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by a widespread financial ruin.

Black Hand, common name in
j the United States for an offshoot
I of two long-established societies of
an intricate and powerful order of
Italian criminals, known in their re-
spective strongholds of Naples and
Sicily as the " Camorra " and " Ma-
fia." The habit of the members of
signing blackmail and threatening
letters with the words " black-hand,"
or a rude representation of one, gave
these desperadoes in the United
States their distinctive name.

Black Hawk, a famous chief of
the Sac and Fox Indians, born in
1767. He joined the British in 1812,
and fought against the United States
in 1831-1832. He died in 1838.

Blackheath, a village and heath,
in Kent, England, about 6 miles S.
E. of London Bridge.

Black Hills, a mountainous re-
gion in the S. W. of South Dakota,



Black Hole



Black Sea



extending into the E. part of Wyom-
ing ; long. 103 to 105 s . It was pur-
chased from the Indians in 1876, for
whom it had been one of the finest
hunting grounds in the West. In I
1877-1878 thousands of miners went '
there, and in 1880 there had already j
sprung into existence three towns, i
Deadwood, Central City, and Lead-
ville. Around these lay also groups
of smaller towns and villages. From
1880 the gold mines yielded about $4,-
000,000 annually, and the silver mines
about $3,000,000 annually.

Black Hole of Calcutta, a small
chamber, 20 feet square, in the old '
fort of Calcutta, in which, after their |
capture by Surajah Dowlah, the whole
garrison of 146 men were confined
during the night of June 21, 1756.
Only 23 survived. The spot is now
marked by a monument.

Blackie, John Stuart, a Scot-
tish author, born in Glasgow in July,
1809; died in Edinburgh, March 2,
1895.

Black Lead, Graphite, or Plum-
bago, a mineral consisting chiefly of
carbon, but containing also more or
less of alumina, silica, lime, iron, etc.,
to the extent of 1 to 47 per cent, ap-
parently mixed rather than chemically
combined. Black lead is the popular
name, and that by which it is general-
ly known in the arts, though no lead
enters into the composition of the
mineral ; graphite is that generally
preferred by mineralogists.

Black List, a list of bankrupts or
other parties whose names are official-
ly known as failing to meet pecuniary
engagements. The term is also ap-
plied to a list of employes who have
been discharged by a firm or corpora-
tion and against whom some objection
is made and reported to other firms ^or
corporations to prevent them obtain-
ing employment.

Blackmail, a certain rate of mon-
ey, corn, cattle or the like, anciently
Said, in the N. of England and in
cotland, to certain men who were al-
lied to robbers, to be protected by
them from pillage. It was carried to
such an extent as to become the sub-
ject of legislation. Blackmail was
levied in the districts bordering the
Highlands of Scotland till the middle
of the 18th century. In the United



States, the word is applied to money
extorted from persons under threat of
exposure for an alleged offense; hush-
money.

Black Monday. (1) A name for
Easter Monday, in remembrance of
the dreadful experiences of the army
of Edward III., before Paris, on
Easter Monday, April 14, 1360. Many
soldiers and horses perished from the
extreme cold. (2) The 27th of Feb.,
1865, a memorable day in Melbourne,
Australia, when a destructive sirocco
prevailed in the surrounding country.

Black Mountains, the group
which contains the highest summits of
the Appalachian system, Clingman's
Peak being 6,701 feet, Guyot's Peak,
6,661.

Black Republic, a name applied
to the Republic of Haiti, which ia
under the dominion of the African
race.

Black Republicans, in the United
States, a name applied to members of
the Republican Party by the Pro-
Slavery Party.

Black River, the name of several
-ivers in the United States: (1) An
affluent of the Arkansas river, in Ar-
kansas, 400 miles long. It is naviga-
ble to Poplar Bluff, 311 miles; (2) a
river in New York, rising in the Adi-
rondacks, and emptying into Lake On-
tario near Watertown, length 200
miles; (3) a river in Wisconsin, flow-
ing S. W., and emptying into the Mis-
sissippi river near Lacrosse; length
200 miles ; (4) a river rising in the S.
E. o Missouri, flowing nearly S., and
entering the White river, of which it
is the chief tributary, at Jacksonport,
Ark.; length, 350 miles, of which 100
miles are navigable.

Black Rock Desert, a tract of
nearly 1,000 square miles, N. of Pyra-
mid Lake, in Nevada. In summer it is
a barren level of alkali and in winter
covered in places with shallow water.
Called also " Mud Lakes."

Black Rood of Scotland, a cross
of gold in the form of a casket, al-
leged to contain a piece of the true
Cross.

Black Sea (ancient Pontus Eux-
inus), a sea situated between Europe
and Asia, and mainly bounded by the
Russian and Turkish dominions, being



Black Sheep

connected with the Mediterranean by
the Bosporus, Sea of Marmora, and
Dardanelles, and by the Strait of
Kertsch with the Sea of Azov, which
is, in fact, only a bay of the Black
Sea; area of the Black Sea and the
Sea of Azov about 175,000 square
miles, with a depth in the center of
more than 150 fathoms and few shoals
along its shores. The water is not
so clear as that of the Mediterranean,
and is less salt on account of the
many large rivers which fall into it.

Black Sheep, a tribe of Turko
mans, so called from their standard.

A black sheep : a disgrace to the
family ; a mauvais sujet ; a workman
who will not join in a strike.

Black Snake, a common snake in
North America, reaching a length of
5 or 6 feet, and so agile and swift as
to have been named the racer, with no
poison fangs, and, therefore, compara-
tively harmless.

Blackstone, Sir William, an
English jurist, born in London, July
10, 1723; educated at the Charter
House and Pembroke College, Oxford.
In 1743 he was elected fellow of All-
Soul's College, Oxford, and in 1746
was called to the bar; but, having
attended the Westminster law courts
for seven years without success, he re-
tired to Oxford. Here he gave lec-
tures on law, which suggested to Mr.
Viner the idea of founding a profes-
sorship at Oxford for the study of
the common law ; and Blackstone was,
in 1758, chosen the first Vinerian
Professor. In 1765 he published
the first volume of his famous " Com-
mentaries on the Laws of England."
He died Feb. 14, 1780.

Black Tin, tin ore when dressed,
stamped, and washed ready for smelt-
ing, forming a black powder.

Black Walnut, a valuable timber
tree of the United States and its
fruit. The great size often reached
by this tree, the richness of the dark
brown wood, the unique beauty of the
grain sometimes found in burls, knots,
feathers and in the curl of the roots,
all conspire to make this the most
choice and high priced of all our na-
tive woods.

Blackwell, Mrs. Antoinette
Lonisa (Brown), an American wom-
an suffragist and Unitarian minister,



Blaine

born at Henrietta, N. Y., May 20,
1825. A graduate of Oberlin (1847),
she " preached on her own orders," at
first in Congregational churches, be-
coming at length a champion of wom-
en's rights. She married Samuel C.,
a brother of Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
(1856).

Blackwell, Elizabeth, an Amer-
ican physician and medical and ethical
writer, born at Bristol, England, 1821.
She was the first woman who ob-
tained the degree of M. D. in the
United States (1849), beginning prac-
tice in New York (1851). Died 1910.

Blackwell, Lucy Stone, an
American woman suffragist, born in
West Brookfield, Mass., Aug. 13,
1818; was graduated at Oberlin Col-
lege in 1847; became a lecturer on
woman suffrage, and a contributor to
the press. In 1855 she married Henry
B. Blackwell, a merchant of Cincin-
nati. She died in Dorchester, Mass.,
Oct. 20, 1893.

Blackwell's Island, an island be-
longing to the city of New York, in
the East river, containing about 120
acres. On it are the penitentiary,
almshouse, lunatic asylum for females,
workhouse, blind asylum, hospital for
incurables, and a convalescent hospi-
tal.

Blackwood, William, a Scotch
publisher, born at Edinburgh, Nov.
20, 1776. He started as a bookseller
in 1804, and soon became also a pub-
lisher. After his death the business,
which had developed into a large pub-
lishing concern, was carried on by his
sons, and the magazine still keeps its
place among the leading periodicals.
He died Sept 16, 1834.

Blaeu, Blaenw, or Blanw, a
Dutch family celebrated as publish-
ers of maps and books.

Blaine, James Gillespie, an
American statesman, born in West
Brownsville, Pa., Jan. 31, 1830. He
graduated at Washington College, Pa.,
in 1847. In 1854 he removed to Au-
gusta, Me., and engaged in journalism.
He was one of the founders of the
Republican Party, and in 1856 was
a delegate to the first Republican Na-
tional Convention, which nominated
Fremont for the Presidency. In 1858
he was elected to the Legislature of
Maine, and in 1862 to the House



Blair



Blake



of Representatives of the National
Congress. He became Speaker of the
House in 1869, and held that office for
six years; was a member of the Sen-
ate from 1876 to 1881; was twice
Secretary of State (1881-1882 and
1889-1892). He was defeated for
the Presidency in 1884, by Grover
Cleveland. Besides his numerous
speeches and writings on the public
questions of his day, his best known
work is his " Twenty Years in Con-
gress " (2 vols., 1884-1886), a his-
torical production of great and per-
manent value. He died in Washing-
ton, D. C., Jan. 27, 1893.

Blair, Austin, an American law-
yer, born in Caroline, N. Y., Feb. 8,
1818; was elected Governor of Michi-
gan in 1860, becoming one of the War
Governors. In 1866-1870 he was a
member of Congress. He died in
Jackson, Mich., Aug. 6, 1894.

Blair, Francis Preston, an
American journalist and politician,
born in Abingdon, Va., April 12, 1791 ;
died at Silver Spring, Md., Oct. 18,
1876.

Blair, Francis Preston, Jr., an
American military officer and legis-
lator, born in Lexington, Ky., Feb.
20, 1821 ; son of the preceding. He
was a Representative in Congress i
from Missouri in 1857-1859 and 1861-
1863 ; became a Major-General in the
Union army in the Civil War, taking
an active part in the Vicksburg cam-
paign and Sherman's march to the
sea ; was an unsuccessful Democratic
candidate for Vice-President in 1868,
and United States Senator in 1870-
1873. He died in St. Louis, July 5,
1875.

Blair, Henry William, an Amer-
ican legislator, born in Campton, N.
H., Dec. 6, 1834 ; received an acade-
mic education ; was admitted to the
bar in 1859 ; served through the Civil
War, becoming Lieutenant-Colonel of
the 15th New Hampshire Volunteers,
and being twice wounded. After serv-
ing in both branches of the State
Legislature he was a member of Con-
gress in 1875-1879 and 1893-1895,
and a United States Senator in 1879-
1891.

Blair, Hugh, a Scotch clergyman
and educational writer, born in Edin-
burgh, in 1718; was noted for the



eloquence of his sermons, and also
for "Lectures on Rhetoric" (1783),
which attained great popularity,
" Blair's Rhetoric " being familiar to
all students. He died in 1800.

Blair, John Insley, an American
philanthropist, born in Belvidere, N.
J., Aug. 22, 1802 ; was in early life a
merchant and banker; subsequently
becoming the individual owner of
more miles of railroad property than
any other man in the world. He ac-
quired a very large fortune; loaned
the Federal Government more than
$1,000,000 in the early part of the
Civil War; built and endowed at a
cost of more than $600,000, the Pres-
byterian Academy in Blairstown, N.
J. ; rebuilt Grinnell College, Iowa ;
erected Blair Hall and made other
gifts to Princeton University ; was
equally liberal to Lafayette College;
and had erected more than 100 church-
es in different parts of the West, be-
sides laying out many towns and vil-
lages on the lines of his numerous
railroads. He died in Blairstown, N.
J., Dec. 2, 1899.

Blair, Montgomery, an American
lawyer, born in Franklin county, Ky.,
May 10, 1813 ; was graduated at the
United States Military Academy in
1835; resigned from the army in
1836; admitted to the bar in 1839;
began practice in St. Louis. He acted
as counsel for the plaintiff in the
widely known Dred Scott case. In
1861-1864 he was Postmaster-Gen-
eral. In 1876-1877 he acted with the
Democratic Party in opposing Mr.
Hayes' title to the office of President.
He died in Silver Springs, Md., July
27, 1883.

Blake, Edward, an English states-
man, born in Cairngorm, Ont., Cana-
da, Oct. 13, 1833; was educated at
Upper Canada College and Toronto
University ; called to the bar in 1856 ;
and engaged in practice in Toronto.
He entered public life in 1867; was
Premier of Ontario in 1871-1872,
Minister of Justice in 1875-1877, and
the recognized leader of the Canadian
Liberal Party. In 1892 he was
invited by the leaders of the Anti-
Parnellites in Ireland to enter the
British House of Commons as the rep-
resentative of an Irish constituency.
Consenting, he removed to South Long-
ford, was elected for that district, and



Blake

in 1895 was re-elected. In 1896 he
was appointed a member of the Judi-
ciary Committee of the Privy Council.

Blake, Eli 'Whitney, an Ameri-
can inventor, born in Westboro, Mass.,
Jan. 27, 1795; graduated at Yale
University in 1816. He began busi-
ness with his uncle, Eli Whitney, in
the manufacture of fire-arms ; and in
1834 founded, near New Haven,
Conn., the pioneer factory for the
manufacture of domestic hardware.
He died in New Haven, Conn., Aug.
17, 1886.

Blake, Mrs. Lillie (Deverenx)
TJmstead, an American advocate of
woman's rights, and novelist, born at
Raleigh, N. C., 1835. Her first hus-
band, Frank G. Quay Umstead, died
in 1859; she married Grenfill Blake
in 1866, who died in 1896.

Blake, William Phipps, an
American mineralogist, born in New
York city, June 1, 1826; was grad-
uated at the Yale Scientific School in
1852. He became Geologist and Min-
eralogist to the United States Rail-
road Expedition in 1853; was Mining
Engineer in connection with explora-
tions in Japan, China, and Alaska in
1861-1863; appointed Professor of
Geology and Mineralogy in the College
of California, 1864 ; Director of the
School of Mines in the University of
Arizona, 1900 ; died 1910.

Blakeley, Johnston, an Ameri-
can naval officer, born near Seaford,
Ireland, October, 1781 ; entered the
United States navy as a midshipman
in 1800; commanded the "Enterprise"
in the early part of the War of 1812 ;
and was captain of the " Wasp "
when she captured the English " Rein-
deer " in June, 1814. Soon after this
he sailed with the " Wasp " on an-
other cruise, but the vessel was lost
at sea with all on board.

Blanchard, Jonathan, an Amer-
ican educator, born in Rockingham,
Vt, Jan. 19, 1811 ; graduated at Lane
Theological Seminary in 1832; and
was ordained a Presbyterian minister
in 1838. He was American Vice-Presi-
dent of the World's Anti-Slavery Con-
vention in London in 1843; and in
1846 became President of Knox Col-
lege at Galesburg, 111. He was Presi-
dent of Wheaton College, 111., in
1880-1882; and, on resigning, was



Blanco

chosen president-emeritus. He died in
Wheaton, 111., May 14, 1892.

Blanco, Antonio Guzman, a
Venezuelan military officer, born in
Caracas, Feb. 29, 1828. He became
prominent in the Federalist revolts,
1859-1863, and when his party tri-
umphed, was made first Vice-President
in 1863 under Falcon, who was de-
posed in the Revolution of 1868.
Blanco led a successful counter revo-
lution in 1870, became President, and
retained the office till 1882. In 1893
he was appointed Minister to France,
where he resided till his death, July
29, 1899.

Blanco, Jose Felix, a Venezue-
lan historian, born in Mariana de
Caracas, Sept. 24, 1782. At different
times he acted in the capacity of
priest, soldier, and statesman. He
was one of the leaders in the Revolu-
ton at Caracas, April 19, 1810, and
was the first editor of the great his-
torical work, " Documentos para la
historia de la vida publica del Liber-
tador," etc. He died in Caracas, Jan.
8, 1872.

Blanco, Pedro, a Bolivian states-
man, born in Cochabamba, Oct. .19,
1795. He joined the Spanish araay in
1812, but soon deserted to the patriots,
and served with them till the end of
the Revolution. In 1828 he became a
general, and in the same year, when
Sucre fell, was made President of
Bolivia, but was superseded in the
Revolution of Dec. 31, 1828. He was
shot in Sucre, hi January, 1829.

Blanco, Ramon y Arenas, Mar-
quis de Pena Plata, Captain-Gen-
eral of the Spanish army hi Cuba
during the Spanish-American War;
was born at San Sebastian, Spain, in
1833, and began his military career at
the age of 22, entering the army in
1855 as a Lieutenant; was promoted
to a captain in 1858, and won the
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the war
with San Domingo. When the Span-
iards were driven from the island
Blanco went to the Philippines as
governor of Mindanao. When he re-
turned to Spain he was assigned to
the Army of the North, and in the
war with the Carlists made a brilliant
record. He successfully stormed Pena
Plata, for which achievement he was
created a Marquis of that name. He



Blanco Encalada



Blarney



Bucceeded General Weyler in command
of the army in Cuba, where his career
terminated with the U. S. occupation.
He died April 4, 1906.

Blanco Encalada, Manuel, a
Spanish-American military officer,
born in Buenos Ayres, Sept. 5, 1790;
distinguished himself in the Chilian
War of Independence. He was chosen
President of Chile in July, 1826, but
soon resigned, and was made General
of the army. He unsuccessfully in-
vaded Peru in 1837, and was not al-
lowed to retire till he had signed a
treaty of peace. Chile annulled this
treaty, and he was court-martialed,
but freed. In 1847 he was Intendant
of Valparaiso, and in 1853-1858 Min-
ister to France. He died in Santiago,
Chile, Sept 5, 1875.

Bland, Richard Parks, an Amer-
ican legislator, born in Kentucky,
Aug. 19, 1835 ; received an academical
education, and, between 1855 and
1865, practiced law in Missouri, Cali-
fornia, and Nevada, and was engaged
for some time in mining. In 1865 he
settled in Rolla, Mo., and practiced |
there till 1865, when he removed to |
Lebanon in the same State. He was j
a member of Congress in 1873-1895 j
and from 1897 till his death. In 1896
he was a conspicuous candidate for
the Presidential nomination in the
Democratic National Convention, but
on the fourth ballot his name was
withdrawn, and the vote of his State
was cast for William J. Bryan. Mr.
Bland was best known as the leader
in the Lower House of Congress of
the Free-Silver movement, and the
author of the Bland Silver Bill. At
the time of his death he was a mem-
ber of the Committees on Coinage,
Weights and Measures, and Expendi-
tures on Public Buildings. He died!
in Lebanon, Mo., June 15, 1899.

Bland, Theodoric, an American
military officer, born in Prince George
county, Va., in 1742; studied medicine
in the University of Edinburgh, and
for a time practiced in England. He
returned home in 1764, and was active
in his profession until the outbreak
of the Revolutionary War, when he
sided with the colonists, and became
Captain of the First Troop of Vir-
ginia cavalry. In 1777 he joined the
main arm; as a Lieutenant-Colonel,



and later became a ColoneL He dis-
tinguished himself at the battle of
Brandywine, and was placed in com-
mand of the prisoners taken at Sara-
toga, who were marched to Charlotte-
ville, Va. In 1780-1783 he was a
member of the Continental Congress,
and was a Representative from Vir-
ginia to the 1st Federal Congress in
1789. He died in New York city,
June 1, 1790.

Bland Silver Bill, one of the
most notable measures of American
Congressional history. The original
bill, as introduced by Representative
Bland and passed by the House late
in 1877, provided simply for the free
and unlimited coinage of silver by all
the mints of the United States. This
programme represented the full policy
of the Silver men. The silver dollar
had been demonetized by the act of
1873, and its coinage had been wholly
abandoned. The Bimetallists desired
to restore it to perfect equality with
gold as a standard of value, and the
original Bland bill, permitting owners
of silver bullion to have their com-
modity coined into dollars by the
mints, was intended as the means to
accomplish that object But the Sen-
ate amended the measure materially.
The free coinage clause was stricken
out, and, as a concession to the Silver
men, it was directed that the Secre-
tary of the Treasury should purchase
monthly not less than $2,000,000 and
not more than $4,000,000 worth of
silver bullion, at the market price of
the metal, and coin it into standard
silver dollars, which should be unlim-
ited legal tender for all debts. The
amended bill was reported by Senator
Allison, Chairman of the Finance
Committee, and hence received the
name of the Bland-Allison Act It
was vetoed by President Hayes, but
passed over his veto, Feb. 28, 1878, by
196 to 73 in the House, and 46 to 19
in the Senate. The silver purchase
clause in this act was repealed by the
Sherman Act of 1890.

Blank Verse, verse which is void
of rhyme.

Blarney, a village in Ireland, 4
miles N. W. of the city of Cork, with
Blarney Castle in its vicinity. A stone
called the Blarney Stone, near the
top of the castle, is said to confer on
those who kiss it the peculiar kind of



Blashfield

persuasive eloquence alleged to be
characteristic of the natives of Ire-
land.

Blashfield, Edwin Howland,
an American artist, born in New York
city, Dec. 16, 1848; studied in Paris
under Leon Bonnat ; and began ex-
hibiting in the Paris Salon in 1874.
lie returned to the United States in
1881, and has since distinguished him-
self by the execution of large decora-
tive works.

Blasphemy, slander or even well
merited blame, applied to a person or
in condemnation of a thing .

The word is particularly applied to
any profane language toward God ;
blasphemy against the Holy Ghost
means the sin of attributing to Satanic
agency the miracles which were ob-
viously from God.

Blast Furnace, a structure built
of refractory material in which metal-
lic ores are smelted in contact with
fuel and flux, the combustion of the
fuel being accelerated by air under
pressure.

Blasting, the operation of break-
ing up masses of stone or rock in situ
by means of gunpowder or other ex-
plosive. In ordinary operations, holes
are bored into the rock of from one to
six inches in diameter, by means of a
steel pointed drill, by striking it with
hammers or allowing it to fall from
a height. After the hole is bored to
the requisite depth it is cleaned out,
the explosive is introduced, the hole
is tamped or filled up with broken
stone, clay or sand, and the charge
exploded by means of a fuse or by
electricity.

Blaratsky, Helene Petrovna, a
noted theosophist; born in Yekaterin-
oslay, Russia, in 1831 ; founded the
Theosophical Society in New York in
1875. She died in London, May 8,
1891.

Blazonry, the art of describing a
coat of arms in such a way that an
accurate drawing may be made from
the verbal statements given.

Bleaching:, the art of whitening
linen, wool, cotton, silk, wax, also the
materials of which paper is made, and
other things.

Bledsoe, Albert Taylor, an
American clergyman and writer; born



Blennerhasset

in Frankfort, Ky., Nov. 9, 1809. He
was Assistant Secretary of War, of
the Southern Confederacy, and both
an Episcopal and a Methodist minis-
ter. He died in Alexandria, Va., Dec.
1, 1877.

Bleeding, or Hemorrhage, one
of the most serious accidents which
can happen to an animal, and consti-
tutes the most anxious complication
in surgical operations.

Blenheim, a village situated in
the circle of the Upper Danube, in
Bavaria, on the Danube. Here was
fought, Aug. 13, 1704, the famous bat-
tle of Blenheim (or, as it is more com-
monly called on the European Conti-
nent, the battle of Hochstadt, from
another village of this name in the
vicinity), in which Marlborough and
Prince Eugene, commanding the al-
lied forces of England and the Ger-
man empire, gained a brilliant victory
over the French and Bavarians.

Blennerhasset, Harman, an
Englishman of Irish descent, noted for
his connection with Aaron Burr's con-
spiracy, born in Hampshire, Oct. 8,



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