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tions, and the inhabitants have so hap-
pily availed themselves of their nat-
ural advantages that they early began,
and in some respects still deserve, to
be regarded as the model farmers of
Europe.

The mineral riches of Belgium are
great, and, after agriculture, form the
most important of her national inter-
ests. They are almost entirely con-
fined to the four provinces of Hainaut,
Liege, Namur, and Luxemburg, and
consist of lead, manganese, calamine
or zinc, iron, and coal. All these
minerals, however, are insignificant
compared with those of iron and coal.
The coal field has an area of above
500 square miles. The export is about
5,000,000 tons, forming one of the
largest and most valuable of all the
Belgian exports, and employing about
125,000 persons. Nearly the whole of
this coal is taken by France.

The industrial products of Belgium
are very numerous, and the superiority
of many of them to those of most oth-
er countries is confessed. The fine
linens of Flanders, and lace of South
Brabant are of European reputation.
Scarcely less celebrated are the car-
pets and porcelain of Tournay, the
cloth of Verviers, the extensive foun-
dries, machine works, and other iron
and steel establishments of Liege, Se~
raing, and other places. The cotton
and woolen manufactures, confined
chiefly to Flanders and the province
of Antwerp, have advanced greatly.
Other manufactures include silks,
beet sugar, beer. Prior to 1914 there
were 17 active pig iron works ; 46 iron
manufactories ; 15 steel works ; 123
sugar factories ; and 25 refineries ;
and 240 distilleries.

The railways have a length of about
2,900 miles, three-fourths belonging to
the State. The value of the general



Belgium

commerce in 1913 was : imports,
$916,725,000 and exports $715,365,-
000. In the first six months of 1914,
immediately preceding the outbreak of
the great war and the German viola-
tion of Belgian territory, the imports
were $460,630,000 and exports $370,-
795,000.

The Belgian population is composed
of two distinct races Flemish, who
are of German, and Walloons, who
are of French extraction.

Almost the entire population belong
to the Roman Catholic Church. Prot-
estantism is fully tolerated, and even
salaried by the State, but cannot
count above a mere fraction (some
10,000) of the population among its
adherents. Education is in a very un-
satisfactory state. At the census of
1890 nearly 27 per cent, of the popu-
lation above 15 years of age could
neither read nor write. French is the
official language of Belgium and in
general use among the educated class-
es, and there can scarcely be said to
be a national literature.

The Belgian constitution combines
monarchical with a strong infusion of
the democratic principles. The execu-
tive power is vested in a hereditary
king ; the legislative in the king and
two chambers the Senate and the
Chamber of Representatives the for-
mer elected for eight years, the latter
for four, but one-half of the former
renewable every four years, and one-
half of the latter every two years. The
senators are elected partly directly,
partly indirectly (by the provincial
councils) and must be 40 years of
age. Their numbers depend on popu-
lation. The deputies or representatives
are elected directly, one for every 40,-
000 inhabitants at most. In 1914 the
Senators numbered 120, and the Rep-
resentatives 186.

According to a new military law
passed in 1913 the army is recruited
by annual calls to the colors by vol-
untary engagements, the calls com-
prising 49 per cent, of those inscribed
on the rolls. Military service is com-
pulsory for those called to the colors.
Active army service is eight years, fol-
lowed by five years in the reserves.
The field army consisted of six army
divisions and two cavalry divisions.
The army estimates for 1914 aggre-
gated $20,219,250.

After being for centuries under



Belgium

Spanish, Austrian and French dom-
ination, Belgium was united by the
Congress of Vienna to Holland, under
the title of the kingdom of the Nether-
lands. A most injudicious measure
of the Dutch government, an at-
tempt to assimilate the language of
the provinces by prohibiting the use
of French in the courts of justice,
excited an opposition, which, en-
couraged by the success of the French
revolution of 1830, broke out into
revolt. The electoral system, more-
over, gave the preponderance to the
N. provinces, though inferior in
population, and the interests of the
provinces were diametrically opposed
in matters of taxation. Belgium
was agricultural and manufacturing,
Holland commercial ; the one wished
to tax imports and exports, the other
property and industry. In the cham-
bers three different languages were
spoken, Dutch, German, and French ;
and the members frequently did not
understand each other. Nothing but
the most skillful government could
have overcome these difficulties, and
no statesman appeared fitted to
grapple with them. The revolutionary
movement became general in the S.,
and the Dutch troops, at first success-
ful before Brussels, were finally re-
pulsed, and compelled by the arrival
of fresh bands of insurgents from all
quarters to retire. The Flemings sa-
luted the volunteers of Liege, Mons,
and Tournay by the ancient title of
Belgians, and this name, which prop-
erly distinguished only a section of the
people of the S. provinces, became
henceforth recognized as the patriotic
designation of the whole.

A convention of the great powers
assembled in London to determine on
the affairs of the Netherlands and
stop the effusion of blood. It favored
the separation of the provinces, and
drew up a treaty to regulate it. In
the meantime the National Congress
of Belgium offered the crown to the
Duke of Nemours, second son of Louis
Philippe, and, on his declining it, they
offered it, on the recommendation of
England, to Leopold, Prince of Saxe-
Coburg, who acceded to it under the
title of Leopold L, on July 21, 1831.
In November of the same year the
five powers guaranteed the crown to
him by the treaty of London.



Belgrade



During the reign of Leopold, a pros-
perous period of 34 years, Belgium
became a united and patriotic com-
munity. Arts and commerce flour-
ished, and a place was taken in the
family of nations upon which the Bel-
gian people could look with compla-
cency. Leopold II. succeeded his fa-
ther in 1865. In recent years the
chief feature of Belgian politics has
been a keen struggle between the cler-
ical and the liberal party. At the elec-
tions in June, 1878, the liberals gained
a majority, which they lost in 1884,
and failed to regain in 1890, but, after
a revision of the constitution, they
were returned by a large majority in
1894. In 1908 Belgium annexed the
KONGO FREE STATE (q. v.). King
Leopold II. died Dec. 17, 1909, and
was succeeded by his nephew, as Ax-
BEBT I. (q. v.).

Belgium was the first victim of
Teutonic ruthlessness in the war in
Europe. It was invaded by the Ger-
mans, notwithstanding that Germany
was one of the guarantors of its in-
tegrity, Aug. 3, 1814 ; the capital was
removed to Antwerp, Aug. 18, to Os-
tend, Oct. 8, and to Havre, France,
Oct. 12. See APPENDIX : World War.

Belgrade, a city and capital of
Servia, on the right bank of the Dan-
ube in the angle formed by the junc-
tion of the Save with that river, con-
sists of the citadel or upper town, on
a rock 100 feet high ; and the lower
town, which partly surrounds it. Of
late years many modern improvements
have been introduced and many fine
edifices have been built. It man-
ufactures carpets, silks, etc. The city
suffered severely in the various move-
ments that led to the crushing of
Servia. See APPENDIX: World War.
Pop. (1911) 90,890.

Belisarius, the great general of
the Roman Emperor Justinian, was
a native of Illyria. He commanded
an expedition against the King of
Persia about 530; suppressed an in-
surrection at Constantinople ; con-
quered Gelimer, King of the Vandals,
and put an end to their dominion in
Africa ; was recalled and honored with
a triumph. In 535, Belisarius was
sent to Italy to carry on war with
the Goths, and took Rome in 537. He
was there unsuccessfully besieged by



Vitiges, whom he soon after besieged
in turn, and captured at Ravenna, but
was recalled, through jealousy, before
he had completed the conquest of
Italy. Belisarius recovered Rome from
Totilus in 547, and was recalled the
next year. He was afterward sent
against the Huns. He was charged,
in 563, with conspiracy against Jus-
tinian, but was acquitted. That he
was deprived of sight, and reduced to
beggary, appears to be a fable of late
invention. Died in 565.

Belize, or BH+fsh Honduras, a
British colony washed on the E. by
the Bay of Honduras, in the Carib-
bean Sea, and elsewhere surrounded
by Guatemala and Mexico. It forms
the S. E. part of the peninsula of
Yucatan, and measuring 180 by 60
miles, has an area of 7,562 square
miles. Since 1862 Belize has ranked
as a British colony, with a lieutenant-
governor, whose rank was raised, in
1884, to that of governor. Pop. (1901)
36,998. Belize, the capital, is a depot
for foreign goods for Central America,
and has a population of about 6,600.

Belknap, George Eugene, an
American naval officer, born in New-
port, N. H., Jan. 22, 1832; was ap-
pointed midshipman in the navy in
1852, rose to Rear-Admiral in 1889;
and was retired in 1894. He took
part in the capture of the Barrier
Forts on the Canton river, China, in
1856; and in the Civil War. In 1873,
while engaged in deep sea sounding in
the North Pacific Ocean, he made dis-
coveries concerning the bed of the ocean
that found high favor among scientists.
He was appointed Superintendent of
the United States Naval Observatory
in 1885. He died in 1903.

Belknap, William Worth, an
American military officer, born in
Newburg, N. Y., Sept 22, 1829 ; grad-
uated at Princeton, and read law in
Keokuk, la., where he was elected to
the Legislature in 1857. In 1861 he
entered the Union army as Major of
the 15th Iowa Volunteers and was
engaged at Shiloh, Corinth, and Vicks-
burg ; but became most prominent in
Sherman's Atlanta campaign. He
was promoted to Brigadier-General,
July 30, 1864, and Major-General,
March 13, 1865. He was collector of
internal revenue in Iowa from 1865
to Oct. 13, 1869, when he was ap-



Bell



Bell



pointed Secretary of War, which of-
fice he occupied till March 7, 187G.
He resigned in consequence of accusa-
tions of official corruption. Subse-
quently he was tried and acquitted.
He died in Washington, D. C. f Oct.
12, 1890.

Bell, a holloa, sounding instru-
ment of metal. The metal from which
bells are usually made ( by founding ) ,
is an alloy, called bell-metal, com-
monly composed of 80 parts of copper
and 20 of tin.

Bells, as the term is used on ship-
board, are the strokes of the ship's
bell that proclaim the hours. Eight
bells, the highest number, are rung at
noon and every fourth hour after-
wards, i. e:, at 4, 8, 12 o'clock, and
BO on. The intermediary periods are
indicated thus: 12:30, 1 bell; 1
o'clock, 2 bells ; 1 :30, 3 bells, etc.,
until the eight bells announce 4
o'clock, when the series recommences
4:30, 1 bell; 5 o'clock, 2 bells, etc.
The even numbers of strikes thus al-
ways announce hours, the odd numbers
half hours.

Bell, Alexander Graham, in-
ventor of the telephone, was born in
Edinburgh, March 3, 1847; son of
Alexander Melville Bell. He was ed-
ucated at Edinburgh and in Germany,
and settled in Canada in 1870. In
1872 he came to the United States
and introduced for the education of
deaf mutes the system of visible
speech contrived by his father. He
became Professor of Vocal Physiology
in Boston University, and at the Phil-
adelphia Exhibition, in 1876, exhibit-
ed his telephone, designed and partly
constructed some years before. He
was also the inventor of the photo-
phone in 1880, of the graphophone in
1887, and of kindred instruments.

Bell, Alexander Melville, a
Scotch elocutionist, born at Edin-
burgh in 1819. He is inventor of the
system of visible speech, in which all
the possible articulations of the hu-
man voice have corresponding 'char-
acters designed to represent the re-
spective positions of the vocal organs.
This system has been successfully em-
ployed in teaching the deaf and dumb
to speak. Besides writing on this
subject he has written on elocution,
stenography, etc. Died Aug. 7, 1905,



Bell, Andrew James, a Cana-
dian educator, born in Ottawa, May
12, 1856 ; educated at the University
of Toronto, and at Breslau Universi-
ty ; became Professor of Latin and
Literature in Victoria University, in
1889. He is an active member of the
Canadian Institute, and has contrib-
uted some important papers to its
" Transactions."

Bell, Benjamin Taylor A., a
Scotch-Canadian mining expert, born
in Edinburgh, July 2, 1863 ; was edu-
cated in Edinburgh ; went to Canada
in 1882. In 1890 he organized the
General Mining Association of the
Province, and in 1892 he was instru-
mental in uniting the coal, gold, and
other mineral interests of Nova Scotia
into a like organization.

Bell, Henry, a Scotch engineer,
born in Linlithgowshire in 1767. In
1798 he turned his attention es-
pecially to the steamboat, the prac-
ticability of steam navigation hav-
ing been already demonstrated. In
1812 the "Comet," a small 30-ton
vessel built at Glasgow under Bell's
directions, and driven by a three
horse-power engine made by him-
self, commenced to ply between
Glasgow and Greenock, and continued
to run till she was wrecked in 1820.
This was the beginning of steam navi-
gation in Europe. Bell is also cred-
ited with the invention of the " dis-
charging machine " used by calico
printers. He died in Helensburgh, in
1830. A monument has been erected
to his memory at Dunglass Point on
the Clyde.

Bell, Henry Haywpod, an Amer-
ican naval officer, born in North Caro-
lina, about 1808; was appointed a
midshipman irom that State in
1823. Shortly after the outbreak
of the Civil War, he became Fleet
Captain of the Western Gulf Squad-
ron. He commanded one of the
three divisions of the fleet which cap-
tured New Orleans, and was sent to
raise the United States flag over the
custom house and the city hall. In
1866 he was promoted to Rear-Ad-
miral ; and, in 1867, retired. He was
drowned at the mouth ef the Osaka
river, Japan, Jan. 11, 1868.

Bell, Isaac, an American philan-
thropist, born in New York city. Aug.



Bell

4, 1814 ; died in New York city, Sept.
30, 1S97.

Bell, James Franklin, an Amer-
ican military officer, born in Shelby-
ville, Ky., Jan. 9, 1856; was gradu-
ated at the United States Military
Academy in 1878 ; was promoted to
First Lieutenant, Dec. 29, 1890 ; Cap-
tain, March 2, 1899, and Colonel of
the 36th United States Infantry, July
5 following. In an action with the
Filipino insurgents near Porac, Lu-
zon, Sept. 9, following, he so signally
distinguished himself that President
McKinley directed that a Congression-
al medal of honor be presented to him.
He had much to do with the estab-
lishment of the United States War
School for Cavalry and Light Artil-
lery at Fort Riley, Kan. ; was chief
of staff, U. S. A., 1906-10; became
commander of the Eastern Depart-
ment, Governor's Island, New York,
in March, 1917.

Bell, John, an American states-
man, born near Nashville, Tenn., Feb.
18, 1797; "was admitted to the bar in
1816 ; member of Congress from 1827
to 1841; Speaker in 1834, and Secre-
tary of War in 1841. During this
period he became from an ardent free
trader, a protectionist and supporter
of the Whigs, and favored the recep-
tion of petitions for the abolition of
slavery in the District of Columbia ;
afterward (1858) he vigorously op-
posed the admission of Kansas as a
slave State. He sat in the United
States Senate from 1847 to 1859, and,
in 18GO, was nominated for the Presi-
dency by the " Constitutional Union "
Party, but received only 39 electoral
votes, cast by the States of Tennes-
see, Kentucky and Virginia. He after-
ward took no active share in politics,
and died at Cumberland Ironworks,
Sept. 10, 1869.

Bell, Liberty, a famous bell
which was rung when the Continental
Congress declared the independence of
the United States in 1776. The order
for founding it was given in 1751. The
State House of Pennsylvania, in Phil-
adelphia, work on which had been sus-
pended for a number of years, was
then approaching completion. The
lower floors were already occupied by
the Supreme Court in the Chamber,
while in the other assembled the Free-



Bell

men of the Province of Pennsylvania,
then consisting of one body. A com-
mittee was appointed by the Freemen,
with Peter Norris as chairman, and
empowered to have a new bell cast for
the building. The commission for the
bell was, in the same year, awarded
to Robert Charles, of London, the
specification being that the bell should
weigh 2,000 pounds and cost 100
sterling. It was to be made by the
best workmen, to be examined care-
fully before being shipped, and to con-
tain, in well shaped letters around it,
the inscription : " By order of the
Province of Pennsylvania for the
State House in the City of Philadel-
phia, 1752." An order was given to
place underneath this the prophetic
words from Leviticus xxv : 10 : " Pro-
claim liberty throughout the land and
to all the inhabitants thereof." The
reason for the selection of this text
has been a subject of much conjecture,
but the true reason is apparent when
the full text is read. It is as follows :
"And ye shall hallow the 50th year
and proclaim liberty throughout the
land and to all the inhabitants there-
of." In selecting the text the Quakers
had in memory the arrival of William
Penn and their forefathers more than
half a century before. In August,
1752, the bell arrived, but though in
apparent good order, it was cracked
by a stroke of the clapper while being
tested. It was recast successfully, and
placed in position in June, 1753. Af-
ter the Declaration of Independence it
rang out the memorable message of
" Liberty throughout the land and to
all the inhabitants thereof." For 50
years the bell continued to be rung on
every festival and anniversary, until
it eventually cracked. An ineffectual
attempt was made to cause it to con-
tinue serviceable by enlarging the
cause of its dissonance and chipping
the edges. It was removed from its
position in the tower to a lower story,
and only used on occasions of public
sorrow. Subsequently, it was placed
on the original timbers in the vesti-
bule of the State House, and, in 1873,
it was suspended in a prominent posi-
tion immediately beneath where a
larger bell, presented to the city in
1866, now proclaims the passing
hours. In 1893 it was taken to Chi'



BeU ^

cago and placed on exhibition at the
World's Columbian Exposition.

Bell, Lilian, an American novel-
ist, born in Kentucky in 1867.

Bell, Robert, a Canadian geolo-
gist, born in the township of Toronto,
Ont, June 3, 1841; author of about
130 reports and papers, a list of which
is found in the " Biblio of the Royal
Society."

Bell, Samuel Dana, an Ameri-
can jurist, born in Francestown, N.
H., Oct. 9, 1798; died in Winchester,
N. H., July 31, 1868.

Belladonna, a European plant,
atropa belladonna, or deadly night-
shade, natural order solanaceae. It is
native in Great Britain. All parts of
the plant are poisonous, and the in-
cautious eating of the berries has often
produced death. The inspissated juice
is commonly known by the name of
extract of belladonna. It is narcotic
and poisonous, but is of great value
in medicine, especially in nervous ail-
ments. It has the property of causing
the pupil of the eye to dilate. The
fruit of the plant is a dark, brownish-
black shining berry. The name signi-
fies beautiful lady, and is said to have
been given from the use of the plant
as a cosmetic.

Bellamy, Edward, an American
writer, born in Chicopee Falls, Mass.,
March 29, 1850. He was educated in
Germany ; admitted to the bar ; was
on the staff of the " Evening Post " of
New York in 1871-1872; and on his
return from the Sandwich Islands in
1877, he founded the Springfield
" News." He is best known by his
novel "Looking Backward" (1888),
a socialistic work, of which an im-
mense number of copies were sold in
two years. He died in Chicopee Falls,
Mass., May 22, 1898.

Bellamy, Mrs. Elizabeth
Whitfield, (Groom), an American
novelist, writing under the pseudonym
KAMBA. THORPE, born at Quincy, Fla.,
1839. She died in 1900.

Bell Bird, a bird, called also the
arapunga. It is pure white in color,
about a foot in length, and has a voice
like the tolling of a bell. It inhabits
Guiana.

Belle de Nnit, a name sometimes
given to the Marvel of Peru (mira-



Belligerent

bilis jalapa), sometimes also to cer-
tain tropical American and West In-
dian species of convolvulacese, with
extremely beautiful and fragrant flow-
ers, which open only during the night.

Belle - Isle, or Belle - Isle - en
Mer, a French island in the Bay of
Biscay, Department of Morbihan, 8
miles S. of Quiberon Point ; length, 11
miles ; greatest breadth, 6 miles. Pop.
about 10,000, largely engaged in the
pilchard fishing. The capital is Le
Palais, on the N. E. coast.

Belle-Isle, a rocky island 9 miles
long, at the E. entrance to the Strait
of Belle-Isle, the channel, 17 miles
wide, between Newfoundland and the
coast of Labrador.

Belle-Isle, an island in the James
river, near Richmond, Va., where
Union prisoners were confined during
the Civil War.

Belles Lettres, polite, or elegant
literature : a word of somewhat vague
signification. Rhetoric, poetry, fiction,
history, and criticism, with the lan-
guages in which these works are
written come under this head.

Belleville, city and capital of St.
Clair county, 111.; on the Illinois
Central and other railroads; 14 miles
S. E. of St. Louis, Mo.; is in a
wheat, corn, oats, hay, and vegetable
section; has valuable coal mines
nearby; and manufactures traction
engines, glass, stoves and ranges,
machinery, bricks, and farming im-
plements. Pop. (1910) 21,122.

Bellville, city, port of entry, and
capital of Hastings district, Ontario,
Canada; on the Moira river, Quinte
bay, and Grand Trunk railroad; 113
miles E. of Toronto; has a fine har-
bor; superior water-power, and steamer
connection with Canadian and United
States points; is the seat of Albert
College (M. E.); and is chiefly en-
gaged in manufacturing and farming.
Pop. (1911) 9,876.

Belligerent, a nation or a large
section of a nation engaged in carry-
ing on war. When a revolted party
of great numerical strength are able
to form a regular government and rule
over the whole, or part of the territory
which they claim, humanity dictates
that they should not be treated as
rebels guilty of treason, but should,
if captured, be regarded as prisoners



Bellingliam



Bellows



of war. To attain this result, it is
needful for those who have risen in
arms against the government to make
every effort to obtain for their party
the position of belligerents. In the
contest between the Federals and Con-
federates, in the war of 1861-1865,
the latter, at the commencement of
the struggle, claimed the privilege of
belligerents. Their demand was ac-
ceded to by the British Government,
on which the Federal authorities
took umbrage, contending that the
recognition had been premature.

Bellingliam, city, port of entry,
and capital of Whatcom county,
Wash.; on Bellingham bay and sev-
eral railroads; 80 miles N. of Seattle;
comprises the former cities of Fair
Haven and Whatcom, united in 1903;
has an excellent harbor on Puget
sound, state normal school, two Car-
negie libraries gnd varied manufac-
tures. Pop. (1910) 24,298.

Bellingham, Richard, an Eng-
lish colonial governor, born in 1592 ;
arrived in Boston in 1634, and in the
following year became deputy gover-
nor of Massachusetts. In 1641 he was
candidate for governor against Win-
throp, and was elected ; was re-elected
in 1654 and 1665 ; and held the gover-
norship at the time of his death. In
1664 he refused to go to England at
the command of the King, to defend
his administration. He became Majpr-
General in the same year. He died
Dec. 7, 1672.

Bellini, the name of a Venetian
family which produced several re-
markable painters. GIOVANNI BELLI-
NI, born in 1426, died in 1512, was
the founder of the older Venetian
school of painting, and contributed



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