greatly to its progress. His best works
are altar pieces.
Bellinzona, a town of Switzer-
land, capital of the canton of Ticino ;
charmingly situated on the left bank
of the Ticino, about 5 miles from its
embouchure in in the N. end of Lago
Maggiore. It occupies a position of
great military importance.
Bellman, Carl Michael, a Swe-
dish poet, born in Stockholm, Feb. 4,
1740. His poems were often improvisa-
tions, and the airs of his songs were
largely of his own composition. As
singer of the rollicking life of a capi-
tal city, he is unsurpassed. A colossal
bronze bust of Bellman, by Bystrom,
was erected in the Zoological Garden
at Stockholm in 1829, and there a
popular festival is held yearly in his
honor. He died in Stockholm, Feb.
Bello, Andres, a Spanish-Ameri-
can diplomatist and author, born in
Caracas, Venezuela, Nov. 30, 1780.
From 1810 to 1828 he represented
Venezuela in London ; in 1829, became
an official of the Bureau of Finance;
in 1834, Minister of Foreign Affairs
for Chile; in 1842, the first rector of
Santiago University. He was the au-
thor of " Principles of International
Law" (1832), and his entire works
were printed after his death at the
expense of the State. He died in San-
tiago, Chile, Oct. 15, 1865.
Bellona, the goddess of war, and
sister or wife, or sister-wife and chari-
oteer of Mars.
Bellot, Joseph Rene, a French
naval officer, born in Paris in 1826.
In 1851 he joined the expedition to
the Polar regions in search of Sir
John Franklin, and took part in sev-
eral explorations. He was drowned
in an attempt to carry despatches to
Sir Edward Belsher over the ice, in
1853. His diary was published in
Bellot Strait, the passage on the
N. coast of North America, which
separates North Somerset from Boo-
thia Felix, and connects Prince Re-
gent Inlet with Franklin Channel. Its
E. entrance was discovered in 1852 by
Lieut. Joseph Rene Bellot.
Bellows, an instrument for blow-
ing the fire in manufactories, forges or
Bellows, Albert F., an American
painter born in Milford, Mass., Nov.
20, 1829 ; was one of the first to suc-
ceed with water colors. He died in
Auburndale, Mass., Nov. 24, 1883.
Bellows, Henry 'Whitney, an
American Unitarian clergyman and
writer, born at Walpole, N. H., June
11, 1814; became pastor of All Souls
Church, New York, 1839; was chief
founder and long editor of the " Chris-
tian Inquirer" (1846); chief origi-
nator of the United States Sanitary
Commission, and its President during
the Civil War (1861-1865). He was
an effective preacher and public speak-
er. He died in New York, Jan. 30,
Bellows Fish, called also the trum-
pet fish or sea snipe. It is 4 or 5
inches long, and has an oblong, oval
body and a tubular elongated snout,
which is adapted for drawing from
among sea-weed and mud the minute
Crustacea on which it feeds.
Bell Rock, or Inch. Cape, a dan-
gerous reef surmounted by a light-
house, situated in the German Ocean,
about 12 miles from Arbroath, nearly
opposite the mouth of the river Tay.
It is said that in former ages the
monks of Aberbrothock caused a bell
to be fixed on this reef, which was
rung by the waves, and warned the
mariners of this dangerous place. The
reef is partly uncovered during the ebb
Bell-Smith, Frederic Marlett,
an English artist, born in London,
Sept. 26, 1846; went to Canada in
1866. He was for seven years Art Di-
rector at Alma College, St. Thomas,
and teacher of drawing in the public
schools of London, Ont. About 1888
he became a portrait and figure paint-
er ; but he is best known as a painter
Belmont, a town in the E. part
of Cape Colony, midway between
Orange River Junction and Kimber-
ley. It was the scene of one of the
earliest engagements in the war of
1899-1900, between the Boers and the
British under Gen. Lord Methuen.
The town was attacked by the British
on Nov. 23, 1899, while on the march
to the relief of Kimberley, and the
battle resulted in a victory for them.
Two days later Lord Methuen took
Graas Pan, 10 miles N. of Belmont,
after again defeating the Boers.
Belmont, August, an American
banker, born in Alzey, Germany; ed-
ucated at Frankfort, and was appren-
ticed to the Rothschild's banking
house in that city when 14 years old.
In 1837 he went to Havana to take
charge of the firm's interests, and soon
afterward was sent to New York city,
where he established himself in the
banking business and as the represent-
ative of the Rothschilds. He was
Consul-General of Austria, in 1844-
1850 ; became Charge d'Affaires at
The Hague in 1853; and was Minis-
ter-Resident there in 1854-1858. He
was a delegate to the Democratic Na-
tional Convention in 1860, and when
a portion of the delegates withdrew
and organized the convention in Balti-
more, he was active in that body, and
through it became Chairman of the
National Democratic Committee, an
office he held till 1872. He was an
active worker in the party till 1876,
when he closed his political career.
He died in New York city, Nov. 24.
Belmont, August, an American
banker, born in New York city, Feb.
18, 1853 ; son of the preceding. He
was graduated at Harvard University
in 1875 ; at once entered his father's
banking house, and on the death of
his father became head of the firm of
August Belmont & Co., also repre-
senting the European banking firm of
the Rothschilds. In February, 1900,
he organized the Rapid Transit Sub-
way Construction Company to back
John B. McDonald, who had been
awarded the $35,000,000 contract for
the construction of the rapid transit
system in New York city. He became
largely interested in railroad and
Belmont, Perry, an American
lawyer, born in New York, Dec. 28,
1851 ; son of August Belmont ; grad-
uated at Harvard University in 1872,
and at Columbia College Law School
in 1876 ; was admitted to the bar and
practiced in New York till 1881, when
he was elected as a Democrat to Con-
gress, and served till 1887, being a
member of the Committee on Foreign
Affairs. In 1885 he was appointed
Chairman of the Committee on For-
eign Affairs, and in 1888 United
States Minister to Spain. He was
one of the principals in the execu-
tion of the great contract for the
construction of a rapid transit sys-
tem in New York city, in 1900.
Beloit, a city in Rock county,
Wis.; on the Rock river and the
Chicago & Northwestern and other
railroads; 84 miles S. W. of Milwau-
kee; is the seat of Beloit College
(Cong.); has ample power from the
river for its factories; and, besides
one of the largest wood-working ma-
chinery plants in the world, manu-
factures wind-mills, towers and
tanks, shoes, and building paper.
Pop. (1910) 15,125.
Belsliazzar, the last of the Baby-
lonian kings, who reigned conjointly
with his father Nabonadius. He per-
ished B. C. 538, during the successful
storming of Babylon by Cyrus.
Belt, in astronomy, a varying num-
ber of dusky, belt-like bands or zones
encircling the planet Jupiter parallel
to his equator, as if the clouds of his
atmosphere had been forced into a
series of parallels through the rapidity
of his rotation, and the dark body of
the planet was seen through the com-
paratively clear spaces between.
In physical geography, two pas-
sages or straits connecting the Baltic
with the German Ocean, viz. (a) the
Great Belt, between the islands of
Seeland and Laland on the N. and
Fuhnen and Langeland, on the W.
(b) The Little Belt, between the
mainland of Denmark on the W., and
the island of Fuhnen on the E.
Beltane, a superstitious observ-
ance now or formerly practiced among
the Scottish and Irish Celts, as well
as in Cumberland and Lancashire.
The Scotch observe the Beltane fsti-
val chiefly on the 1st of May (old
style), though in the W. of that coun-
try St. Peter's Day, June 29, was pre-
ferred. In Ireland there were two
Beltanes, one on the 1st of May, and
the other on the 21st of June. The
ceremonies varied in different places,
but one essential part of them every-
where was to light a fire. At Cal-
lander, in Perthshire, the boys went
to the moors, cut a table out of sods,
sat round it, lit a fire, cooked and ate
a custard, baked an oatmeal cake, di-
vided it into equal segments, black-
ened one of these, drew lots, and then
compelled the boy who drew out the
blackened piece to leap three times
through the fire. Merry-makings came
at length to attend the Beltane festi-
Beluga, a species of fish the
great or Hausen, sturgeon. It is
sometimes 12 to 15 feet in length, and
weighs 1,200 pounds, or in rare cases
even 3,000. The best isinglass is made
from its swimming bladder. Its flesh,
though sometimes eaten, is occasional-
ly unwholesome. It is found in the
Caspian and Black Seas and the large
rivers which flow into them. The
word is also applied to a cetacean. It
is called also the white whale. It is
from 18 to 21 feet in length, and in-
habits Davis Straits and the other
portions of the Northern Seas, and
sometimes ascends rivers.
Being, the Roman name of the
Assyrian and Babylonian divinity
called Bel in Isaiah xlvi : 1.
Belns, a Phoanician river at the
base of Mt. Carmel. Its fine sand,
according to tradition, first led the
Phoenicians to the invention of glass.
Belns, Temple of, an enormous
temple in ancient Babylon, rebuilt by
Nebuchadnezzar, about 604 B. c. Its
site is thought, by some authorities,
to be the modern Bers-Nimrud, and by
Belvedere, in architecture the up-
permost story of a building open to
the air, at least on one side, and fre-
quently on all, for the purpose of ob-
taining a view of the country and for
enjoying cool air. A portion of the
Vatican has this name.
Bembo, Fietro, an Italian schol-
ar, born at Venice in 1470. Pope
Paul III. conferred on him, 1539, the
hat of a cardinal, and soon after the
bishoprics of Gubbio and Bergamo.
He died in 1547.
Bemis, Edward Webster, an
American economist, born in Spring-
field, Mass., April 7, I860; graduated
at Amherst College in 1880 ; was Pro-
fessor of Economical Science in the
Kansas State Agricultural College,
1897-9 ; later engaged in economic
research work in Cleveland, O., Chi-
cago, 111., New York city, and else-
where ; author of numerous papers
and articles on city administration.
Bemis (incorrectly BEMUS)
Heights, a village in Saratoga coun-
ty, N. Y., on the Hudson river, fam-
ous as the scene of the first battle of
Stillwater, Sept. 19, 1777.
Ben (Hebrew, "son"), a prepos-
itive syllable signifying in composition
" son of," found in many Jewish
names, as Bendavid, Benasser ? etc.
Ben, a Gaelic word signifying
mountain, prefixed to the names of
many mountains in Scotland N. of the
Firths of Clyde and Forth; as, Ben
Nevis, Ben MacDhui, etc.
Benaiah, the name of 12 different
persons mentioned in the Bible, the
one chiefly important being a son of
Jehoida, a chief priest. He was made
commander-in-chief in Joab's place by
Benalcazor, Belasazor, or Ve-
lalcazor, Sebastian de, the name
given to SEBASTIAN MOVANO from his
native town ; a Spanish soldier who
figured in the Spanish conquests in
South America. His gallant conduct
attracted the attention of Pizarro,
w.ho promoted him. He took the city
of Quito, made an expedition into Co-
lombia and reduced Popayan, and was
appointed governor of that part of
the country in 1538. He was forced
to resign this office in consequence of
legal complications and died when
about to return to Spain, in 1550.
Benares, a town in Hindustan,
Northwest Provinces, administrative
headquarters of a district and division
of the same name, on the left bank of
the Ganges, from which it rises like
an amphitheater, presenting a splen-
did panorama of temples, mosques,
palaces, and other buildings, with
their domes, minarets, etc. Fine
ghauts lead down to the river. It _is
one of the most sacred places of pil-
grimage in all India, being the head-
quarters of the Hindu religion. The
principal temple is dedicated to Siva,
whose sacred symbol it contains. It
is also the seat of government and
other colleges, and of the missions of
various societies. Benares carries on
a large trade in the produce of the
district and in English goods, and
manufactures silks, shawls, embroid-
ered cloth, jewelry, etc. The popula-
tion in (1911) 203,804.
Benbow, John, an English admi-
ral, born in Shrewsbury about 1650,
died 1702. For his skill and valor in
an action with a Barbary pirate he
was promoted by James II. to the com-
mand of a ship of war. William III.
employed him in protecting the En-
glish trade in the Channel, which he
did with great effect, and he was soon
promoted to the rank of rear-admiral.
In 1701 he sailed to the West Indies
with a small fleet, and in August of
the following year he fell in with the
French fleet under Du Casse, and in
the heat of action a chain-shot carried
away one of his legs. At this critical
instant, being most disgracefully aban-
doned by several of the captains under
his command, the whole fleet effected
its escape. Benbow, on his return to
Jamaica, brought the delinquents to a
court-martial, by which two of them
were condemned to be shot He him-
self died of his wounds.
Bench Warrant, a warrant is-
sued by the court before which an in-
dictment has been found to arrest the
accused, that he may appear and find
bail for his appearance at the trial.
It is used extensively in the United
States to bring into court persons who
have neglected to obey an order of
court, such as delinquent jurymen.
Bencoolen, a seaport on the W.
coast of Sumatra Island, Dutch East
Indies ; capital of a Residency of the
same name. It was founded in 1685
by the English and ceded to the Dutch
in 1824. Area of Residency, 9,399
square miles ; pop. of Residency, 214,-
272; of town, 5,000.
Bendemann, Eduard, a German
painter, born in Berlin, Dec. 3, 1811s
died in Dusseldorf, Dec. 27, 1889.
Bendire, Charles Emil, a Ger-
man-American military officer and or-
nithologist, born in Darmstadt, Ger-
many, April 27, 1836, came to the
United States in 1852, and entered
the army in 1854. He served through
the Civil War, becoming a Captain in
the 1st Cavalry. After the war he
was transferred to the West, and was
retired April 24, 1886. During his
stay in the West he applied himself to
the study of ornithology, and collected
a vast amount of material in various
branches of natural history. In 1870
he began to collect the eggs of North
American birds, which finally number-
ed more than 8,000 specimens, and
this collection he presented to the
United States National Museum. He
is the author of " The Life Histories
of North American Birds, with Spe-
cial Reference to their Breeding Hab-
its and Eggs."
Benedetti, Vincent, Count de,
a French diplomatist of Italian ex-
traction, born in Bastia, Corsica,
April 29, 1817; died in Paris, March
Benedict, a married man ; from
the Latin benedictus (a happy man).
Benedict VII., Pope, succeeded
John XIII. in 972. After the death
of the Emperor Otho I., the Romans
imprisoned Benedict, who was stran-
gled in the castle of St. Angelo, in
Benedict XIV., Pope, was born
at Bologna in 1075, of the noble fam-
ily of Lambertini. Benedict was
learned, not only in theology, but in
history and literature, and had also
a taste for the fine arts. His works
were published at Rome, in 12 vol-
umes quarto. He died in 1758, and
was succeeded by Clement XIII.
Benedict XV., Pope (Giacoma
Cardinal Delia Chiesa), born in Pog-
li, Italy, Nov. 21, 1854 ; was educated
at the Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics
in Rome ; ordained in 1878 ; became
archbishop of Bologna in 1907, a car-
dinal in 1914, and Pope, in succession
to Pius X., on Sept 3, 1914. He had
a thorough training in diplomacy,
which was utilized in attempts to
ameliorate conditions in the warring
countries and to bring about a speedy
peace. See APPENDIX : World War.
Benedict, St., the founder of the
Order of the Benedictine Monks, was
born at Nursia, in the Dukedom of
Spoleto, in Italy, in 480 A. D. Authors
are not agreed upon the time and
place of his death.
Benedict, Frank Lee, an Amer-
ican novelist and poet, born in New
York in 1834.
Benediction (from the Latin be-
nedicere, literally, " to speak well of ;"
"to commend"), a solemn invocation
of the Divine blessing upon men or
things. The ceremony in its simplest
form may be considered almost coeval
with the earliest expressions of religi-
ous feeling. The Sabbath is said to
have been blessed. Christ " took bread |
and blessed it," and " lifting up His
hands," blessed His disciples. In the
primitive Church the custom gradual-
ly developed itself in various liturgi-
cal forms. In Protestant churches a
form of benediction is used at the
close of religious services. In the Ro-
man Church a priestly benediction has
been defined as a formula of impera-
tive prayer, which, in addition to the
desire which it expresses, transmits a
certain grace or virtue to the object
over which it is pronounced.
Benedictns, the name given to
the hymn of Zacharias (Luke i: 68),
used as a canticle in the morning ser-
vice of the Episcopal Church to fol-
low the lessons. This position it has
occupied from very ancient times. It
is also used in the Church of Rome.
Benefice, under the feudal sys-
tem, an estate held by feudal tenure.
Formerly, and even sometimes yet,
the word was applied to an ecclesiasti-
cal living of any kind, any church en-
dowed with a revenue, whether a dig-
nity or not.
Benefit of Clergy, the advantage
derived from the preferment of the
plea " I am a clergyman." When in
medieval times, a clergyman was ar-
raigned on certain charges he was
permitted to put forth the plea that
with respect to the offense of which
he was accused, he was not under the
jurisdiction of the civil courts, but,
being a clergyman, was entitled to be
tried by his spiritual superiors. The
cases in which the benefit of clergy
might be urged were such as affected
the life or limbs of the offender, high
treason, however, excepted. The ex-
emption has never been recognized in
Ame.rica, and is abolished in Great
Benevento (ancient Beneventum),
a city of Southern Italy, 32 miles N.
E. of Naples, and is the capital of a
province of same name. Near Bene-
vento, in 1266, was fought the great
battle between Charles of Anjou and
his rival, Manfred, in which the latter
was killed, and his army totally de-
feated. During the reign of Napo-
leon I., Benevento was formed into a
principality conferred on Talleyrand.
In 1815, it again reverted to the Pope.
In 1860, it was annexed to the king-
dom of Italy. Pop., province (1911),
254,726; city, 25,123.
Benevolence, in the history of
the law of England, was a species of
forced loan or contribution, levied by
kings without legal authority. It was
first so called in 1473, when asked
from his subjects by Edward IV. as a
mark of good will toward his rule.
James I. tried, but with little success,
to raise money by this expedient, and
it was never again attempted by the
crown; Charles I. expressly declining
to have recourse to it.
Benezcth, Anthony, a French-
iAjnerican philanthropist, was born in
St. Quentin's, France, Jan. 31, 1713;
lived from infancy in England and the
United States. The greater part of
his writings were in the form of tracts
against the slave trade and in favor
of the American Indians. He died in
Philadelphia, Pa., May 3, 1784.
Benfey, Theodor, a German Ori-
entalist and comparative philologist,
born of Jewish parents near Got-
tingen, Jan. 28, 1809. In 1862 he
was appointed to the chair of San-
skrit and Comparative Philology in
the University of Gottingen, which he
held till his death, June 26, 1881.
Benga, an African tribe, living on
the Spanish island, Corisco, off the
W. coast, having moved from the in-
terior within a few generations. The
American Presbyterian Board of Mis-
sions have translated books into the
language, which closely resembles the
Kamerun and Dualla.
Bengal, a province in British In-
dia, formerly a presidency, reconsti-
tuted a province in 1912 ; comprises
the deltas and . lower valleys of the
Ganges ; area, 78,412 square miles ;
pop. (1911) 45,483,077; area with the
native States of Cooch Behar and
Hill Tippera included, 83,805, pop.
46,305,655. The chief town and port
is Calcutta, pop. (1911) 1,222,315.
The English first got a firm footing
in Bengal about 1644, and in
1707, Calcutta was erected into a
presidency, and the foundation of
British power in India laid. A bill
conferring upon agricultural tenants
a transferable interest in their hold-
ings and protecting them against evic-
tion was passed in 1885.
Bengal, Bay of, that portion of
the Indian Ocean which lies between
Hindustan and Farther India, or Bur-
ma, Siam, and Malacca, and may be
regarded as extending S. to Ceylon
and Sumatra. It receives the Ganges,
Brahmaputra, and Irrawadi.
Bengal, or Bengola, Light, a
kind of firework, giving a vivid and
Bustained blue light It is used for
signals at sea.
Bengongh, John 'Wilson, a Ca-
nadian poet, born in Toronto, April 5,
1851 : studied in the Whitley District
and Grammar School. In 1873 be es-
tablished the " Grip," a humorous
weekly, in Toronto. His political car-
toons in this paper were highly artis-
tic. He is also widely known as a
lecturer and a poet.
Bengnela, a district belonging to
the Portuguese on the W. coast of
South Africa; bounded N. by Angola,
and S. by the Kunene river; founded
by the Portuguese in 1617.
Benguet, a province of Luzon,
Philippines; separated from the cen-
tral W. coast by the province of La
Union; area, 990 square miles; pop.
(1903) 22,745; capital, Baguio, 143
miles N. of Manila; native races,
Ilocano and Igarrotes.
Ben-Hadad, or Benhaddad, the
name of three kings of Syria. The
first was a contemporary of Asa, King
of Judah (929-873 B. c.), I Kings,
xv. The second (860-824 B. c.) of
the time of Ahab, King of Israel, I
Kings, xx. The third at the time of
Jehoahaz, King of Israel (856-839
B. C.), II Kings, xiii.
Benhani, Andrew Ellicott
Kennedy, an American naval officer,
born in New York, April 10, 1832;
entered the navy in 1847 ; was com-
missioned Rear-Admiral in 1890, and
was retired in 1894. During the Civil
War he served in the South Atlantic
and West Gulf Blockading Squadrons.
In April, 1893, he commanded one of
the divisions in the great naval display
at New York ; in 1894, as commander
of a squadron at Rio de Janeiro, Bra-
zil, he forced the commander of the in-
surgents' squadron to raise the block-
ade of the city and to cease firing on
American vessels ; in 1898 was naval
gize commissioner in Savannah, Ga.
e died Aug. 11, 1905.
Benhani, Henry W., an Ameri-
can military engineer, born in Ches-
hire, Conn., in 1816; was graduated
at the United States Military Academy
in 1837; and became Colonel of the
United States Engineers, and Brevet
Major-General, United States army.
He commanded the engineer brigade
and laid several pontoon bridges under
fire during the Chancellorsville bat-
tles ; constructed and commanded the
defenses at City Point ; devised the
picket shovel ; and made many im-
provements in the construction of
pontoon bridges, in which he was a
recognized expert. He died in New
York, June 1, 1884.
Beni, a river of Bolivia, South
America ; formed by the union of all
the streams flowing down the Eastern
Beni-Hassan, a village of Mid-
dle Egypt, on the E. bank of the Nile,
remarkable for the grottoes or cata-
combs in the neighborhood.
Beni-Israel, a race in the W. of
India (the Konkan sea board, Bom-
bay, etc.) who keep a tradition of
Jewish origin, and whose religion is a
modified Judaism ; supposed to be a
remnant of the ten tribes.
Benin, a former negro kingdom of
West Africa, on the Bight of Benin,
extending along the coast on both sides
of the Benin river, W. of the lower
Niger, and to some distance inland.
The chief town is Benin (pop. 15,-
000), situated on the river Benin,
one of the mouths of the Niger.
In February, 1897, the Benin coun-
try was included within the Niger
Coast Protectorate, and a British
Resident was installed in the chief
town. The whole territory was then
between 3,000 and 4,000 square miles