George Jotham Hagar.

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1794. After the battle of Kirrweiler
in 1794 he was appointed Major-Gen-
eral of the Army of Observation sta-
tioned on the Lower Rhine. In 1802,
in the name of the King of Prussia,
he took possession of Erfurt and
Muhlhausen. Oct. 14, 1806, he fought
at the battle of Auerstadt. After the
Peace of Tilsit he served in the De-
partment of War at Konigsberg and
Berlin. He then received the chief
military command in Pomerania, but
at the instigation of Napoleon was
afterward, with several other distin-
guished men, dismissed from the ser-
vice. In the campaign of 1812, when
the Prussians assisted the French, he
took no part ; but no sooner did Prus-
sia rise against her oppressors than
Blucher, then 70 years old, engaged
in the cause with all his former activ-
ity, and was appointed commander-in-
chief of the Prussians and the Rus-
sian corps under General Winzinger-
ode. His heroism in the battle of
Lutzen (May 2, 1813), was rewarded
by the Emperor Alexander with the
Order of St. George. The battles of
Bautzen and Hanau, those on the
Kat/bach and Leipsic, added to his
glory. He was now raised to the rank
of Field-Marshal, and led the Prus-
sian army which invaded France early
in 1814. After a period of obstinate
conflict the day of Montmartre
crowned this campaign, and, March
31, Blucher entered the capital of
France. His King, in remembrance
of the victory which he had grained at
the Katzbach, created him Prince of
Wahlstadt, and gave him an estate
in Silesia. On the renewal of the
war in 1815 the chief command was
again committed to him, and he led
his army into the Netherlands. June
15 Napoleon threw himself upon him,
and Blucher, on the 16th, was de-
feated at Ligny. In this engagement
his horse was killed, and he was
thrown under his body. In the battle
of the 18th Blucher arrived at the
most decisive moment upon the
ground, and taking Napoleon in the
rear and flank assisted materially in
completing the great victory of Belle
Alliance or Waterloo. He was a
rough and fearless soldier, noted for

Bine Law*

his energy and rapid movements,
which had procured him the name of
Marshal Vorwarts (Forward). He
died at Krieblowitz, Silesia, Sept. 12,

Blue, one of the seven colors into
which the rays of light divide them-
selves when refracted through a glass
prism, seen in nature in the clear ex-
panse of the heavens; also a dye or
pigment of this hue.

Blue, Victor, an American naval
officer, born in Marion, S. C., Dec. 6,
1865 ; entered the United States Naval
Academy in 1883 ; was commissioned
a passed naval cadet in 1887 ; trans-
ferred to the Engineer Corps in 1889,
and promoted to Ensign, Dec. 12,
1892. After serving on the "Alli-
ance " and " Thetis " he was assigned
to duty at the Naval Academy in
1896, and early in 1898 was promoted
to Lieutenant, junior grade. In the
war against Spain he traversed the
enemy's lines during the bombardment
of Santiago, and reported the location
of Cervera's vessels. Chief of Staff,
Pacific fleet, 1910-11 ; and became
chief of the Bureau of Navigation,
with the rank of rear-admiral, 1913.

Blue Beard, the name of the
blood thirsty husband in the familiar
tale of " Blue Beard," best described
in Perrault's "Tales" (1697). The
original of this monstrous personage
was a character celebrated in Breton
legend, Gilles de Laval, Baron de Retz
(1396-1440), famous in the wars of
Charles VII. According to tradition
he used to entice the children of peas-
ants into his castle, and there sacri-
fice them to the Devil and practice
sorcery with their remains. After 14
years of such a course he grew so bold
that his crimes were discovered, and
a heap of children's bones found in
his castle. He was condemned to
death, strangled, and his corpse
burned at the stake at Nantes in
1440. Another Breton legend repre-
sents de Retz with a red beard about
to marry a beautiful girl after haying
already made away with seven wives.
The bride expostulates at the altar.
De Retz offers her fine clothes, cas-
tles, all his possessions, finally his
body and soul. " I accept ! " shrieks
the bride, turning into a blue devil
and making a sign which transforms
de Retz's beard from red to blue.


Henceforth he belonged to Hell, and
became the dread of the country
round, under the name of Blue Beard.

Bine Berry, a name given in the
United States to the genus vaccinium,
that which contains the bilberry,
called in Scotland the blae berry.

Bine Bird, a beautiful bird. Its
whole upper parts are sky blue, shot
with purple, with its throat, neck,
breast, and sides reddish chestnut, and
part of its wings and its tail feathers

Bine Book, a printed volume, is-
sued by authority of the British Par-
liament containing a report.

Bine Bottle, a two-winged fly, the
body of which has some faint resem-
blance to a bottle of blue glass.

Blnefields, town, seaport, and cap-
ital of the former Mosquito Indian
Reservation ; now the Department of
Zelaya, Nicaragua, on the Atlantic
coast near the mouth of the Bluefielda
river, and 165 miles E. of Managua.
The reservation lies along the Atlan-
tic coast extending S. almost to Gray-
town, one of the termini of the pro-
jected Nicaragua canal.

Bine Fish, a species of coryphsena
found in the Atlantic ; also, a fish like
a mackerel but larger, found on the
Atlantic coast, and sometimes called
horse mackerel and salt water tailor.

Bine Grass, a grass cultivated for
pasturage in Northern and Central
Kentucky, deriving its name from the
underlying strata of blue limestone
which gives it a luxuriant growth.

Bine Hen State, a sobriquet for
the State of Delaware. During the
War for Independence, a certain pop-
ular officer of Delaware, named Cap-
tain Caldwell, asserted that a game
cock to be unconquerable must be
" a blue hen's chicken." This name
was at once applied to his regiment
and later to the State and its people.

Bine Jay, a common North Amer-
ican bird of the crow family, and oc-
cupying in the New World the place
held by the jays of the Old.

Bine Laws, a name given to cer-
tain rulings or decisions of colonial
magistrates reported by Rev. Samuel
A. Peters, a Church of England cler-
gyman, of Connecticut, as the actual
laws of the New Haven _ colony..

Blue Monday

Though one of them forbade a woman
to kiss her child on the Sabbath or a
fast day, and another provided in what
fashion men should cut their hair,
they have been soberly accepted by
great numbers of people as actually
enacted laws, illustrative of Puritan
illiberality. They appear in Peters'
44 General History of Connecticut,"
and were evidently a somewhat spite-
ful satire upon the Puritan legislation,
which contained many statutes con-
cerning Sabbath observances and the
vices of drinking and gambling that
would now be deemed inquisitorial.
The term is generally applied to any
law one does not like that affects per-
sonal habits.

Blue Monday, in Bavaria and
some other parts of Europe, a name
formerly given to the Monday before
Lent, when the churches were deco-
rated with blue. It was kept as a
holiday by classes whose ordinary avo-
cation required them to labor on Sun-
days. As this led to violent disturb-
ances the custom was legally abol-

Blue Mountains, a beautiful
wooded range of mountains in Oregon,
from 8,000 to 9,000 feet high, which,
with the Powder River Mountains,
separate the Columbia valley from the
Great Basin.

Blue Mountains, the central
mountain range of Jamaica, the main
ridges of which are from 6,000 to
8,000 feet high.

Bine Point, the S. extremity of
Patchogue Bay, Long Island, N. Y.,
which lends its name to the well
known oysters blue points.

Bine Print Paper, paper sensi-
tized by potassium ferricyanide and
citric acid ; used for making blue
print photographs and print plans,
mechanical drawings, etc., giving
white lines on blue ground.

Blue Ridge, the most easterly
range of .the Alleghany Mountains. It
forms the continuation of the chain
called South Mountain in Pennsylva-
nia and Maryland. It is known as the
Blue Ridge till it crosses the James
river; thence to North Carolina as Al-
leghany Mountains ; and in North Car-
olina again as Blue Ridge.

Bine Stockings, a literary wom-
an, generally with the imputation that


she is more or less pedantic. Boswell,
in his " Life of Johnson," states that
in his day there were certain meet-
ings held by ladies to afford them op-
portunity of holding converse with
eminent literary men. The most dis-
tinguished talker at these gatherings
was a Mr. Stillingfleet, who always
wore blue stockings. His absence was
so felt that the remark became com-
mon, " We can do nothing without
the blue stockings." Hence the meet-
ings at which he figured began to be
called sportively Blue Stocking Clubs,
and those who frequented them blue

Blum, Robert, a German Liberal
leader, born in very humble circum-
stances at Cologne, Nov. 10, 1807;
was secretary and treasurer of a thea-
ter at Cologne, and subsequently at
Leipsic, until 1847, when he estab-
lished himself as bookseller and pub-
lisher. His leisure was devoted to
literature and politics, and in 1840 he
founded at Leipsic the Schiller So-
ciety, which celebrated the poet's an-
niversary, as a festival in honor of
political liberty. When the revolu-
tionary movement broke out in 1848,
he was one of its foremost leaders.
At Vienna he joined the insurgents,
was arrested, and was shot on Nov. 9.

Blumenbach, Johann Fried-
Rich, a German naturalist, born in
Gotha, May 11, 1752. He advocated
the doctrine of the unity of the human
species, which he divided into five va-
rieties, Caucasian, Mongolian, Negro,
American, and Malay. His anthrop-
ological treatises, and memoirs of his
life by Marx and Flourens, were
translated into English. He died in
Gottingen, Jan. 22, 1840.

Blunderbuss, a short gun, unri-
fled and of large bore, widening
toward the muzzle. It is by no means
to be ranked with arms of precision,
but is loaded with many balls or slugs,
which scatter when fired, so that there
is a certainty of some one of them hit-
ting the mark.

Blunt, Edmund March, an
American author, born in Ports-
mouth, N. H., June 20, 1770; was
noted for his publication of the
"American Coast Pilot" (1796), de-
scribing all the coasts of the United
States, and containing a vast amount


of invaluable information for seamen.
. More than 30 editions of this work
have been published, and it is still in
use in the United States and the prin-
cipal European countries, having been
translated into nearly every foreign
language. He also compiled a num-
ber of nautical books and charts. He
died in Sing Sing, N. Y., Jan. 2, 1862.

Blunt, George William, an
lAmerican hydrographer, born in New-
buryport, Mass., March 11, 1802; a
eon of Edmund March Blunt. He
went to sea when 14 years old and
served as a sailor till nearly 21 ; and
in 1822-1866 was a publisher of
charts and nautical books in New
York. He made original surveys of
many American harbors ; was one of
the committee that organized the pres-
ent system of pilotage for New York
city ; made several revisions of the
" American Coast Pilot ;" and was in-
fluential in causing the Federal Gov-
ernment to adopt the French system
of lighthouses and to organize the
Lighthouse Board. He died in New
York city, April 19, 1878.

Blunt, Stanhope English, an
American military officer ; born in
Boston, Mass., Sept. 29, 1850; was
graduated at the United States Mili-
tary Academy and commissioned 2d
lieutenant in 1872. He rose through
the ranks to colonel in the ordnance
department; retired in 1912.

Blushing, a sudden reddening of
the skin, induced by various mental
states, particularly those involving
shame or humiliation, shyness or mod-

Blyden, Edward Wilmot, a ne-

fro author, born at St. Thomas, W.
., Aug. 3, 1832. After vainly seek-
ing, in 1845, admission to some col-
lege in the United States, he went to
Liberia, and graduated at the Alex-
ander High School, of which he after-
ward became principal. In 1880 he
became President of Liberia College.
He was commissioner to the Presby-
terian General Assembly of the United
States in 1861 and 1880. He died
Feb. 8, 1912.

Blythe, Herbert (better known as
actor ; born in India in 1847 ; was
graduated at Cambridge University,
England ; studied for the civil service ;


was admitted to the bar but did not
practise this profession, giving it up
for the stage. Died March 25. 1905.

Boa, the name of a genus of rep-
tiles belonging to Cuvier's tribe of
serpents proper.

The species properly belonging to
this genus are among the largest of
the serpent tribe, some of them, when
full .grown, being 30, and even 40 feet
long. Though destitute of fangs and
venom, nature has endowed them
with a degree of muscular power
which renders them terrible. Hap-
pily, they are not common in situa-
tions much frequented by mankind,
but are chiefly found in the vast
marshy regions of Guiana and other
hot parts of the American continent. (properly Abu-Abdallah,
and nicknamed Ez-Zogoiby, " the un-
lucky"), the last Moorish King of
Granada, dethroned his father, Abu-1-
Hasan, in 1481, and two years later
was defeated and taken prisoner by the
Casti Hans near Lucena. He was set
free on condition of paying tribute,
and returned to Granada to struggle
with his father and with his heroic
uncle, Es-Zaghal, for the throne.
Going to Africa, he there flung away
his life in battle.

Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni, in
Britain, during the reign of Nero.
Having been treated in the most igno-
minious manner by the Romans, she
headed a general insurrection of the
Britons, attacked the Roman settle-
ments, reduced London to ashes, and
put to the sword all strangers to the
number of 70,000. Suetonius, the
Roman general, defeated her in a de-
cisive battle (A. D. 62), and Boadicea,
rather than fall into the hands of her
enemies, put an end to her own life by

Boanerges, a Greek word trans-
lated in Mark iii:.17, "sons of thun-
der." It is of doubtful etymology,
but is probably the Aramaic pronun-
ciation of Hebrew beni regesh, regesh
in Hebrew meaning tumult or uproar,
but in Arabic and Aramaean thunder.
It is an appellation given by Christ
to two of His disciples, the brothers
James and John, apparently on ac-
count of their fiery zeal.

Boardman, George Dana, an
American missionary, born in Liver-


more, Me., Feb. 8, 1801. He studied
at Andover and was ordained in the
Baptist Church. In 1825 he went to
Burma, where he labored assiduously
in spreading Christianity. The mis-
sion planted by him became the cen-
tral point of all Baptist missions in
Burma. He died In Burma, Feb. 11,

Boardman, George Dana, an
American clergyman and author,
born in Tavoy, British Burma, Aug.
18, 1828; son of the American Bap-
tist missionary of the same name. He
was educated in the United States,
graduating at Brown University in
1852, and at Newton Theological In-
stitution in 1855. He became pastor
at Barnwell, S. C. ; afterward at
Rochester and Philadelphia. D. 1903.

Boardman, Mabel T., an Amer-
ican executive widely known for her
activities in the American National
Red Cross, of which she was a vice-
chairman in 1917. Of her work Pres-
ident Taft wrote : "The moving spirit
of the American Red Cross today is
Miss Mabel Boardman. It is due to
her indefatigable industry, her wide
acquaintance, her high character as a
woman, and the confidence that
wealthy and benevolent men have in
her that the association has become
so prosperous and powerful for good."

Boas, Franz, a German ethnolo-
gist, born in Minden, Westphalia,
July 9, 1858; studied at Heidelberg,
Bonn, and Kiel Universities, in 1877-
1882; traveled in the Arctic regions
in 1883-1884; was assistant in the
Royal Ethnographical Museum in
Berlin, and privat decent in geogra-
phy at the University in 1885-1886;
and teacher oi ; anthropology in Clark
University, Worcester, Mass., in

Boat Bill, the English name of
a genus of birds belonging to the true
herons. The bill, from which the
English name comes, is very broad
from right to left, and looks as if
formed by two spoons applied to each
other on their concave sides. It in-
habits the hot and humid parts of
South America.

Boatswain, an officer on board
a ship, whose function it is to take
charge of the rigging, cables, cordage,
anchors, sails, boats, flags and stores.


He must inspect the rigging every
morning and keep it in good repair;
and must either by himself or by dep-
uty steer the life boat. If on a ship
of war he must call the men to their
duty by means of a silver whistle given
him for the purpose ; besides taking
into custody those condemned by a
court martial, and, either by himself
or by deputy, inflict on them the pun-
ishment awarded.

Boaz, a Bethlehemite of means,
who took upon himself the duty of
providing for Ruth, as the near rela-
tion of her dead husband's family.
From him Jesus Christ was directly

Bobbin, a reel or other similar
contrivance for holding thread.

Bobbin Ket, a machine made cot-
ton net, originally imitated from the
lace made by means of a pillow and

Bobolina, a Greek woman, cele-
brated for her courage in aid of the
Greek revolt. After her husband had
been slain by the Turks in 1812, she
resolved to avenge his death. In 1821,
she equipped three vessels at her own
expense, fought with extraordinary
courage at Tripolitiza and Naupha
and was killed in action, in 1825.

Bob-o-link, Boblink, Reed
Bird, or Rice Bird, a common
American bird found from Paraguay
to Canada, the only one of its kind,
and that difficult to classify. Sqms
place it near the Baltimore bird,
others near starlings, but both the
characteristics and the character of
the bob-o-link exhibit much that is

The name originally Bob Lin-
coln is an imitation of the bird's
note. In song, the full throated male
bob-o-Iink is unique, rivaling the lark,
inimitable by the mocking bird.

Bob White, popular name of a
small game bird of the United States,
given because of its peculiar call. In
the Northern States it is known as
QUAIL, and in the Southern as PART-

Boccaccio, Giovanni, an Italian
novelist and poet, son of a Florentine
merchant, born in 1313 ; died in Cer-
taldo, in 1375.

Bock, Karl Ernst, a German
anatomist, born in 1809; died in



Bock Beer


1847. His title to fame rests chiefly
on his " Handbook of Human Anat-

Bock Beer. (See BEER).

Bode, John Elert, German astron-
omer, born 1747, died 1826. His best
works are his Astronomical Almanac
and his large Celestial Atlas (Him-
melsatlas), giving a catalogue of 17,-
240 stars (12,000 more than in any
former chart). Bode's Law is the
name given to an arithmetical formula,
previously made known by Kepler and
Titius of Wittenberg, expressing ap-
proximately the distances of the plan-
ets from the sun. It assumes the se-
ries 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, etc., each
term after the second being double the
preceeding term ; to each term 4 is add-
ed, producing the series 4, 7, 10, 14, 28,
56, 100, etc. These numbers are, with
the exception of 28, roughly propor-
tional to the distances between the
planets and the sun. The law has no
theoretical foundation.

Bodin, Jean, a French political
writer; born in 1530, or 1529. His
great work " De la Rgpublique "
(1576) has been characterized as the
ablest and most remarkable treatise
on the philosophy of government and
legislation produced from the time of
Aristotle to that of Montesquieu. Ac-
cording to his view, the best form of
government is a limited monarchy.
He died in Laon in 1596.

Bodleian, or Bodleyan, libra-
ry, a library founded at Oxford, Eng-
land, by Sir Thomas Bodley, in 1597.
All members of Oxford University who
have taken a degree are allowed to
read in it, as are literary men of all

Bodmer, Georg, a Swiss inven-
tor, born in Zurich, Dec. 6, 1786. He
invented the screw and cross wheels ;
and made valuable improvements in
fire arms and in various kinds of ma-
chinery, particularly in that of wool
spinning. He died in Zurich, May 26,

Bodmer, Johann Jakob, a Swiss
literary critic, born near Zurich, July
19, 1698; was the first to make Eng-
lish literature known in Germany ;
and wrote dramas, and epics. He was
leader of the movement which released
German literature from French clas-
sicism. He died Jan. 2, 1783.

Boece, or Boyce, Hector, a Scot*

tish historian, born in Dundee about
1465 ; died in 1536.

Boehm. Sir Joseph Edgar, &
British sculptor, born in Vienna, July
6, 1834. He executed busts of Glad-
stone, John Bright, John Ruskin, etc.,
and designed the effigy of Queen Vic-
toria for the coinage commemorative
of the 50th year of her reign. He
died in London, Dec. 12, 1890.

Boehme, Jacob, a German mysti-
cal writer, born in 1575. A sect, tak-
ing their name from Boehme, was
formed in England. He died in 1624.

Bosotia, a division of ancient
Greece, lying between Africa and
Phocis, and bounded E. and W. by the
Euboean Sea and the Corinthian Gulf
respectively, had an area of about
1,100 square miles. With Attica,
Bceotia now forms a department of the
"old territory" of Greece, with a pop.
(census of 1907) of 407,063.

Boerhaave, Hermann, a cele-
brated Dutch physician, one of the
most influential medical authorities
living in the 18th century ; born in
Woorhout, near Leyden, Dec. 12, 1668.
He died Sept 23, 1738.

Boers (Dutch, boer, a peasant or
husbandman), the name commonly ap-
plied to the South African colonists of
Dutch descent.

Boethus, a Greek sculptor, bom
in Chalcedon in the 2d century B. c.
He is celebrated for his statues of

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Se-
verinns, a Roman statesman and
philosopher, called " the last of the
classic writers " ; born in Rome or
Milan, of an ancient family, about
A. D. 470; was educated in Rome, in
a manner well calculated to develop
his extraordinary abilities. Theodoric,
King of the Ostrogoths, then master
of Italy, loaded him with marks of
favor and esteem, and raised him to
the first offices in the empire.

Later, however, he was accused of a
treasonable correspondence with the
court of Constantinople. He was ar-
rested, imprisoned, and executed A. D.
524 or 526.

Bog, a piece of wet, soft, and
spongy ground, where the soil is com-
posed mainly of decaying and decayed
vegetable matter. Such ground is


valueless for agriculture until reclaim- 1
ed, but often yields abundance of peat
for fuel.

Bogardus, Everardus, a minis-
ter of the Dutch Reformed Church
in New Amsterdam, now New York;
husband of Anneke Jans. The latter
owned a farm of 60 acres, comprising
now one of the most valuable sections
of New York city. The Bogardus
heirs have for many years endeavored
unsuccessfully, to recover this proper-
ty, which is held by the corporation
of Trinity Church. He died Sept 27,

-10"! i

Bogardus, James, an American
Inventor, born in Catskill, N. Y. t
March 14, 1800; was apprenticed to a
watchmaker, and early showed the
bent of his mind by improvements in
the construction of eight-day clocks,
and by the invention of a delicate en-
graving machine. The dry gas meter
is his invention, as is also the trans-
fer machine to produce bank note
plates from separate dies ; and in 1839
his plan for manufacturing postage
stamps was accepted by the British
Government Later he introduced
improvements in the manufacture of
india rubber goods, tools, and machin-
ery; and invented a pyrometer, a deep
ea sounding machine, and a dynamo-
meter. He died in New York, April
13, 1874.

Boggs, Charles Stuart, an Amer-
ican naval officer, born in New Bruns-
wick, N. J., Jan. 28, 1811 ; entered the
navy in 1826; served on the
"Princeton" in the Mexican War;
was assigned to the gunboat " Va-
runa" in Farragut's Gulf Squadron
in 1861. In the attack on Forts St
Philip and Jackson, in April, 1862, he
destroyed six Confederate gunboats
and two rams, and in the last mo-
ments of the fight his own vessel was
sunk. In 1869-1870 he served with
the Europe'an fcquadron; in the lat-
ter year was promoted to Rear-Ad-
miral; and in 1873 was retired. He
died in New Brunswick, April 22,

Bogomilian, a Sclavonic Chris-

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