George Jotham Hagar.

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tian sect, founded in the 12th cen-
tury by a monk called Basil. His
tenets were akin to those of the Mani-
cheans and of the Gnostics. He be- i
lieved that the human body was ere- 1


ated by a demon cast from Heaven,
and was burned for his heresy.

Bogoslof Islands, a volcanic trip-
let in the Aleutian chain. The first
appeared May, 1796 ; the second Sept.,
1883 ; the third May, 1906, after the
San Francisco earthquake.

Bogota, capital of the Republic of
Columbia, situated within the limits
of the department of Cundinamarca,
on a tableland which, at an elevation
of 8,694 feet above the sea, separates
the basin of the Magdalena from that
of the Orinoco. The tableland has an
area of about 400 square miles, and is
bounded on all sides by mountains,
which, though lofty enough to give
shelter, are yet below the line of per-
petual snow. This extensive plain
a temperate zone on the verge of the
equator, with a salubrious climate and
an average temperature of 60 F. is
exceedingly fertile, being as rich in
pasture as in grain. The few manu-
factures of the city include soap,
leather, cloth, and articles made from
the precious metals. In 1912 the de-
partment of Cundinamarca had an
area of 8,046 square miles and pop.
of 713,968 ; Bogota had a pop. of 121,-

Bogne, David, one of the found-
ers of the London Missionary Society,
was born in Berwickshire, in 1750.
Bogue also took an active part in the
establishment of the British and For-
eign Bible Society and the Religious
Tract Society. He was on the point
of going as a missionary to India in
1796, when the East India Company
refused to sanction the scheme. Bogue
died at Brighton, Oct. 25, 1825.

Bohemia, a former Kingdom, now
a Province of the Austro-Hungarian
monarchy (Austrian or Cisleithan por-
tion) bounded by Bavaria, Saxony,
the Prussian Province of Silesia, Mo-
ravia, and the Archduchy of Austria ;
area about 20,060 square miles, of
which less than 1 per cent, is not till-
able. Population (1910) 6,769.548,
(over 2,000,000 Germans). In 1916
Bohemia had 130 deputies in the
Reichsrath. The prevailing religion
is the Roman Catholic, the coun-
try being an archbishopric with
three bishoprics. The language of the
country is the Czech dialect of the
Slavonic in some districts, and in most






Bohlen Lectures


of the cities, German is spoken. Bo-
hemia is surrounded on all sides by
mountains, and has many large for-
ests. Its plains are remarkably fer-
tile. The chief rivers are the Elbe
and its tributary the Moldau, which
is even larger.

Bohlen Lectures, a lecture course
on a foundation of $10,000 furnished
by John Bohlen, a lay member of the
Protestant Episcopal Church. They
are delivered each year in Philadel-
phia, Pa., by eminent representatives
of that Church.

Bohol, one of the Philippine
Islands, belonging to the Visayas or
Bisayas group. It has an area of
about 1,300 square miles and a popu-
Jation of 245,000. Sugar cane is
grown and the island is reputed rich
in gold deposits.

Boiardo, Matteo Maria, Count
of Scandiano, one of the greater
Italian poets, was born in 1434 at
Scandiano, a village situated at the
foot of the Lombard Apennines. He
died at Reggio, in 1494.

Boieldieu, Francois Aurien, a
French musical composer, born in
1775; died in 1835.

Boies, Horace, an American law-
yer, born in Aurora, Erie co., N. Y.,
Dec. 7, 1827. His opposition to the tar-
iff and prohibition policy of the Re-
publican Party caused him to unite
with the Democrats ; and, in 1890-
1894, he served two terms as Governor
of Iowa, being defeated for a third
term in 1893. He was a conspicuous
candidate for the presidential nomina-
tion in the National Democratic Con-
ventions in 1892 and 1896 ; and in the
campaign of 1896 he supported Mr.

Boii, a powerful Celtic people who
dwelt originally in Transalpine Gaul,
part of whom settled in the modern
Bohemia, and bequeathed their name
to that country.

Boil, a disease called by medical
men furunculus. It is a phlegmonous
tumor, which rises externally, attend-
ed with redness and pain, and some-
times with a violent, burning heat.
Ultimately it becomes pointed, breaks,
and emits pus. A substance called the
core is next revealed. It is purulent,
but so thick and tenacious that it
looks solid, and may be drawn out in

the form of a cylinder, more pus fol-
lowing. The boil then heals. A!
blind boil is one which does not sup-

Boileau, Nicolas, a French poet,
born at Paris, Nov. 1, 1636. He died
March 13, 1711.

Boiler, the name applied to any
vessel or cauldron for boiling large
quantities of liquor, but most com-
monly used as the designation of a
metallic vessel in which water is con-
verted into steam by the action of
fire, the steam being intended by its
expansive force to give motion to a
steam engine, or to be used for a va-
riety of manufacturing purposes.
Boilers may be subdivided into the fol-
lowing clases : (a) Shell or tank
boilers, (b) Water-tube boilers.

Boiling, in general, the change of
a substance from the liquid to the
paseous state which takes place
throughout the liquid. The boiling
point, in science, is the point or de-
gree of the thermometer at which any
liquid boils.

Boisard, Francois Marie, a
French fabulist, born in 1774; died
in 1833.

Bois d'Arc (sometimes corrupted
into BODOCK), also bow-wood, or ps-
age orange, a tree which is a native
of the Southern United States. Its
large, beautiful orange like fruits are
scarcely eatable, but its pines make it
useful as a hedge plant. Its wood is
strong, and hard, and elastic, and
hence was used by the Indians in the
manufacture of their bows.

Bois de Bologna, a pleasant
grove near the gates on the W. of
Paris, so named after the suburb Bou-

Boise, city, capital of the State of
Idaho, and county-seat of Ada co. ; on
the Boise river and the Union Pacific
railroad; 45 miles S. W. of Idaho
City. It occupies the site of a for-
mer trading post of the Hudson Bay
Company; is in an agricultural and
a rich mining region; and is supplied
with pure hot water from a flowing
boiling well. The city is said to be
the only one in the world having a
natural supply of hot water. Pop.
(1910) 17,358.

Boise, James Robinson, an
American educator, born in Bland-


ford, Mass., Jan. 27, 1815; died in
Chicago, Feb. 9, 1895.

Boisgobey, Fortune-Abraham
du, a French novelist, born in Gran-
ville, Sept 11, 1821; died February,

Bok, Edward William, an Amer-
ican editor; born in 1863. He edited
the " Ladies' Home Journal," and is
a popular literary authority.

Boker, George Henry, an Amer-
ican poet and dramatist ; born in
Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 6, 1823. He
graduated from Princeton in 1842;
studied law ; and was United States
minister to Turkey in 1871-1875, and
to Russia in 1875-1879. He died
Jan. 2, 1890.

Bokhara, a Russian vassal State
in Central Asia, bounded on the N. by
the Russian provinces of Syr-Daria
and Samarkand, on the E. by the
province of Ferghana, on the S. by
Afghanistan, and on the S. W. by the
Russian Trans-Caspian province and
the Khanat of Khiva. Area, 83,000
square miles ; pop. about 1,250,000.
It formerly occupied considerably
more territory than it does now, hav-
ing been reduced by the conquests and
encroachments of Russia, which have
been only partially compensated by

Bokhara, the capital of the above
state, is 8 or 9 miles in circuit and
is surrounded by a mud wall. It is
poorly built, consisting of extremely
narrow streets and paltry houses. The
principal edifices are the palace of the
amir, crowning a height near the cen-
cer of the town and surrounded by a
brick wall 70 feet high ; and numer-
ous mosques, the largest of which is
enameled with tiles of azure blue, and
has a tower 210 feet high. The trade
was formerly large with India, but
has now been almost completely ab-
sorbed by Russia. The pop. is esti-
mated at 75,000.

Boldrewood, Rolf, pseudonym of
Australian author, born in England
in 1827.

Boleyn, Anne, second wife of
Henry VIII. of England, was the eld-
est daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn,
and Elizabeth Howard, daughter of
the Duke of Norfolk. She was born
according to some accounts, in 1507,

, Boliva*

but according to more probable ones
about 1501. About 1522 she became
lady of honor to Queen Catharine,
whom she soon supplanted. The king,
passionately enamored of her, found
an unexpected opposition to his wishes,
and Anne firmly declared that she
could be had on no terms but those of
marriage. She knew that the king
already meditated a divorce from his
wife, Catharine of Arragon ; but she
also knew what difficulties the Catho-
lic religion opposed to the execution
of this plan. Cramner offered his ser-
vices to bring about the accomplish-
ment of the king's wishes, and thua
gave the first occasion to the separa-
tion of England from the Roman
Church. But the impetuous Henry
did not wait for the ministers of this
new religion to confirm his divorce;
on the contrary, he married Anne in
January, 1533, having previously
created her Marchioness of Pembroke.
Cranmer declared the first marriage
void, and the second valid, and Anne
was crowned queen at Westminster
with unparalleled splendor. In 1533
she became the mother of the famous
Elizabeth. She could not, however,
retain the affections of the king, as
inconstant as he was tyrannical ; and
as she had supplanted her queen while
lady of honor to Catharine, she was
now supplanted herself by Jane Sey-
mour, her own lady of honor. She
was tried and condemned to death on
false charges of infidelity, and was
executed May 19, 1536.

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John,
Viscount, an English statesman and
political writer; born in Battersea,
near London, of an ancient family, in
1678. He died in Battersea in 1751.

Bolivar, Simon, an American
military officer and statesman (named
EL LIBERTADOR, from his having res-
cued Central South America from the
Spanish yoke), born in Caracas,
July 24, 1783. At Venezuela he en-
tered upon his military career as a
colonel in the service of the newly
founded republic. At length, in 1821,
the Independent troops were successful
in the battle of Carabobo, where the
Royalists lost upward of 6,000 men,
and which decided the cause against
Spain. On Aug. 20 of the same year
a Republican Constitution was adopt-
ed, and decreed to continue, as then


defined, till 1834. Bolivar was chosen
President, and he turned his attention
to the internal administration of the
country. In 1823 he assisted the Pe-
ruvians to obtain their independence,
and was declared their liberator, and
invested with supreme authority. On
Feb. 10, 1825, however, he convoked a
Congress, and resigned his dictator-
ship. He now visited the Upper Prov-
inces of Peru, which, calling a con-
vention at Chuquisaca, gave the name
of Bolivia to their country, in honor
of their liberator, and appointed him
Perpetual Protector, and to draw up
a constitution. On May 25, 1826, he
presented his Bolivian code to the
Congress of Bolivia, which was after-
ward adopted, with some dissatisfac-
tion, however, although it was also
subsequently adopted by the Congress
of Lima, where, under its provisions,
he himself was elected President for
life. He now set out for Colombia,
where disaffection and party strife
were at their height. His conduct
here was misconstrued, and he was
supposed to be assuming the powers
of a dictator. In 1829 new disturb-
ances arose, and, in 1830, a conven-
tion was called for the purpose of
framing a new constitution for Colom-
bia. The proceedings were begun by
Bolivar, who once more tendered his
resignation. This was his last act
which had relation to public affairs.
He died at San Pedro, near Cartha-
gena, Dec. 17, 1830.

Bolivia, a republic of South Amer-
ica ; bounded on the N. by Peru and
Brazil ; on the E. by Brazil and Para-
guay ; on the S. by the Argentine Re-
public and Chile ; and on the W. by
Peru and Chile ; area 514,155 square
miles; pop. (est. 1915) 2,889,970;
capital and largest city La Paz; pop.
(1915) 100,097. The boundary dis-
putes of Bolivia with Brazil and with
Chile were settled by treaties in 1903
and 1904 respectively ; that with Peru
was settled by direct negotiations in
1911-12 ; and that with Paraguay,
long pending was still unsettled at the
end of 1916.

Agriculture is still in a backward
condition, although it is estimated
that fully 4,940.000 acres are under
cultivation. Wheat, maize, barley,
beans, and potatoes are produced for
local consumption ; coffee is raised
chiefly for export; sugar cane is


grown for distillation; and rubber,
cinchona, and cocoa are important
and increasing products. Rubber is
produced on 40,642,000 acres, and
makes Bolivia rank as the second rub-
ber exporting country of South Amer-
ica, Brazil ranking first. Cattle,
sheep, and llamas are extensively bred.
Bolivia has a very large mineral
wealth in silver, copper, tin, lead,
zince, antimony, bismuth, gold, borax
and salt, producing one quarter of the
total tin output of the world. The
metallic exports in 1915 had a value
of $28,535,055, to which tin contrib-
uted $19,813,740.

The constitution (Oct 28, 1880)
vests the executive power in a Presi-
dent, elected by direct popular vote,
for a term of four years, and ineligi-
ble for re-election at the end of his
term of office. The legislative au-
thority rests in a Congress, compris-
ing a Senate of 16 members, elected
for six years, and a Chamber of
Deputies of 70 members, elected for
four years. There are also two Vice-
Presidents, and a Ministry divided
into the Departments of Foreign Re-
lations and Worship, Finance, Justice
and Industry, Government and Public
Works, War and Colonization, and
Education and Agriculture. The
suffrage is possessed by all who can
read and write. The republic is di-
vided into eight departments and
these into provinces and cantons. The
Roman Catholic is the recognized re-
ligion of the republic, and the exercise
of other forms of worship is permit-
ted. Primary instruction is free and
nominally obligatory, and is under the
care of the several municipalities. In
1913 there were 798 miles of railroad
open and about 2,300 miles of cart
roads connecting important towns,
and 2,730 miles of State and 1,080
of private telegraph lines. Imports
1915, $7.893.225 ; exports, $33,951,355.

In 1879 Chile declared war against
Bolivia. Peru came to the aid of
the latter and the Chilians de-
feated their allied opponents. As a
result of this war Bolivia mortgaged
to Chile the Littoral Department,
which has an area of 29,910 square
miles, and contains the important port
of Antofagasta, thus losing her entire

Bollworm, the caterpillar of the
nocturnal moth, Heliothis Armigera.


The creature feeds on almost every va-
riety of vegetable and cultivated crop,
and is known in each locality by the
name of the plant on which it feeds,
as the corn-worm, tobacco-worm, cot-
ton-worm, etc. Its first choice is cot-
ton, and then corn, and in the South
where both crops grow it has proven
very destructive wherever it has been
permitted to make headway. There
are 4 or 5 broods each year ; the July
brood attacks corn, the August brood
eats the cotton, and the last brood con-
tinues the race. It is as the cotton-
worm that it is called boll-worm, as
the young grub eats the unfolded boll
or bud of the cotton plant. The gen-
eral government is making strenuous
efforts to kill the pest.

Bolo, a short, broad, lance-shaped
weapon ; used by the Filipinos in their


operations again?, the American
troops. The blade is about 18 inches
in length by nearly 3 inches in
breadth at its broadest dimension. It


tapers from the middle toward the
haft as well as toward the point, mak-
ing it strongly resemble the ancient
short sword. It is not double edged,
however, but tapers from a thick back
to an extremely keen edge. In April
1904, the United States troops operat-
ing in the Philippines, were supplied
with bolos.

Bologna, one of the oldest, largest
and richest cities of Italy, capital of
the Province of same name, in a fer-
tile plain at the foot of the Apen-
nines, between the rivers Reno and
Savena, surrounded by an unfortified
brick wall. In the 12th and 13th cen-
turies it was one of the most flourish-
ing of the Italian republics ; but the
feuds between the different parties of
the nobles led to its submission to the
papal see in 1513. Several attempts
were made to throw off the papal yoke,
one of which, in 1831, was for a time
successful. In 1849 the Austrians
obtained possession of it. In 1860 it
was annexed to the dominions of King
Victor Emmanuel. Population (1915)

Bolognese School, an Italian
school of painting, founded in the 14th
century, probably by Franco. The
great master of the school was Fran-
cesco Francia, a contemporary of Ra-
phael, celebrated for the purity and
serenity of his Madonnas.

Bolometer, a most sensitive elec-
trical instrument invented by Langley
in 1883 for the measurement of ra-
diant heat.

Bolt on Abbey, a notable English
structure in Yorkshire ; in a highly-pic-
turesque district on the river Wharfe,
6 miles E. of Skipton, and 21 N. W.
of Leeds. Founded for Augustinian
canons about 1150, it has been cele-
brated by Wordsworth in " The White
Doe of Rylstone " and "The Force of

Bolton, Sarah Tittle, an Ameri-
can poet, born in Newport, Ky., Dec.
18, 1815. She is known for her pa-
triotic and war poems, including " Pad-
dle Your Own Canoe," " Left on the
Battlefield," etc. She died in Indian-
apolis, Ind., Aug. 4, 1893.

Boma, city and capital of the
former Kongo Independent State, an-
nexed to Belgium by treaty of 1907,
till 1876 was the extreme inland post



of the Dutch and Portuguese traders.
It contains the establishment of the
governor-general and also the local
government of the administrative dis-
trict of the same name. It has an ex-
tensive import and export trade. Area
of colony, 909,654 square miles ; pop.
officially estimated, 15,000,000.

Bomb, in ordnance, the same as
a bomb shell ; a hollow iron ball,
spheroid, or anything similar, filled
with gunpowder, and provided with a
time or percussion fuse. It is fired
from a mortar or howitzer.

Modern political upheavals have in-
duced a traffic in packages of ex-
plosives, which have been christened
bombs. These terrific agents of de-
struction have been used with murder-
ous effect in the larger European cit-
ies : St. Petersburg, Madrid and
Paris ; also in Chicago. The anar-
chists have regularly established fac-
tories for the production of these mis-
siles, in which the elements are com-
bined with great nicety and scientific
precision. The usual method of con-
struction is to fill a hollow sphere
with some high explosive together
with pieces of scrap iron, nails, bul-
lets, or anything that will wound.

Bomba, a title popularly conferred
upon King Ferdinand II. of Naples
and by which he will be recorded in
history. This appellation he received
from the violation of his solemn oath
to the citizens of Palermo, which city
he perfidiously bombarded in 1840 ;
thus outraging his own plighted word,
the laws of humanity, and the consti-
tutional policy he had sworn to ob-

Bombardier Beetle, a name ap-
plied to many coleopterous insects.
They are called bombardier beetles on
account of a remarkable property they
possess of violently expelling from the
anus a pungent acrid fluid, which, if
the species be large, has the power of
producing discoloration of the skin,
similar to that produced by nitric acid.
It also changes blue vegetable colors
to red, and then to yellow. Found in
this country and the tropics.

Bombardment, an attack with
bombs. Specifically, the act of throw-
ing shells and shot into a town, fort,
or ship.

Bombax, also known as the silk
cotton tree. The fruit is larger than

a swan's egg, and when ripe opens in
five parts, displaying many roundish,
pea-lake seeds enveloped in dark cot-
ton. This tree yields a gum, given in
conjunction with spices in certain
stages of bowel complaints. The five
leaved silk cotton tree rises to a great
height. Its native country is South
America and the adjacent West India
Islands, where its immense trunk is
scooped into canoes.

Bombay, the third largest of the
provinces of British India. It stretch-
es along the west of the Indian penin-
sula, and is irregular in its outline
and surface, presenting mountainous
tracts, low, barren hills, valleys, and
high tablelands. It is divided into a
Northern, a Central, and a Southern
Division, the Sind and Aden Divisions
and the island of Bombay. Total area,
123,059 square miles ; pop. (1911) 19,-
672,642, including the city and terri-
tory of Aden in Arabia, 80 square
miles (pop. 46,165). The native or
feudatory States connected with the
province (the chief being Kathiawar)
have an area of 63,864 square miles ;
pop. (1911) 7,411,675. The Portu-
guese possessions, Goa, Daman, and
Diu, geographically belong to it.
Many parts, the valleys in particular,
are fertile and highly cultivated ;
other districts are being gradually de-
veloped by the construction of roads
and railroads. The southern portions
are well supplied with moisture, but
great part of Sind is the most arid

Eortion of India. The climate varies,
eing unhealthful in the capital, Bom-
bay, and its vicinity, but at other
places, such as Poonah, very favorable
to Europeans. The chief productions
of the soil are cotton, rice, millet,
wheat, barley, dates, and the cocoa
palm. The manufactures are cotton,
silk, leather, etc. The great export is
cotton. The administration is in the
hands of a Governor and council.
The chief source of revenue is the
land, which is largely held on the
rayatwar (small farmer) system. Of
the entire population in 1911, 14,922,-
965 were Hindus.

Bombay, the chief seaport on the
W. coast of India, and capital of the
Province of the same name; at the
southern extremity of the island of
Bombay is divided into two portions,
one known as the Fort, and formerly



surrounded with fortifications, on a
narrow point of land with the harbor
on the E. side and Back Bay on the I
W. ; the other known as the City, a I
little to the N. W. In the Fort are
Bombay Castle, the Government offi-
ces, and almost all the merchants'
warehouses and offices ; but most of
the European residents live outside of
the mercantile and native quarters of
the city in villas or bungalows. Bom-
bay has many handsome buildings,
both public and private, as the cathe-
dral, the university, the secretariat,
the high court, the post and telegraph
offices, etc. Various industries, such
as dyeing, tanning, and metal work-
ing, are carried on, and there are
large cotton factories. The commerce
is very extensive, exports and imports
of merchandise reaching a total value I
of over $300,000,000 annually. The
harbor is one of the largest and safest
in India, and there are commodious
docks. There is a large traffic with
steam vessels between Bombay and
Great Britain, and regular steam com-
munication with China, Australia,
Singapore, Mauritius, etc. The island
of Bombay, which is about 11 miles
long and 3 miles broad, was formerly
liable to be overflowed by the sea, to
prevent which substantial walls and
embankments have been constructed.
The harbor is protected by formidable
rock batteries. After Madras, Bom-
bay is the oldest of the British pos-
sessions in the East, having been ceded i
by the Portuguese in 1661. Pop. 1
(1911) 979,445.

Bombazine, a mixed silk and
woolen twilled stuff, the warp consist-
ing of silk and the weft of worsted.
Black bombazine has been much in
use for mourning garments.

Bomb Lance, a harpoon used in
whale fishing which carries a charge
of explosive material in its head.

Bombon, a large, fresh water lake
in Luzon, Philippine Islands, about 50
miles S. of Manila. It is 105 square
miles in area. There is a small
island in the center, from which rises
the volcano of Taal, the lowest in the
world, its height being only 850 feet.
The waters of the lake find an outlet
to the sea through the Pansipit river.

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