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beasts are very numerous. Coats of



Boro Bndor



Bosnia



mail are made both for horses and
their riders. The population, which
is estimated at about 5,000,000, are
mostly of negro race, and called Bor-
nuese or Kanuri. The ruling race,
called Shuwas, are of Arab descent
and bigoted Mohammedans ; but many
traces of fetichism remain among the
masses. Whatever they have of civil-
ization is derived from the Arabs. The
shores and islands of Lake Tchad are
inhabited by negro pirates. The slave
trade is eagerly prosecuted in Bornu.

Boro Budor (the "Great Bud-
dha"), the ruin of a splendid Bud-
dhist temple in Java, Kadu Residency,
near the junction of the Ello and !
Progo, is the most elaborate monu-
ment of the Buddhist style of architec- !
ture anywhere existing. Buddhism was I
early introduced into Java, and Jav-
anese chronicles place the building of
the temple in the beginning of the 7th
century ; there are no inscriptions, but
it was probably finished between 1400
and 1430.

Borodino, a village of Russia, 70
miles W. of Moscow ; on the Kaluga,
an affluent of the Moskwa. It gave
name to the great battle fought be-
tween the French army under Napo-
leon and the Russians under Kutusoff,
Sept. 7, 1812. Out of 257,000 men
engaged, between 70,000 and 80,000
were killed and wounded. The Rus-
sians retreated on the following day,
but in the most perfect order, and,
therefore, claim this battle as a vic-
tory; but the French, who name the
battle from the Moskwa, have always
maintained a similar claim.

Borough, originally a fortified
town. In England, a corporate town
or township ; a town with a properly !
organized municipal government. If
it sends a representative or representa-
tives to Parliament it is a Parliamen-
tary borough, if not, it is only a muni-
cipal borough. The name is given to
the five local divisions of the city of
New York.

Borroxnean Islands, a group of
four email islands on the W. side of
Lago Maggiore, Northern Italy.

Borrow, George Henry, traveler,
linguist, and writer on gypsy life, born
in Norfolk, England, in 1803. Chief
works, " The Bible in Spain," " Laven- ,
*ro," "The Romany Rye," Died 1881.1



Borsippa, a very ancient city of
Babylonia, the site of which is marked
by the ruins Birs Nimrud.

Bpscawen, Edward, a British
admiral, son of the first Viscount Fal-
irouth, born in Cornwall, Aug. 19,
1711. His chief exploit was a great
victory, in 1759, over the Toulon fleet,
near the entrance of the Straits of
Gibraltar. He died in Surrey, Jan.
10, 176L

Bosch Bok, the bush buck, a name
given to several South African species
of antelope.

Bosch Vark, the bush hog or
bush pig of South Africa, one of the
swine family, about 5 feet long, and
with very large and strong tusks. The
Kaffirs esteem its flesh as a luxury,
and its tusks, arranged on a piece of
string and tied around the neck, are
considered great ornaments.

Boscobel, a locality in Shropshire,
England, remarkable historically as the
hiding place of Charles II. for some
days after the battle of Worcester,
Sept. 3, 1651.

Bosna-Serai, or Serajeyo, the

capital of Bosnia, on the Migliazza,
570 miles W. N. W. of Constantinople.
It contains a palace, built by Moham-
med II., to which the city owes its
name. It was formerly surrounded
with walls, but its only defense now
is a citadel, built on a rocky height at
a short distance E. from the town.
Bosna-Serai is the chief mart in die
province, the center of the commercial
relations between Turkey, Dalmatia,
Croatia and South Germany, and has,
in consequence, a considerable trade,
with various manufactures. It was
here that the Archduke Francis Fer-
dinand, heir to the Austrian throne,
and his wife, were assassinated on
June 28, 1914, by an alleged Servian
plotter. The act was the immediate
cause of the great war. See APPEN-
DIX: World War. Pop. (1910) 51,-
919.

Bosnia, a former Turkish prov-
ince in the N. W. of the Balkan Pen-
insula, W. of Servia ; with the prov-
ince of Herzegovina and the sanjak of
Novi-bazar annexed to Austria-Hun-
gary in 1908; area (including Herze-
govina and Novi-bazar), 19,768 square
miles (of which Bosnia Proper occu-



Bosporus

pies 16,000) ; pop. (1910) 1,898,044,
mostly of Slavonian origin, and main-
ly speaking the Servian language.
The principal religions are Moham-
medanism, Catholic and Greek.

Bosnia, in anctent times a part suc-
cessively of Illyria, Pannonia and Dal-
matia, was, during the great migra-
tions occupied by Slavs or Slavonized
Illyrians, at first dependent on Hun-
gary; but it became a kingdom in
1376, under Tivartko, a native prince.
Occupied by the Turks in 1401, it was
annexed in 1463, but not recognized
by Europe as a Turkish Province till
1699. Extortionate taxation caused a
rebellion of the Christians, in 1849,
suppressed by Omar Pasha ; but a
more determined rising in 1875, which
the Turks failed to put down, led to
the occupation of the Province by the
Austro-Hungarians, which the Moslem
population opposed in a fierce but un-
availing struggle. The Treaty of Ber-
lin formally intrusted the administra-
tion to Austria-Hungary, the nominal
supremacy of the Sultan being recog-
nized in 1879. Since 1880 Austrian
methods of government have been
gradually introduced.

Bosporus, or Bosphorus, the
strait, 19 miles long, joining the Black
Sea with the Sea of Marmora, called
also the Strait of Constantinople. It
is defended by a series of strong forts ;
and by agreement of the European
powers no ship of war belonging to
any nation shall pass the Bosporus
without the permission of Turkey.
Over this channel (about 3,000 feet
wide) Darius constructed a bridge of
boats on his Scythian expedition. The
Cimmerian Bosporus was the name
given by the ancients to the strait that
leads from the Black Sea into the Sea
of Azov. There was also, anciently,
a kingdom of the name of Bosporus, so
called from this strait, on both sides
of which it was situated.

Boss, an elevated or thickened por-
tion, usually around an aperture, or a
swage or stump used in shaping sheet
metal. In Gothic architecture it is
the protuberance in a vaulted ceiling
formed by the junction of the ends of
several ribs, and serving to bind them
together.

Boss, Lewis, an American astron-
omer, born in Providence, R. I., Oct.
E6, 1846 ; was graduated at Dartmouth



Boston

College, in 1870; astronomer of the
Northern Boundary Survey for the de-
termination of the line between the
W. part of the United States and Brit-
ish America ; and, since the completion
of that work, Director of the Dudley
Observatory, Albany, N. Y. He was
chief of the United States party sent
to Chile in 1882 to observe the transit
of Venus ; elected to the National
Academy of Science in 1889, and as
honorary foreign associate of the Roy-
al Astronomical Society, in 1890 ; best
known for his work on star declina-
tions. He died Oct. 5, 1912.

Bossuet, Jacques, Benigne, il-
lustrious French preacher and theo-
logian, was born in 1627, died in 1704.
In 1652 he was ordained priest, and
made a canon of Metz. In 1670 he
was appointed preceptor to the Dau-
phin, and in 1681 he was raised to the
see of Meaux. He drew up the fa-
mous propositions adopted by the as-
sembly of French clergy, which secur-
ed the freedom of the Gallican Church
against the aggressions of the Pope.
He was unrivalled as a pulpit ora-
tor, and greatly distinguished for his
strength and acumen as a controver-
sialist. His wife was largely occupied
in controverting Protestantism.

Boston, a city, capital of the State
of Massachusetts ; the commercial me-
tropolis of New England; and the
fifth city in population in the United
States according to the Federal cen-
sus of 1910. It is built at the W. end
of Massachusetts Bay, and comprises
Boston proper, East Boston, South
Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Charles-
town, Brighton, West Roxbury, and
adjoining territory, giving it, in 1910,
an area of about 47% square miles.
Old Boston, or Boston proper, occu-
pied a peninsula of about 700 acres, of
uneven surface, originally contain-
ing three hills, known as Beacon,
Copp, and Fort. These hills caused
the early settlers to call the place Tri-
mountain, since changed to Tremont.
Boston, East Boston, Charlestown,
and South Boston contain the slips of
the ocean steamers. Extending about
two miles along the harbor and sep-
arated from Boston proper by an arm
of it, is South Boston, containing
large railroad docks and warehouses.
Several bridges across Charles river
connect the city with Charlestown



Boston

and Cambridge. The harbor is an in-
dentation of Massachusetts bay, em-
bracing about 75 square miles, with
numerous arms, and containing many
islands presenting picturesque views.
The population of the city, according
to the Federal census of 1880, was
448,477; 1900, 560,892; 1910, 670,-
585; State census (1915) 745.439.

Boston is especially noted for its
magnificent park system. Among the
attractions of the system are the Com-
mon, a park of 84 acres in the heart
of the city ; the Public Garden, sep-
arated from it by Charles street, and
comprising 22 acres; the Back Bay
Fens; the Jamaica Pond; Bussey
Park ; the Arnold Arboretum ; Marine
Park at City Point; and the Charles
River Embankment. In the Common
is a Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument,
erected near the site of the famous
Old Elm, which was destroyed in a
gale in 1876. In the Public Garden
are an equestrian statue of Washing-
ton, a bronze statue of Edward Ever-
ett, a statue of Charles Sumner, one
representing " Venus Rising from the
Sea," and a monument commemorat-
ing the discovery of ether as an anaes-
thetic.

The State House stands on Beacon
Hill, and is a structure 490 feet long,
and 211 feet wide, with a colonnade
in front and an imposing gilded dome.
Statues of Daniel Webster and Horace,
Mann ornament tne terrace in front
of the building, and within it are
statues and busts of a number of the
eminent men of Boston and Massachu-
setts, a collection of battle flags, and
a variety of interesting historical arti-
cles. The new building of the Public
Library, which was occupied in 1895,
is, next to the Library of Congress,
the largest one in the country, The
Old State-house, erected in 1748, at
the head of State street, contains an
historical museum in its upper floors,
and business establishments in its
lower. The City Hall, one of the
most striking buildings of the city,
on School street, is built of white Con-
cord granite in the Italian Renaissance
style, and is surmounted by a dome
over 100 feet high. What is consid-
ered the most interesting building, his-
torically, in the United States, next
to Independence Hall in Philadelphia,
to Faneuil Hall, known as " The Cra-



Boston

die of Liberty " erected in 1742, de-
stroyed by fire in 1761, rebuilt in 1768,
and remodeled to its present size in
1805. The basement of the building
is now used as a market, and the sec-
ond floor for large public gatherings.
Occupying the site of the Old Redoubt
on Breed's Hill, in the Charlestown
district, is the famous Bunker Hill
Monument In the Charlestown dis-
trict also is located the United States
Navy Yard, which, among other ob-
jects of interest, contains the largest
rope walk in the country, and an im-
mense dry dock.

Boston is widely noted for the num-
ber and high character of its educa-
tional institutions. The institutions
for higher education include Boston
College (Roman Catholic), opened in
1872 ; Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology (non-sectarian), opened in
1865 ; Boston Normal School ; Massa-
chusetts Normal Art School ; Kinder-
farten Training School, and Training
chools for Nurses at the Almshouse
and Hospital, City Hospital, Chil-
dren's Hospital, Massachusetts Gen-
eral Hospital, Massachusetts Homoeo-
pathic Hospital, New England Baptist
Hospital, New England Deaconess'
Home and Hospital, New England
Hospital for Women and Children, St.
Elizabeth's Hospital, Somerville Hos-
pital, and Women's Charity Club Hos-
pital. In the public school system,
there were 12 high schools^ and of
various secondary schools there were
12.

Boston was settled in 1630, by a
party of Puritans from Salem. It was
named after a town in Lincolnshire,
England, from which most of the col-
onists had come. In 1632 the first
meeting house was erected, and in
1635 a public school was built. In
the same year the first grand jury hi
the country met here. A memorable
massacre occurred here in 1770, and
in 1773 several cargoes of English tea
were thrown overboard in the harbor,
by citizens exasperated by the impo-
sition of taxes. During the early
part of the Revolution the British
were quartered in the town.' The .bat-
tle of Bunker Hill was fought on
Breed's Hill, within the present city
limits, June 17, 1775. Washington
forced the British to evacuate in 177ft
The city charter was granted in 1822,



Boston

and in 1872 a great fire broke out in
the business portion of the city and
destroyed about 65 acres of buildings.
This part of the city was soon rebuilt,
and, since then, Boston has been one
of the most prosperous cities in the
United States.

Boston is the central reserve city of
the First Federal Reserve District un-
der the banking act of 1913, and the
exchanges at its clearing house in the
year ended Sept. 30, 1916, aggregated
$10,180,120,000, an increase in a year
of $2,698,779,000. The commercial
transactions in the calendar year 1916
were : Imports of merchandise, $202,-
990,325 ; exports, $183,924,962, a con-
siderable increase over the totals of
each of the two preceding years. The
manufacturing interests in 1910
showed 3,155 establishments, $175,-
182,000 capital, 85,158 wage earners,
$124,577,000 cost of materials used in
manufacturing, and $237,457,000
value of products, printing and pub-
lishing ($28.021,000), and boots
and shoes ($26,147,000) leading. In
1917 the net public debt was $86,-
517,831, and the assessed valuation
of all taxable property $1,608,701,- !
oOO.

Boston, a seaport in Lincolnshire,
England, 107 miles N. E. of London.
Its name is a contraction of Botolph's
town, and it is commonly supposed to
occupy the site of the Benedictine Ab-
bey founded on the Witham by St.
Botolph in 654, and destroyed in 870
by the Danes. Foxe, the martyrolo-
gist, and Herbert Ingram, founder of
the " Illustrated London News," were
natives of Boston.

Boston Tea Party, The, a fa-
mous exploit preceding the American
Revolution. In order to make as em-
phatic a protest as possible against
the British crown's policy of taxing
imports, a party of Bostonians, dis-
guised as Indians, threw into the
water on the night of Dec. 16, 1773,
the cargoes of three English tea ships
that had just arrived in the harbor.
Enraged at this act, Parliament
passed (March, 1774) the Boston
Port Bill, taking away from that town
the privileges of a port of entry from
June 1, 1774, on. This bill aroused
much indignation in the colonies and
was an important factor in precipi- j
tating the outbreak of hostilities.



Botany Bay

Boswell, James, a Scotch biog-
rapher : the son of Lord Auchinleck;
born in Edinburgh, Oct. 29, 1740. In
1791 appeared his " Life of Johnson,"
a work which he had been long pre-
paring, and which at once gave read-
ers the same delight as it has ever
since inspired. A second and enlarged
edition came out in 1793. By this
time Boswell's health had greatly suf-
fered from his too convivial habits,
and he died in London May 19, 1795.

Bosworth, Francke Hunting-
ton, physician and author, born at
Marietta, Ohio, Jan. 25, 1843, gradu-
ate of Yale, and of Bellevue Hospital
Medical College, where he became
throat specialist. His publications
treat mainly of his specialty.

Botanic Gardens, establishments
in which plants from all climates are
cultivated for the purpose of illus-
trating the science of botany, and also
for introducing and diffusiug useful or
beautiful plants from all parts of the
world. Until modern times their sole
design was the cultivation of medici-
nal plants. In the United States the
chief are those of New York, Wash-
ington, Philadelphia, and Cambridge.

Botany, or Phytology, the sci-
ence which treats of the vegetable
kingdom. It thus forms one of the
two great divisions of biology, or the
science of organization and life, the
other being zoology. During the 19th
century, and especially in the latter
half of it, enormous progress was made
in the study of vegetable anatomy,
histology, and physiology, and crypto-
gamic botany was carried to great
perfection. This was mainly due to
the great improvement of the micro-
scope, but much of the work done was
inspired by the wider conceptions in-
troduced into the science by the work
of Darwin, Wallace, an< ^ other scien-
tific evolutionists.

Botany Bay, a bay of New South
Wales, Australia, 5 miles S. of Syd-
ney. It was discovered by Captain
Cook, on his first voyage, in 1770, and
named by him from the great number
of new plants found in its vicinity. In
1787 it received England's first penal
colony in the East ; and, though it was
supplanted the very next year by Port
Jackson, yet it long continued to be
the popular designation, not merely
of this penal settlement, but of the



Bot Fly

Australian convict settlements gener-
ally.

Bot Fly, a stout bodied, hairy fly,
with antennae inserted in rounded
pits, and with rudimentary mouth
parts, developing from thick, spiny
maggots, which are parasites in cat-
tle, horses, sheep, etc.

Botha, Lonis, a Boer statesman,
born in Greytown, Natal, about 1863.
He began life as a farmer, and, as a
young man, had a share in the estab-
lishment of the Transvaal Republic.
Later he fought in the Kaffir cam-
paign. He was elected to the Volks-
raad at Pretoria. Upon the outbreak
of the Boer War with England in
1899, he was given a subordinate com-
mand, and, upon the death of General
Joubert, in March, 1900. he became
commander of the Boer forces. In
1910 he became premier of the South
African Union, and on July 8, 1915,
he forced the surrender of German
South-West Africa, renamed the
South-West Africa Protectorate. See
APPENDIX: World War.

Bothnia, Gulf of, the N. part of
the Baltic Sea, which separates Swe-
den from Finland ; length about 450
miles, breadth 90 to 130, depth from
20 to 50 fathoms. Its water is but
slightly salt, and it freezes in the win-
ter, so as to be crossed by sledges and
carriages.

Both well, James Hepburn, Earl

of, known in Scottish history by his
marriage to Queen Mary ; born about
1526. It is believed that he was
deeply concerned in the murder of
Darnley, Mary's husband. He made
love to the widowed queen, and seiz-
ing her at Edinburgh, he carried her a :
prisoner to Dunbar Castle, and pre-
vailed upon her to marry him. Mary
was soon a prisoner in Edinburgh, and
Bothwell was forced to flee to Den-
mark, where he died in 1576.

Botocndos, the most barbarous of
the Indian tribes of Brazil, inhabit-
ing the East Coast range, between the
Rio Pardo and Rio Doce. They wear
pieces of wood in their lower lips and
ear lobes.

Bo Tree, the peepul, or sacred fig
tree of India and Ceylon, venerated
by the Buddhists and planted near
their temples.



Bottle Nose

Botrychium, the rattlesnake fern,
from its growing in such places as
'those venomous reptiles frequent.

Bottesini, Giovanni, an Italian
violinist, born in Crema, in Lombar-
dy, Dec. 24, 1832. A concert tour,
begun in 1840, and extending to the
United States, established his fame as
the greatest master of the double bass
fiddle. He died in Parma, in 1889.

Bottger, or Bottiger, Johann
Friedricli, a German alchemist, the
inventor of the celebrated Meissen
porcelain, born in Schleiz, Feb. 4,
1682. He found refuge in Saxony,
where the Elector erected a laboratory
for him, and forced him to turn his
attention to the manufacture of porce-
lain, resulting in the invention asso-
ciated with his name. He died in
Dresden, March 13, 1719.

Botticelli, Sandro, (for Alessan-
dro), an Italian painter of the Floren-
tine school, born in 1447, died 1515.
Working at first in the shop of the
goldsmith Botticello, from whom he
takes his name, he showed such talent
that he was removed to the studio of
the distinguished painter Fra Lippo
Lippi. Frem this master he took the
fire and passion of his style, and
added a fine fantasy and delicacy of
his own. He paints flowers, especially
roses, with incomparable skill. In
1481 Botticelli was in charge of the
decorations in the new chapel of the
Vatican, and painted a number of the
portraits of the popes, and three of the
large frescoes : Life of Moses, Temp-
tation of Christ, and the Punishment
of Korah, Dathan and Abiram. He
also drew illustrations for Dante's In-
ferno. His Madonnas are the best ex-
amples of his work, for nowhere else
does he show such feeling and energy.
The best known of his paintings is the
" Primavera " or " Spring " in the
Florence Academy of Fine Arts. In
his later years Botticelli became an
ardent disciple of Savonarola, and is
said by Vasari to have neglected his
painting for the study of mystical the-
ology.

Bottle Gourd, a gourd called
also the white pumpkin. The Hindus
cultivated it largely as an article of
food.

Bottle Nose, a cetacean, the bottle
nosed whale, very destructive to food



Botts

fishes, and of comparatively little eco-
nomic value itself.

Botts, John Minor, an American
legislator, born in Dumfries, Va., Sept.
16, 1802. He studied law and, in
1833, entered the Virginia legislature.
He was elected to Congress in 1839
and was frequently re-elected. Upon
the outbreak of the Civil War he as-
serted his devotion to the Union, and,
in 1862, he suffered imprisonment on
that account. After the war he was
one of Jefferson Davis' bondsmen ;
and attended the Convention of South-
ern Loyalists, in Philadelphia. He
died in Culpepper, Va., Jan. 7, 1869.

Boucher, Jonathan, an American
loyalist during the period prior to the
Revolutionary War. He was born in
England in 1738, came to America at
the age of 21, and later became rector
of William and Mary College in Vir-
ginia. With all the force of a vigorous
nature he opposed the Revolution with
voice and pen, until he was forced to
leave the country and return to Eng-
land. In a volume of collected dis-
courses, which he dedicated to Wash-
ington with whom he was on terms of
intimate friendship, he sets forth the
position of the American loyalists dur-
ing the agitation that led up to the
Revolution.

Boncicanlt,. Dion, a dramatic
author and actor, born in Dublin, Dec.
26, 1822 ; educated at London Univer-
sity. He produced his first dramatic
work, " London Assurance," before he
was 19 years old. It was signally suc-
cessful, and its success determined his
career in life. Once embarked in the
profession of a play writer, Boucicault
produced piece after piece in rapid
succession, and greatly increased the
reputation which his first attempt had
brought him. Boucicault distinguished
hjmself equally in comedy, farce and
melodrama. When he went upon the
stage, as he soon did, he added a high
reputation as an actor to the reputa-
tion he had previously gained as an
author. From 1853 to 1860 he was in
the United States, where his popular-
ity was scarcely less than it had been
in England. His chief works include
" The Octoroon," " Colleen Bawn,"
" Arrah-na-Pogue," " Used up," " The
Corsican Brothers," "The Shaugraun."
Died, New York city, Sept. 18. 1890.



Bo nil 16

Bondinot, Ellas, a distinguished
American patriot and philanthropist,
born in Philadelphia, May 2, 1740;
was President of the Continental Con-
gress (1782), and first President of
the American Bible Society (1816-
1821). He died in Burlington, N. J..
Oct. 24, 1821.

Bougainville, Louis Antoine
de, a French navigator, born in Par-
is, Nov. 11, 1729. At first a lawyer,
he afterward entered the army and
fought bravely in Canada, under the
Marquis of Montcalm. After the bat-
tle in which Montcalm was killed,
Bougainville returned to France and
served with distinction in the cam-
paign of 1761, in Germany. After the
peace he entered the navy, and be-
came a distinguished naval officer.
Bougainville then made a voyage
round the world, which enriched ge-
ography with a number of new discov-
eries. In the American War of In-
dependence he distinguished himself
at sea, but withdrew from the service
after the Revolution. He died in Paris,



Online LibraryGeorge Jotham HagarThe New world encyclopedia; a library of reference (Volume 1) → online text (page 55 of 91)