George Jotham Hagar.

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in extent, contained about 400 towns
and villages, and had a population of
which no trustworthy estimate could
be formed.

Benin, Bight of, part of the
Gulf of Guinea, West Africa, which
extends into the land between the
mouth of the river Volta and that of
the Nun.

Benjamin, the youngest son of
Jacob and Rachel (Gen. xxxv: 16-
18). Rachel died immediately after
he was born, and with her last breath
named him Ben-oni, the " son of my
sorrow ;" but Jacob called him Ben-
jamin, " son of my right hand.'*

.The tribe of Benjamin, small at first,
was almost exterminated in the days
of the Judges, but afterward it great-
ly increased. On the revolt of the
ten tribes, Benjamin adhered to the
camp of Judah ; and the two tribes
ever afterward closely united. King
Saul and Saul of Tarsus were both

Benjamin, Jndali Philip, an
American lawyer, born in St. Croix.
iWest Indies, Aug. 11, 1811; was of

E. 17.


English parentage and of Jewish
faith. He was educated at Yale Col-
lege ; admitted to the bar in New Or-
leans, in 1832 ; and elected to the
United States Senate in 1852 and
1858. At the beginning of the Civil
War, he resigned from the Senate and
declared his adhesion to the State of
Louisiana. In 1861 he accepted the
office of Attorney-General in the Cab-
inet of Jefferson Davis, and afterward
became successively Confederate Sec-
retary of War and Secretary of State.
After the war he went to London,
England, where he was admitted to
the bar in 1806. He gained a suc-
cessful practice, and in 1872 was for-
mally presented with a silk gown. He
wrote a " Treatise on the Law of Sale
of Personal Property" (1868). He
died in Paris, May 7, 1884.

Benjamin, Park, an American
journalist, poet, and lecturer, born at
Demerara, British Guiana, Aug. 14,
1809. He studied law originally. His
poems, of a high order of merit, have
never been collected. He died in New
York, Sept. 12, 1804.

Benjamin, Park, an American
lawyer, editor, and miscellaneous
writer, son of the preceding, born in
New York, May 11, 1849. A gradu-
ate of the United States Naval Acad-
emy (1867), he ser-ved on Admiral
Farragut's flagship, but resigned in
1869. As a lawyer he has been a
patent expert. He edited the " Scien-
tific American " (1872-1878).

Benjamin, Samuel Green
Wheeler, an American traveler,
artist, and miscellaneous writer, born
at Argos, Greece, Feb. 13, 1837. He
was United States Minister to Persia
(1883-1885). He died July 19, 1914.

Bennett, Charles Wesley, an
American Methodist clergyman and
educator, born at East Bethany, N.
Y., July 18, 1828; was Principal of
Genesee Wesleyan Seminary (1869-
1871), Professor of History and
Logic at Syracuse University (1871-
1885), Professor of Historical Theol-
ogy at Garrett Biblical Institute,
Evanston (1885-1891). He died at
Evanston, 111., April 17, 1891.

Bennett, Edmund Hatch, an
American lawyer, born in Manches-
ter, Vt, April 6, 1824 ; was gk-aduated
at the University of Vermont in 1843.



and admitted to the bar in 1847.
From 1871 he was Professor and Dean
at the Law School of Boston Univer-
sity. He died Jan. 2, 1898.

Bennett, James Gordon, a
Scotch-American journalist ; founder
and proprietor of the New York
" Herald," born in Newmill, Keith,
Sept. 1, 1795. Trained for the Ro-
man Catholic priesthood, he emigrated
to the United States in 1819, where
he became in turn teacher, proof read-
er, journalist, and lecturer; he
founded the New York " Herald,"
May 6, 1835, price one cent. He
spared no effort and expense in se-
curing news, and laid the foundation
of its after enormous success. It was
the first newspaper to publish the
stock lists and a daily money article.
He died in New York, June 1, 1872.

Bennett, James Gordon, an
American journalist, born in New
York city, May 10, 1841; son of
James Gordon Bennett, founder of the
New York " Herald," of which he
became managing editor in 18G6, and
from that time largely controlling,
and becoming proprietor on the death
of his father in 1872. In 1870 he
sent Henry M. Stanley on the explor-
ing expedition which resulted in the
finding of Dr. Livingstone, and, in
conjunction with the London " Daily
Telegraph," supplied the means for
his journey across Africa by- way
of the Kongo in 1874-1878. He
founded the "Evening Telegram "
in New York, and established daily
editions of the " Herald " in Paris
and London. He early gave much
attention to yachting. He resides
mainly in Paris, collecting foreign
news, and directing by telegraph
the management and policy of his
newspapers. The New York " Her-
ald " was incorporated in 1899.

Bennett, Joseph H., an Amer-
ican philanthropist, born in Julius-
town, N. J., Aug. 16, 1816. He en-
gaged in the clothing business in Phila-
delphia, Pa., when 16 years old. His
property was said to be worth $3,000,-
000, and it is estimated that he gave
$1,000,000 to charity. He bequeathed
$500,000 to the University of Penn- i
Bylvania for its proposed college for
women. He died in Philadelphia,
Sept 29, 1898.

Bennett, Sanford Fillmoie, an
American hymnologist, born in Eden,
I N. Y., in 1836. He settled in Elk-
horn, Wis., in 1860, and became editor
of the " Independent." Resigning this
place, he entered the 40th Wisconsin
Volunteers and served with them
throughout the war. In 1867 he
aided J. P. Webster, the composer, in
preparing "The Signet Ring," a Sun-
day School hymn book, to which he
contributed about 100 hymns. "The
Sweet Bye and Bye " was one of the
first of these. Many of Mr. Bennett's
hymns and songs have been published
in sheets. He died in Richmond, 111.,
June 12, 1898.

Ben-Nevis, the most lofty moun-
tain in Great Britain, in Invernes-
shire, immediately E. of Fort William
and the opening of the Caledonian
canal, at the S. W. extremity of Glen-
more. It rises to the height of 4,406
feet, and in clear weather yields a
most extensive prospect. An observa-
tory was established on its summit in
May, 1881, by the Scottish Meteoro-
logical .Society.

Benningsen, or Bennigsen,
Levin August, Baron, a Russian
general, born in Hanover in 1745. He
entered the service of Catherine II.,
and distinguished himself by great
gallantry. He died in 1826.

Bennington, town and county-
seat of Bennington co., Vt. ; on the
Bennington and Rutland and the Leb-
anon Springs railroads; 36 miles E.
of Troy, N. Y. Bennington is histor-
ically famous on account of the battle
fought Aug. 16, 1777, when General
Stark with his " Green Mountain
Boys " defeated a large British detach-
ment sent from General Burgoyne's
army to capture the public stores near
N. Bennington. Pop. (1910) 6,211.

Benson, William Shepherd, an
American naval officer, born in Ma-
con, Ga., Sept. 25, 1855 ; was gradu-
ated at the United States Naval Acad-
emy in 1877; promoted to captain,
July 24, 1909, and rear-admiral, May
11, 1915 ; was commandant of the
Philadelphia navy yard in 1913-15 ;
and was appointed chief of the newly-
created Bureau of Operations in 1915.
His last duty was rendered extremely
onerous by the entrance of the United
States into the great war in 1917.


Benteen, Frederick William,

an American military officer, born in
Petersburg, Va., Aug. 24, 1834; was
educated in his native State ; and at
the outbreak of the Civil War went to
Missouri and organized a company of
Union volunteers. His most brilliant
service after the war was in his cam-
paigns against the Indians. He died
in Atlanta, Ga., June 22, 1898.

Bent Grass, a genus of grasses,
distinguished by a loose panicle of
small, flowered, laterally compressed
spikelets. The species are numerous
and are found in almost all countries
and climates.

Bentliam, Jeremy, an English
jurist, born in London, Feb. 15, 1748 ;
educated at Westminster and Oxford ;
entered Lincoln's Inn, in 1763. He
was called to the bar, but did not
practice, and, having private means,
devoted himself to the reform of civil
and criminal legislation. He died in
London, June 6, 1832, leaving his body
for dissection. His remains are to be
seen at University College, London.

Bentley, Richard, a celebrated
English divine and classical scholar,
distinguished as a polemical writer ;
born near Wakefield, in Yorkshire,
Jan. 27, 1662. He died at the mas-
ter's lodge at Trinity, July 14, 1742.

Benton, Thomas Hart, an Amer-
ican statesman, born near Hillsboro,
N. C., March 14, 1782 ; settled in Ten-
nessee, where he studied law, and was
elected to the Legislature. In 1812
he raised a regiment of volunteers,
and also served on General Jackson's
staff. After the war, he started a
newspaper in St. Louis, by which he
became involved in several duels. On
the admission of Missouri as a State,
he was chosen United States Senator
in 1820, and, in this post, during 30
years' continuous service, took a lead-
ing part in public affairs. A deter-
mined opponent of Calhoun's nullifica-
tion scheme, he afterward supported
Jackson in his war on the United
States bank, and earned the sobriquet
of " Old Bullion " by his opposition
to the paper currency. He died in
.Washington, April 10, 1858.

Benzene, or Benzol (C B H 8 ), a
carbon compound, best obtained from
the destructive distillation of coal-tar.
It is the source from which is derived


all the aniline colors, and artificial

Benzine (C 9 H 14 ), a liquid hydro-
carbon obtained from a fractional dis-
tillation of petroleum. It may also
be got by distilling 1 part of crystal-
lized benzoic acid intimately mixed
with 3 parts of slacked line. It is
quite colorless, of a peculiar, etheral,
agreeable odor, is used by manfactur-
ers of india-rubber and gutta-percha,
on account of its great solvent powers,
in the preparation of varnishes, and
for cleaning gloves, removing grease-
spots from woollen and other cloths,
etc., on account of its dissolving fats
and resins. It is highly inflammable,
and must be used with great caution.
It must not be confounded with ben-

Benzoin, a solid, fragile, vegeta-
ble substance, of a reddish-brown
color. Benzoin is obtained from the
tree called Styrax benzoin, and per-
haps from some others. On making
incisions into the bark, it flows out
in the form of a balsamic juice, having
a pungent taste and an agreeable odor.

Beothnkan, (red man, or Indian),
a linguistic stock of North American
Indians, inhabitants of the region of
the Exploits river in Northern New-
foundland, and believed to have been
limited to a single tribe, the last known
survivor of which died hi 1829.

Beowulf, an Anglo-Saxon epic, the
only manuscript of which belongs to
the 8th or 9th century, and is in the
Cottonian Library (British Museum).
The poem, which is the longest and
most important in Anglo-Saxon liter-
ature, is in many points obscure, and
the manuscript is somewhat imperfect.

Beranger, Pierre Jean de, the
national poet of France; born in
Paris, Aug. 19, 1780. He died in
Paris, July 16, 1857, and received the
honor of a public funeral, at which
the most eminent men in France, both
of the world of literature and politics,

Berand, Jean, a painter of great
power, born in St. Petersburg, of
French parentage, in 1845. His sub-
jects are usually chosen from Parisian
life. His latest works have been modern-
ized scenes from the New Testament.

Berbera, a seaport of British
Somaliland, Eastern Africa, with a


good harbor, on a bay of the Gulf of
Aden. It was conquered by Egypt in
1875, but in July, 1884, the British
Government took possession of it, and
a small Indian force is now stationed
here. It is the scene of a large an-
nual fair, which brings over 30,000
people together from all quarters in
the East. Coffee, grains, ghee, gold
dust, ivory, gums, cattle, ostrich
feathers, etc., are brought hither from
the interior, and exchanged for cot-
ton, rice, iron, Indian piece goods, etc.
Berbers, a people spread over
nearly the whole of Northern Africa,
from whom the name Barbary is de-
rived. The chief branches into which
the Berbers are divided are, first, the
Amazirgh, or Amazigh, of Northern
Morocco, numbering from 2,000,000 to
2,500,000. They are for the most part
quite independent of the Sultan of
Morocco, and live partly under chief-
tains and hereditary princes and part-
ly in small republican communities.
Second, the Shuluh, Shillooh, or Shel-
lakah, who number about 1,450,000,
and inhabit Southern Morocco. They
are more highly civilized than the Am-
azirgh. Third, the Kabyles in Algeria
and Tunis, who are said to number
900,000; and fourth, the Berbers of
the Sahara, who inhabit the oases.
Their language has affinities to the
Semitic group, but Arabic is spoken
along the coast. They are believed to
represent the ancient Mauritanians,
Numidians, Ga>tulians, etc.

Berbice, a river of British Guia-
na ; flows generally N. E. into the At-
lantic. It is navigable for small ves-
sels for 165 miles from its mouth, but
beyond that the rapids are numerous
and dangerous.

Berea College, a co-educational
(non-sectarian) institution, in Berea,
Ky. ; organized in 1858. Under the
guidance of the able men who directed
its course, this institution did an al-
most incredible work among the moun-
taineers both black and white in the
Southern States. In the winter of
1903-3904, the Kentucky legislature
forbade co-education of white and
blacks, and Berea was obliged to estab-
lish branch for its colored students.

Berean, a Scottish religious sect
founded by the Rev. J. Barclay in
1773. and also called Barclayans.


Berengarins, of Tours, a theo-
logian of the llth century. He was
born at Tours in 908, long held an ec-
clesiastical office there, and was after-
ward archdeacon of Angers. He was
thoroughly versed in the philosophy
of his age, and did not hesitate to ap-
ply reason to the interpretation of the
Bible. He denied the dogma of tran-
substantiation, and was charged with
heresy. He died on the Isle of St.
Cosmos, near Tours, in 1088.

Berenice, a daughter of Herod
Agrippa I., who was the son of Aristo-
bulus, who was the son of Herod the
Great (Acts xii ; Matthew ii). She
was the sister of Herodes Agrippa II.,
before whom Paul preached A. D. 63
( Acts xxv : 13 ), and the wife of Hero-
des of Chalcis, who seems to have
been her uncle, and left her a young
widow. After the capture of Jerusa-
lem she went to Rome (A. D. 75), and
Titus is said to have been so much at-
tached to her that he promised to mar-
ry her ; but on the death of his father
he sent Berenice from Rome, much
against his will and hers, when he
found that the proposed match was
disagreeable to he people.

Beresford, Lord Charles de la
Poer, an English naval officer, born
in Ireland, Feb. 10, 1846; became a
Cadet in 1857; Lieutenant, 1868;
Captain, 1882; and Rear-Admiral,
1897. In 1882 he commanded the
" Condor " in the bombardment of
Alexandria, and was especially men-
tioned and honored for his gallantry.
In December, 1899, was appointed
the second in command of the
British squadron mobilized in the
Mediterranean Sea. Lord Beres-
ford accompanied the Prince of
Wales on his visit to India in
1875-187G, as naval aide-de-camp,
and held the same relation to the
Queen in 1896-1897. He has served
several terms in Parliament. Besides
the numerous honors for gallantry a3
an officer he has received three med-
als for saving life at sea under trying
circumstances. In 1898 he visited
China at the request of the Associated
Chambers of Commerce of Great Brit-
tain to make a study of the compli-
cated commercial conditions existing
there ; and on his return, in 1899, he
passed through the United Statea


and was received with distinguished
honors by official and commercial bod-
ies. He has done much to promote
the " open door " policy as a condi-
tion of international commerce in

Beresina, or Berezina, a river of
Russia in Europe ; rendered famous
on account of its disastrous passage
by the French army during the retreat
of Napoleon I. from Russia, in 1812.

Berezpvsk, a village in the Rus-
sian province of Perm, near Ekaterin-
burg, gives name to a famous gold
field, wrought since 1744.

Berg, Frederick William
Rambert, a Russian general, chiefly
notorious for the severity with which
he treated the unfortunate population
of Poland during the insurrection of
1863, and which excited the horror
and indignation of the civilized world.

Bergamot, a fruit tree, a variety
or species of the genus citrus, various-
ly classed with the orange, citrus au-
rantium, the lime, atrus limetta, or
made a distinct species as citrus ber-
gamia. It is probably of Eastern ori-
gin, though now grown in Southern
Europe, and bears a pale yellow, pear-
shaped fruit with a fragrant and
slightly acid pulp. Its essential oil
is in high esteem as a perfume. Ber-
gamot is also a name given to a num-
ber of different pears.

Bergen, a seaport on the W. coast
of Norway, the second town of the
kingdom, about 25 miles from the
open sea, on a bay of the Byford.
The trade is large, timber, tar, train
oil, cod liver oil, hides, and particular-
ly dried fish (stock fish) being export-
ed in return for corn, wine, brandy,
coffee, cotton, woolens, and sugar. In
1445 a factory was established here
by the Hanseatic cities of Germany.
Pop. (1910) 76,867.

Bergerac, Savinien Cyrano de,
a French author, born in Paris in
1619, distinguished for his courage in
the field, and for the number of his
duels, more than a thousand, most of
them fought on account of his mon-
strously large nose. He died in 1655.
His writings are often crude, but full
of invention, vigor, and wit. He was
made the hero of a drama bearing his
name, written by Edmond Rostand,
the French playwright, which had a


phenomenal success in the United
States in 189^1900, and was the oc-
casion of a suit for plagiarism.

Bergerat, Auguste Entile, a
French journalist, playwright and
novelist, born in Paris, April 29, 1845.
son-in-law of Theophile Gautier, and
since 1884, particularly known as the
amusing chronicler of the " Figaro "
under the pseudonym of " Caliban."
He "also wrote two novels.

Bergh., Henry, an American phi-
lanthropist, born in New York in
1823; was founder and President of
the American Society for the Preven-
tion of Cruelty to Animals (1866),
founder of the American Society for
the Prevention of Crueity to Children
(1881), Secretary of Legation and
acting Vice-Consul at St. Petersburg
(1862-1864). He died in New York
city, March 12, 1888.

Bergh, Pieter Theodoor Hel-
vetius van den, a Dutch dramatist
and poet, born in 1799; died in 1873.

Bergnans, Heinrich, a German
geographer, born in Cleves, Prussia,
May 3, 1797 ; died in Stettin, Feb. 17,

Bergman, Ernest von, a Ger-
man surgeon, born in Riga, Dec. 16,
1836. He was educated at Vienna,
Dorpat, and Berlin. He served in
the Prussian army during 1866-1870;
was Professor of Surgery in the Uni-
versity of WUrzburg in 1878-1882;
and became Director of the Surgical
Clinic at Berlin University in 1882.
He died March 25, 1907.

Bergman, Torbern plof , a Swe-
dish physicist and chemist, born in
Catherineberg, March 20, 1735. His
theory of chemical affinities greatly in-
fluenced the subsequent development
of chemistry. He died July 8, 1784.

Bergmann, Carl, a German mu-
sician, born in Ebersbach, Saxony,
April 11, 1821. Being implicated in
the Revolution of 1848, he left Ger-
many for the United States in 1849.
An enthusiastic Wagnerite, he was
himself the composer of an opera, a
symphony and many concert pieces.
He died in New York city, in August

Beriberi, Beriberia, Berriber-
ri, or Barbiers, an acute disease
characterized by oppression of breath-
ing, by general oedema, by paralytic



weakness, and by numbness of the
lower extremities. It is generally fatal
It occurs frequently in Ceylon among
the colored troops, and on some por-
tions of the Indian coast.

Bering, or Bearing, Vitus, a
Danish explorer, born in Jutland, in
1680. After making several voyages
to the East and West Indies, he en-
tered the service of Russia, while still
young; became a captain-commander
in 1772 ; and was sent by the Empress
Catharine in charge of an expedition
(planned by Peter the Great before
his death), the object of which was to
determine if Asia and America were
united. Crossing Siberia he sailed
from the river Kamchatka in July.
1728; and reached lat 67 18' N.,
having passed through the strait since
called after him, without knowing it.
Discovering that the land trended
greatly to the W. he concluded that
the continents were not united, and
returned ; without, however, seeing
America. In another voyage, in 1774,
he touched upon the American coast,
in lat 58 21' N. ; and gave name to
Mount St. Elias. In returning his
ship was cast upon an island, since
named after him, an outlier of the
Aleutian group, and here he perished,
in December, 1741.

Bering Sea, that part of the North
Pacific Ocean between the Aleutian
Islands, in 55, and Bering Strait, in
66 N., by which latter it communi-
cates with the Arctic Ocean. The
United States having claimed the ex-
clusive right of seal fishing in the Ber-
ing Sea in virtue of the purchase of
Alaska from Russia, and this right
having been disputed by the British,
it was decided in August, 1893, by an
arbitration tribunal, to which the
question was referred, that no such
right existed, but at the same time
regulations for the protection of the
fur seal were drawn up and agreed to
between the two powers, the chief
being the prohibition of seal fishery
within the zone of 60 miles round the
Pribilof Islands, inclusive of the terri-
torial waters, and the establishment
of a close season for the fur seal from
May 1 to July 31 inclusive, applying
to the part of the Pacific and Bering
Sea, N. of 35 and E. of the 180th
meridian from Greenwich.

Bering Strait, the channel which
separates Asia and America at their
nearest approach to each other. It
was discovered by Bering in 1728, and
first explored by Cook in 1788.

Berkeley, a town in Alameda
county, Cal.; on the Southern Paci-
fic railroad; 8 miles N. E. of San
Francisco; is the seat of the State
University and of the State Institu-
tion for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind.
Pop. (1910) 40.434.

Berkeley, Dr. George, Bishop of
Cloyne, born in Ireland in 1685 ; be-
came fellow of Trinity College, Dublin,
in 1707 ; in 1724 Dean of Derry. He
published proposals for the conversion
of the American savages to Chris-
tianity by the establishment of a col-
lege in the Bermuda Islands. He
arrived at Rhode Island in 1728, but,
the plan lacking support, he returned
and became Bishop of Cloyne. He
died suddenly at Oxford in 1753.
Berkeley holds an important place in
the history of philosophy. His most
celebrated philosophical work is : Trea-
tise on the Principles of Human
Knowledge, 1710, in which his philo-
sophical theory is fully set forth.

Berkeley, Sir John, one of the
proprietors of New Jersey, born in
1607. He was a prominent Royalist
during the contest of Charles I. with
Parliament. Charles II. granted him,
with Sir George Carteret, a proprie-
tary interest in New Jersey and Caro-
lina. He died Aug. 28. 1678.

Berkeley, Sir William, an Eng-
lish colonial Governor, born near Lon-
don, about 1610. In 1632 he was a
Commissioner of Canada, and in 1641
became governor of Virginia. In
1676 he resigned and returned to
England. He died July 13, 1677.

Berkshires, The, or Berkshire
Hills, a range of mountains in the
N. W. of Alassachusetts; in Berk-
shire county; stretching 16 miles N.
and S.

Berlin, town and capital of
Waterloo county, Ontario, Canada;
on the Grand river and the Grand
Trunk and other railroads; 63 miles
W. of Toronto; contains a Roman
Catholic college and several manu-
facturing plants. Pop. (1911) 15,186.

Berlin, the capital of the Prus-
sian dominions and of the German em-


pire, the residence of the Emperor of
Germany and foreign ambassadors ;
in the province of Brandenburg ; the
'largest city in Germany, and, for the
beauty and size of its buildings, the
regularity of its streets, the impor-
tance of its institutions of science and
art, and its activity, industry, and
trade, one of the first in Europe. It
is situated on a dreary sandy plain,
4).bout 126 feet above the level of the
gea, on both sides of the Spree, a slug-
gish stream, here about 200 feet broad,

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