," is still
extant. The chief work on the life
of Abelard is Remusat's " Abelard "
(two vols. Paris, 1845). See also
Compayre's " Abelard and the Origin
and Early History of Universities "
(1893 ; series of " Great Educators ").
A complete edition of his work was
published by Cousin (tw y o vols. Paris,

Abercrombie, John, in his day
the most eminent of Scottish physi-
cians, was born in 1780, at Aberdeen,
where his father was a parish min-
ister. His principal professional writ-
ings were treatises on the pathology of
the brain and on diseases of the stom-



ach. Dr. Abercrombie died suddenly,
Nov. 14, 1844.

Abercrombie, Sir Ralph, a Brit-
ish general, born in 1738. He was
commander-in-chief in the West Indies,
in 1795; in the attempt against Hol-
land, in 1799, and in the expedition
to Egypt. Mortally wounded in the
beginning of the battle of Alexandria
(March 21, 1801), the general kept
the field during the day, and died some
days after his victory.

Aberdeen, the chief city and sea-
port in the North of Scotland, lies at
the mouth and on the N. side of the
river Dee, 111 miles N. of Edinburgh.
Population of the parliamentary burgh
X1901) 153,108.

Aberdeen, George Hamilton
Gordon, Earl of, born in 1784. He
took office as Secretary of State for
Foreign Affairs in 1828, in the min-
istry formed under the Duke of Wel-
lington, and in 1843 in the Peel min-
istry. Entering public life as a Tory,
his policy was that of non-interference
in the affairs of foreign states. In
1853, Earl Aberdeen was solected to
head a new ministry, which for some
time was extremely popular. He en-
deavored to prevent the country from
entering upon the conflict with Rus-
sia, but all his efforts were unavail-
ing. Failing to receive sufficient sup-
port to carry out his measures, he re-
signed in 1855. Died Dec. 14, 1860.

Aberdeen, Sir John Campbell,
Hamilton Gordon, seventh Earl
of, born in 1847. He served as Gov-
ernor-General of Canada (1893-1898),
and as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland
in 1886 and after 1905. His wife,
born in 1857, is a daughter of Lord
Tweedmouth and a direct descendant
of Robert Bruce. She is an accom-
plished orator, and organized the Irish
Village at the Columbian Exposition
in Chicago in 1893. For many years
she has been conspicuous in plans for
promoting the welfare of women.

Abernethy, James, a Scotch
civil engineer, born in Aberdeen in
1815. As a boy he assisted his father :
on the extension of the London docks, i
and afterward designed and built the j
lock and dock at Aberdeen, the docks
at Swansea, Newport, Cardiff and
Hull, and the Cavour canal in Italy;
designed the accepted plan for the im-

provement of the Danube at Vienna ;
reclaimed Lake Aboukir, in Egypt,
and proposed the Manchester ship-
canal. He was the first to apply hy-
draulic power for working lock-gates.
He died March 8, 1896.

Abernethy, John, an eminent
English surgeon, founder of the School
of St. Bartholomew's ; born in London,
April 3, 1764. He died at Enfield, April
28, 1831.

Abert, John James, an American
military engineer, born in Virginia in
1788; served in the War of 1812;
was made chief of United States to-
pographical engineers in 1838 ; assist-
ed in developing important canals and
other works ; member of the Geo-
graphical Society of France. He died
in 1863.

Abesta, or Avesta, the name of
one of the sacred books of the Persian
magi, which they ascribe to their great
founder Zoroaster.

Abgar, or Abgarus, is the name
or title of 28 princes of Edessa, in
Mesopotamia. The most notable of
these princes is the 14th of the name,
a contemporary of Jesus, and was said
to have written a letter to Jesus and
to have received an answer from Him.
These letters, translated into Greek
from the Syriac by Eusebius of Caesa-
rea, were denounced as spurious by
Pope Gelasius in 494 and soon lost all
credit. The letter from Abgar con-
tains a request that Jesus should visit
him, and heal him of a certain dis-
ease. In the reply, Jesus is repre-
sented as promising to send a disci-
ple to heal him after His ascension.
What purported to be copies of this
correspondence came to light in 1900.
For other fables in this connection, see
Lipsius' " Die Edessenische Abgar-
sage" (1880).

Abgillus, surnamed Prester John,
a king of the Frisons. He attended
Charlemagne to the Holy Land, and
did not return with him, but made
great conquests in Abyssinia, which
was called, from him, the empire of
Prester John. He lived in the 8th

Abiathar (the father of abun-
dance ) , a high-priest of the Jews, son
of Ahimelech, who had borne the sam^
office, and received David in his house.
This so enraged Saul that he put Ahim-



elech and 81 priests to death ; Abi-
athar alone escaped the massacre. He
afterward was high-priest, and often

fave King David testimonies of his
delity. But after this he conspired
with Adonijah, in order to raise him
to the throne of King David, his fa-
ther, which so exasperated Solomon
against him that he divested him of
the priesthood, and banished him A. M.
3021 (B. c. 1014).

Abib, a name given by the Jews
to the first month of their ecclesiasti-
cal year, afterward called Nisan. It
answered to the latter part of March
and beginning of April.

Abigail, the beautiful wife of Na-
bal, a wealthy owner of goats and
sheep in Carmel. When David's mes-
sengers T*ere slighted by Nabal, Abi-
gail took the blame upon herself, and
succeeded in appeasing the anger of
David. Ten days after, Nabal died,
and David sent for Abigail and made
her his wife. ( I Sam. xxv : 14, etc. )

Abilene, city and capital of Tay-
lor county, Tex.; on the Texas &
Pacific railroad; 200 miles N. of
Austin; has flour, cotton-seed oil, and
planing mills, machine shops, cream-
ery, chair and mattress factories, and
large cattle trade. Pop. (1910) 9,204.

Abiogenesis, name given by Prof.'
Huxley to the theory of spontaneous
generation, i. e., that living matter can
be produced from that which is not in
itself living matter. It is the antith-
esis of biogenesis.

Abishai, son of David's sister
Zeruiah, and brother to Joab.

Abo, Archipelago of, an exten-
sive group of low, rocky islands in
the Baltic Sea, spreading along the
S. and W. coasts of Finland, opposite
the city of Abo, rendering the naviga-
tion difficult and dangerous.

Abo, Peace of, a treaty concluded
Aug. 17, 1743, between Russia and
Sweden, by which Russia retained a
part of Finland and restored to Swe-
den the remainder on condition that
the latter power should elect the Prince
of Holstein-Gottorp successor to the

Abolitionists, in United States
history, those who advocated the abo-
lition of African slavery in the South-
ern States. The anti-slavery agita-
tion dates back even to colonial days.

Agitation became acute after the set-
tlement of the war troubles of 1812-
1815. In 1833, the formation of a Na-
tional Anti-Slavery Society took place
in Philadelphia, and in 1848 of the
Free Soil Party. The abolition move-
ment ivas powerfully promoted by
William Lloyd Garrison, who issued
a newspaper, " The Liberator," for
the better dissemination of his views ;
and also by Wendell Phillips, Charles
Sumner and others. The more extreme
agitators among them denied the duty
of obedience to the Constitution, since
it contained the clause warranting the
Fugitive Slave Law, and they de-
nounced it as " a covenant with death
and an agreement with hell." In prac-
tice they violated it by systematically
assisting in the escape of runaway
slaves. A line of stations known as
the " Underground Railroad " was se-
cretly arranged, along which the fu-
gitives were passed from point to
point, concealed from pursuers, and
cared for until they reached safety in
Canada. In Boston, Garrison was
mobbed, and the abolition cause in
the United States counted among its
martyrs Elijah Lovejoy, shot in Al-
ton, 111., in 1837, and John Brown,
hanged in Virginia in 1859. In 1840
the abolitionists divided on the ques-
tion of the formation of a political
anti-slavery party, and the two wings
remained active on separate lines to
the end. It was largely due to the
abolitionists that the Civil War, when
it came, was regarded by the North
chiefly as an anti-slavery conflict, and
they looked upon the Emancipation
Proclamation as a vindication of this

Aboma, a large and formidable
American snake, called also the ringed
boa. Anciently it was worshipped by
the Mexicans.

Aborigines, the earliest known
inhabitants of any other land.

Aboukir, a small village on the
Egyptian coast, 10 miles E. of Alex-
andria. Aboukir bay is celebrated for
the naval battle in which Nelson an-
nihilated the French fleet on Aug. 1-2,
1798. This decisive victory gained
Nelson the title of Baron Nelson of
the Nile ; and the battle is often spo-
ken of as the battle of the Nile. See
APPENDIX: World War.


About, Edmond, a French novel-
ist, born in Dieuze, Lorraine. Feb.
14, 1828; died in Paris, Jan. 17, 1885.

Abra, a province of Luzon, Philip-
pine Islands; on the N. W. coast;
area, 1,484 square miles; pop. (1903)
51,860, of whom 14,037 were wild;
capita], Bangued.

Abracadabra, a magical word
among the ancients, recommended as
an antidote against several diseases.
It was to be written upon a piece of
paper as many times as the word
contains letters, omitting the last let-
ter of the former every time, and sus-
pended from the neck by a linen
thread. It was the name of a god wor-
shipped by the Syrians, the wearing
of whose name was a sort of invoca-
tion of his aid.












At present, the word is used chiefly in
jest, to denote something without

Abraham, son of Terah, and
brother of Nahor and II a run, the
progenitor of the Hebrew nation and
of several cognate tribes. At the
goodly age of 175, he was " gathered
to his people," and laid beside Sarah,
in the tomb of Machpelah, by his sons
Isaac and Ishmael.

A b r a h a m, Plains of and
Heights of, a table-land near Que-
bec, rising above the St. Lawrence,
wher the battle of Quebec was fought
between the British and French

Abranyi, Kernel, a Hungarian
poet, novelist, and publicist ; born in
Budapest, Dec. 31, 1849. As a mem-
ber of the Hungarian diet and as ed-
itor of the " Pesti Naplo," he is an
important political figure in Hungary.

Abrogation. The term is used
popularly as the equivalent of repeal,
whether by statute or contrary usage.

Abruzzi, Prince Lnigi Amadep,
Dnke of, Italian explorer ; born in
Rome, Jan. 30, 1873; a nephew of


King Humbert*; in May, 1899, he
started on an expedition, in the spe-
cially prepared steamer " Star of
Italy," for Franz Josef Land, intend-
ing, when frozen in, to use sledges in
a search for the North Pole and the
balloon explorer, Dr. Andrfie. He re-
turned to Norway in September, 1900,
after having reached a point in lati-
tude 86 33' N., surpassing Nansen's
furthest N. record by 19'.

Absalom, the third son of David,
king of Israel, remarkable for his
beauty and for his unnatural rebel-
lion against his father, which led to
his untimely death.

Abscess, a gathering of pus in any
tissue or organ of the body. Abscesses
may occur in almost any portion of the
body. They are of three types : the acute
abscess, or phlegmon, arising from an
inflammatory tendency in the part ; the
chronic abscess, connected with scrof-
ulous or other weakness in the con-
stitution ; and the diffused abscess, due
to contamination in the blood.

Absenteeism, a term applied to
the owners of estates in a country
who habitually absent themselves from
that country, and spend the income
of their estates in it in another coun-
try. Used more particularly regard-
ing Irish landlords who live elsewhere.

Absinthe, a liqueur made princi-
pally in Switzerland, and much used
by the French ; composed of volatile
oil of wormwood, oil of anise and oth-
er ingredients mixed in alcohol. It is
an intoxicant, more agreeable to the
taste than usual alcoholic beverages,
but its persistent use leads to extreme
physical and mental disorders.

Absolution. The Roman Catholic
Church, since the fourth Lateran coun-
cil in 1215 A. D., invests the priest with
power in his priestly office to pro-
nounce absolution from sins that have
been confessed. In most other Church-
es, absolution is no more than
a general or formal declaration that
God will forgive the sins of penitents,
with exhortation to seek such forgive-

Abstinence, the act or habit of
refraining from something to which
we have a propensity, or in which we
find pleasure ; but it is more particu-
larly applied to the privation or spar-
ing use of food. Abstinence has been
enjoined and practiced for various



ends, as sanitary, moral, or religious.
Abstinence of flesh on certain days is
obligatory in the Roman Catholic

The time during which life can be
supported under total abstinence from
food or drink, is usually stated to vary
from eight to ten days ; the period
may, however, be greatly prolonged.
Total abstinence, as a term, has also
special reference to alcoholic drinks.

Abt, Franz, a German song
writer ; born in Saxony, Dec. 22, 1819.
He studied theology at Leipsic, but
abandoned it for music. He is well
known as composer of the favorite
song, " When the Swallows Homeward
Fly." He visited the United States
in 1872. He died March 31, 1885.

Abu-Klea, a place in Egypt, on
the route across the country between
Korti and Metammeh, both on the
great bend of the Nile below Khar-
tum ; was the scene of a battle on Jan.
17, 1885, in which Sir Herbert Stew-
art defeated the Mahdi's forces.

Abnl-Abbas, Abd-Allah, the
first of the Arabian dynasty of Ab-
bassides; a caliph of incredible cruel-
ty, on account of which he was called
"al Suffah" ("The Sanguinary").
On assurances of amnesty, he be-
guiled 90 members of the Ommiad fam-
ily (the preceding dynasty) into a
hall, where they were slain with whips
and rods. He died in 754.

Abnna, the title given by the Ethi-
opian Christians to their metropolitan.
He is the chief of the secular clergy.

Abu-Simbel. Tbsambnl, or Ip-
sanibnl, the site of two temples on
the Nile, constructed by Rameses II.
The principal beauties of the facade of
the larger temple (119 feet broad, and
more than 100 feet high) are the four
sitting colossi,, each more than 65 feet
in height.

Abydos, a town and castle of Na-
tolia, on the Straits of Gallipoli. In
its neighborhood Xerxes, when he in-
vaded Greece, crossed with his im-
mense army the Hellespont, on a
bridge of boats. Memorable also from
being the scene of the loves of Hero
and Leander, and from Byron having
adopted its name in his " Bride of
Abydos." Also an ancient city of Up-
per Egypt, supposed to hare been the
ancient This, and to have been sec-
ond only to Thebes.

Abyssinia, or Habesb, an ancient
kingdom of Eastern Africa, now un-
der a monarch who claims the title of
emperor. Abyssinia may be said to
extend between lat. 8 and 16 N.,
and Ion. 35 and 41 E., having Nu-
bia N. and W., the Sudan W., the Red
Sea littoral (Erythrsea, Danakil coun
try, etc.), E., and to the S. the Galls
country. The area within these limit*
is about 160,000 square miles, but thf
present ruler claims a much more ex
tensive territory ; and latterly Abys*
sinia has come to be surrounded by re-
gions belonging to or influenced more
or less by Italy, France, and Great
Britain. The principal divisions of
Abyssinia are the provinces or king-
doms of Shoa in the S., Amhara in the
center, and Tigre" in the N., to which
may be added Lasta, Gojam, and other
territories. Addis Abeba in Shoa is
the present residence of the ruler, but
the Abyssinian royal residences large-
ly consist of houses very slightly built,
and thus resemble more or less perma-
nent camps rather than towns. Other
towns are Gondar, Adua, Aksum, An-
talo, and Ankober, none with a pop-
ulation exceeding 7,000.

The Abyssinians are of mixed Semi-
tic and Hamitic descent They were
converted to Christianity in the time of
the Emperor Constantine, by some mis-
sionaries sent from Alexandria. In the
6th century the power of the sover-
eigns of their kingdom had attained
its height ; but before another had ex-
pired the Arabs had invaded the coun-
try, and obtained a footing in Adel,
though they were unable to extend
their conquests farther. For several
centuries subsequently the kingdom
continued in a distracted state, being
now torn by internal commotions and
now invaded by external enemies (Mo-
hammedans and Gallas). To protect
himself from the last the Emperor of
Abyssinia applied, about the middle
of the 16th century, to the King of
Portugal for assistance, promising, at
the same time, implicit submission to
the Pope. The solicited aid was sent,
and the empire saved. The Roman
Catholic priests taving now ingrati-
ated themselves with the emperor and
his family, endeavored to induce them
to renounce the tenets and rites of the
Coptic Church, and adopt those of
Rome. This attempt, however, was


Academy of Fine Art

resisted by the ecclesiastics and the
people, and finally ended, after a long
struggle, in the expulsion of the Ro-
man Catholic priests about 1630. The
kingdom, however, gradually fell into
a state of anarchy, which, about the
middle of the 18th century, was com-
plete. The king, or negus as he was
called, received no obedience from the
provincial governors, who, besides,
were at feud with one another, and
severally assumed the royal title.

Abyssinia thus became divided into
a number of petty independent states.
A remarkable, but, as it proved, quite
futile attempt to resuscitate the unity
and power of the ancient kingdom was
commenced about the middle of the
19th century by King Theodore, who
aimed at the restoration of the an-
cient kingdom of Ethiopia, with him-
self for its sovereign. He introduced
European artisans, and went to work
wisely in many ways, but his cruelty
and tyranny counteracted his politic
measures. In consequence of a slight,
real or fancied, which he had re-
ceived at the hands of the British gov-
ernment, he threw Consul Cameron
and a number of other British sub-
jects into prison in 1863, and refused
to give them up. To effect their re-
lease an army of nearly 12,000 men,
under the command of Sir Robert Na-
pier, was dispatched from Bombay in
1867. The force landed at Zoulla on
the Red Sea in November, and march-
ing up the country came within sight
of Magdale, the capital of Theodore,
in the beginning of April, 1868. Af-
ter being defeated in a battle Theodore
delivered up the captives and shut
himself up in Magdala, which was
taken by storm on April 13. Theo-
dore was found among the slain, the
general opinion being that he had
fallen by his own hand.

In 1885 Italy asserted a protectorate
with disastrous results ; defeat by
Menelek's troops at Adowa in 1896
made them abandon all claims except
to the Eritrean colony on the Red
Sea. Menelek transferred his capital
to Adis Abeba, where British, Ameri-
can and French interests became
active. On Dec. 13, 1906, an agree-
ment was signed between Great Brit-
ain, France, and Itaty to conserve
their interests in Abyssinia, by main-
taining the political and territorial

status quo and the open door. The
principal States are Tigre on the N.,
Amhara in the center, and Shoa in the
S. Present capital, Adis Ababa. Pop.
(est.), 8,000,000.

Acacia, plants which abound in
Australia, in India, in Africa, tropical
America, and generally in the hotter
regions of the world. Nearly 300 spe-
cies are known from Australia alone.|
They are easily cultivated in green -
houses, where they flower, for the most'
part, in winter or early spring. In
Calfornia several species are cultivated
in the open for tannin and for timber.
The Black Watte has in its bark four
times as much tannin as the best oak.

Acadenras, a Greek mythical hero
who upon the Tyndaridean invasion
to rescue Helen after her abduction by
Thesues, revealed her hiding-place and
was thenceforth held in honor by the
Lacedaemonians. The term 'academy'
is derived from his name.

Academy, the gymnasium in the
suburbs of Athens in which Plato
taught, and so called after a hero,
by name Academus, to whom it was
said to have originally belonged. The
word is also applied to a high school
designed for the technical or other in-
struction of those who have already
acquired the rudiments of knowledge;
also a university.

Academy, French, an institution
founded in 1635 by Cardinal Riche-
lieu for the purpose of refining the
French language and style. It became
in time the most influential of all lit-
erary societies in Europe. Together
with the Academy of Inscriptions and
Belles Lettres, the Academy of Moral
and Political Sciences and the Acad-
emy of Sciences, it composes the Na-
tional Institute of France.

Academy of Arts, The Royal, a
British institution for the encourage-
ment of painting, sculpture, and de-
signing; founded in 1768 by George
III., with Sir Joshua Reynolds as

Academy of Design, National,
an American institution, in New York'
city, founded in 1826, conducting
schools in various branches of the fine
arts, and holding semi-annual exhibi-
tions at which prizes are awarded.

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