George Jotham Hagar.

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April 31, 1811.

Boughton, George Henry, an
English-American landscape and genre
painter, born near Norwich, England,
in 1834. His parents came to the
United States in 1839, and settled in
Albany. He studied art without a
master, and, in 1853, went to London
and Paris to continue his studies. He
died in London, Jan. 19, 1905.

Boughton, Willis, an American
educator, born in Victor, N. Y., April
17, 1854. He has won note in the
work of university extension.

Bouguereau, Guillaume
Adolphe, a French painter, born
1825. His admirers consider him pre-
eminent as a painter of flesh, but there
is a certain theatric air about his
work that fails to recommend it to the
most discriminating. He was president
of the SocietiS des Artistes in 1885.
His paintings always attract atten-
tion and are well known through re-
productions, his pictures of child-life
being especially striking. Among his
later works are " Psyche et 1 "Amour,"
" L'Admiration," and " Compassion,"
He died April 19, 1905.

B o u i 1 1 e, Francois Claude,
Amour, Marquis de, a French gen-
eral, born in Cluzel, Nov. 19, 1739 j


entered the army at the age of 14 and
served with distinction in Germany
during the Seven Years' War. In
1768 he was appointed governor of the
island of Guadeloupe, and afterward
commander-in-chief of all the French
forces in the West Indies. When war
broke out in 1778, he successively took
from the British, Dominica, Tobago,
St Eustache, Saba, St. Martin, St.
Christopher's, and Nevis. Louis XVI.
nominated him a member of the As-
sembly of Notables in 1787-1788; in
1790 he was made commander-in-chief
of the army of the Meuse, the Saar,
and the Moselle. His decision of char-
acter prevented the dissolution of the
army and the outbreak of civil war.
For his share in the attempted escape
of Louis XVI. he had to flee from
France. In 1791 he entered into the
service of Gustavus III., of Sweden,
and afterward served in the corps of
the Prince of Conde. He rejected a
proposal, made in 1793, that he should
take the chief command in La Vendee ;
and went to England, where his advice
in West Indian affairs was useful to
the government He died in London,
Nov. 14, 1800.

Boulainvilliers, Henry, Count,
a French author, descended from an
ancient family in Picardy, born in St.
Saire, Normandy, Oct 11, 1658 r died
in Paris, Jan. 23, 1722.

Bonlanger, Georges Ernest
Jean Marie, a French soldier, born
in Rennes, April 29, 1837. After a
successful career in Algeria and in the
East he became Minister of War. In the
ministerial crisis of 1887 he lost his
portfolio, and was appointed to the
command of the 13th Army Corps, but
was retired March 28, 1888. In Jan-
uary, 1889, be was elected Deputy to
the National Assembly by 81,000 ma-
jority, in consequence of which the
Floquet ministry resigned. In August,
1889, he was charged with embezzle-
ment, treason and conspiracy, and
found guilty by the Senate ; the elec-
tions in the 12 cantons were annulled,
and he was sentenced to deportation.
He died in Brussels, Sept. 30, 189L

Bonlder, a large, rounded block of
stone, which, whether lying loose on
the surface of the ground or imbedded
in the soil, is of different composition
from the rocks adjacent to which it
DOW rests.

Bounty Jumper

Bonlder Formation, a forma-
tion consisting of mud, sand, and clay,
more frequently unstratified than the
reverse, generally studded with frag-
ments of rocks, some of them angular,
others rounded, with boulders scatter-
ed here and there through the mass.

Boulevard, a French word for-
merly applied to the ramparts of a
fortified town, but when these were
leveled, and the whole planted with
trees and laid out as promenades, the
name boulevard was still retained.
Modern usage applies it also to many
streets which are broad and planted
with trees.

Boulogne* or Bo-alogne-STir-
Mer, a fortified seaport of France,
Department of Pas de Calais, at the
mouth of the Liane. It consists of the
upper and lower town. The former
is surrounded with lofty walls, and has
well planted ramparts; the latter,
which is the business part of the town,
has straight and well built streets. In
the castle, which dates from 1231,
Louis Napoleon was imprisoned in
1840. Napoleon, after deepening and
fortifying the harbor, encamped 180,-
000 men here with the intention of in-
vading England at a favorable mo-
ment ; but, upon the breaking out of
hostilities with Austria, in 1805, they
were called to other places. Pop.
(1911) 53,128.

Bonltpn, Matthew, an English
mechanician, born in Birmingham,
Sept. 3, 1728. He engaged hi busi-
ness as a manufacturer of hardware,
and invented and brought to great
perfection inlaid steel buckles, buttons,
watch chains, etc. The introduction of
the steam engine at Soho led to a con-
nection between Boulton and James
Watt, who became partners hi trade,
in 1769. He died in Soho, Aug. 16,

Bounty, a grant or benefaction
from the Government to those whose
services directly or indirectly benefit
it, and to whom, therefore, it desires
to accord some recompense, OF at least

Bounty Jumper, a term used
during the Civil War in the United
States to denote one who enlisted in
the United States military service to
secure the bounty paid by the Gov-
ernment for volunteers, and then de-

Bouquet de la Grye


Bouquet de la Grye, Jean
Jacques Anatole, a French hydro-
graphical engineer, born in Thiers,
May 20, 1827. He became a member
of the Institute ; commander of the
Legion of Honor, and a member of
the Academy. A project which he
long urged was to make Paris a sea-
port by means of a ship-canal up the
Seine, He died in 1909.

Bourbon, an ancient French fam-
ily which has given three dynasties to
Europe, the Bourbons of France,
Spain, and Naples. The first of the
line known in history is ADHEMAB,
who, at the beginning of the 10th cen-
tury, was Lord of the Bourbonnais
(now the Department of Allier). The
power and possessions of the family
increased steadily through a long series
of Archambaulds of Bourbon, till, in
1272, BEATRIX, daughter of Agnes of
Bourbon and John of Burgundy, mar-
ried Robert, sixth son of Louis IX. of
France, and thus connected the Bour-
bons with the royal line of the Ca-
pets. Their son, Louis, had the bar-
ony converted into a dukedom and be-
came the first Due de Bourbon. Two
branches took their origin from the
two sons of this Louis, Duke of Bour-
bon, who died in 1341. The elder line
was that of the Dukes of Bourbon,
which became extinct at the death of
the Constable of Bourbon in 1527, in
the assault on the city of Rome. The
younger was that of the Counts of La
Marche, afterward Counts and Dukes
of Vendome. From these descended
ANTHOXY of Bourbon, Duke of Ven-
dome, who, by marriage, acquired the
kingdom of Navarre, and whose son,
HENRY of Navarre, became Henry IV.
of France.

By the death of the Count of Cham-
bord, in 1883, the elder line of the
Bourbons of France became extinct,
and the right of succession merged in
the Count of Paris, grandson of King
Louis Philippe, representative of the
younger, or Orleans line.

Bourbon, Charles, Duke of, or
Constable of Bourbon, son of Gil-
bert, Count of Montpensier, born in
1489, and, by his marriage with the
heiress pf the elder Bourbon line, ac-
quired immense estate. He received
from Francis I., in the 20th year of
his age, the sword of Constable, and
in the war in Italy rendered important

services by the victory of Marignano
and the capture of Milan. On May
G, 1527, his troops took Rome by
storm, and the sacking and plundering
continued for months. But the Bour-
bon himself was shot as he mounted
the breach at the head of his soldiers.
He was but 38 years of age.

Bourbonnais, a village of Illinois
in Kankakee county, 55 miles south of
Chicago. Noted since 1S65 as the seat
of the R. C. College of St. Viateur's,
and of Notre Dame Academy.

Bonrdalone, Louis, a Jesuit, and
one of the greatest preachers France
ever produced, was born in 1632. The
extreme popularity of his sermons in-
duced his superiors to call him to
Paris, and he became the favorite
preacher of Louis XI V. Died in 1704.

Bourdon (named after Mr. Bour-
don of Paris, who invented it in 1849 ) ,
a barometer consisting of an elastic
flattened tube of metal bent to a circu-
lar form and exhausted of air, so that
the ends of the tube separate as the
atmospheric pressure is diminished,
and approach as it increases.

Bourgeoisie, a name applied to a
certain class in France, in contradis-
tinction to the nobility and clergy as
well as to the working classes.

Bourget, Paul, a French novel-
ist, born in Amiens, Sept. 2, 1852.
He was admitted to the Academy in
1894. He ranks among the first of
the present day French novelists.

Bonrinot, John George, a Ca-
nadian publicist, born in Sydney,
Nova Scotia, Oct. 24, 1838. He was
educated at Trinity College, Toronto;
founded and edited the " Halifax Re-
porter," became clerk of the Dominion
Parliamemt in 1880 ; was created a
member of the Order of St. Michael
and St. George in 1890; and in 1892
became President of the Royal So-
ciety of Canada. Died, Oct. 12, 1902.

Bonrke, John Gregory, an
American military officer, born in
Philadelphia, Pa., June 23, 1846. He
was graduated at West Point in 1869,
and saw much service against the In-
dians, rising through various grades
to the rank of major. He became an
expert in American ethnological lore.
He was an officer of great courage and
ability. He died in Philadelphia, Pa.,
June 8, 1896.


Bonrmont, Louise Angustc
Victor de Ghaisne, Cpmte dc,
Marshal of France, born in Anjou,
Sept. 2, 1773 ; died in Anjou, Oct. 27,

Bourne, Hugh, founder of the
sect of Primitive Methodists, born iii
Staffordshire, England, April 3, 1772.
In the course of his life he visited
Scotland, Ireland, Canada, and the
United States, where his ministrations
were attended with great success. He
died in Bemersly, Oct 11, 1852.

Bourrienne, Fauvclet de, a
French diplomatist, born in 1769,
and educated along with Bonaparte at
the School of Brienne, where a close
intimacj sprang up between them.
Bourrienne went to Germany to study
law and languages, but, returning to
Paris in 1792, renewed his friendship
with Napoleon, from whom he ob-
tained various appointments, and, lat-
terly, that of minister plenipotentiary
at Hamburg. Notwithstanding that
his character suffered from his being"
involved in several dishonorable mone-
tary transactions, he continued to fill
high State offices, and, in 1814, was
made prefect of police. On the abdi-
cation of Napoleon he paid his court
to Louis XVIII., and was nominated
a Minister of State. The Revolution
of July, 1830, and the loss of his
wealth affected him so much that he
lost bis reason, and died in a lunatic
asylum in 1834.

Bourse, an exchange where mer-
chants, bankers, etc., meet for the
transaction of financial business. Used
especially of the Stock Exchange of

Bousaa, or Bnssang, a city of
Africa, in the Sudan, on the Niger,
Dear which are rapids. It was here
that Mungo Park met his death in
1805. Pop. est. 12,000 to 18,000.

Boutelle, Charles Addison, an
American legislator, born in Damar-
iscotta, Me., Feb. 9, 1839; served in
the navy during the Civil War, enter-
ing as an acting master, and being
promoted to lieutenant for gallantry
in action. In 1870 he became the edi-
tor of the Bangor " Whig and Cou-
rier." He was elected to Congress in
1882, and held his seat till December,
1900, when he resigned, and was made
a captain on the retired list of the


navy. He was author of the bill
(1890) authorizing the construction
of the first modern battleship of the
United States Navy. He died in
Waverly, Mass., May 21, 1901.

Bontwell, George Sewell, an
American statesman, born in Brook-
line, Mass., Jan. 23, 1818; was ad-
mitted to the bar in 1836; served in
the state Legislature in 1842-1851;
Governor of Massachusetts in 1851-
1852 ; was organizer of the Republican
Party in 1854 ; appointed the first
commissioner of the newly established
Department of Internal Revenue in
1862 ; a Representative in Congress in
1863-1869 ; one of the managers of the
impeachment trial of President John-
son ; Secretary of the Treasury in
1869-1873 ; and a U. S. Senator, 1873-
79. He died Feb. 28, 1905.

Bouvard, Alexis, a Swiss mathe-
matician and astronomer, born in
1767; went to Paris about 1785 to
study mathematics and astronomy,
and in 1793 obtained a position in the
Paris Observatory. He is celebrated
for his researches in the theory of
planetary motions, especially those of
Jupiter and Saturn. Later he took
up the theory of Uranus, and was the
first to suggest that the discrepancies
between the old and new observations
could only be reconciled by the hypoth-
esis of another undiscovered disturb-
ing planet, an opinion which he re-
tained till his death, three years be-
fore the discovery of Neptune.

Bovidse, the ox family of ruminat-
ing animals, containing not merely
the oxen, but many others animals,
placed in other families, such as the
bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, etc. They
are generally of large size, with broad,
hairless muzzles; most of them have
been domesticated.

Bowditch, Henry Ingersoll, an
American physician, born in Salem,
Mass., Aug. 9, 180& He discovered
the law of soil moisture as a cause of
consumption in New England; intro-
duced several new features in surgical
treatment, and was author of many
general and special works in medical
science. He died in Boston, Mass.,
Jan. 14, 1892.

Bowditcn, Henry Pickering, an
American educator, born in Boston,
Mass., April 4, 1840;. was graduated


at Harvard in 1861, and subsequently
studied chemistry and medicine, and,
after the Civil War, in which he
reached the rank of major in the
Union service, he took a special course
in physiology in France and Germany.
In 1871-1876 he was Assistant Pro-
fessor of Physiology in the Harvard
Medical School, and in 1876 was
elected to the full chair. He was a
member of the American Academy of
Arts and Sciences, as well as of nu-
merous medical societies, and has pub-
lished many papers on physiological
subjects. He died March 13, 1911.

Bowdoin, James, an American
patriot, born in Boston, Aug. 8, 1727.
He was prominent in Massachusetts
during the Revolution. He became
governor of his State in 1785, and, in
the following year, suppressed Shay's
rebellion. Bowdoin College was named
after him. He died in Boston, Nov. 6,

Bowdoin College, a co-education-
al institution in Brunswick, Me. ; or-
ganized in 1794 under the auspices of
the Congregational Church ; but is now
non-sectarian. Its several departments
have about 400 students, and 40 in-

Bowen, Henry Chandler, an
American editor and publisher, born
in Woodstock, Conn., Sept. 11, 1813.
He received a common school educa-
tion and entered business. In 1848 he
helped found " The Independent," in
New York. He died in Brooklyn, N.
Y., Feb. 24, 1896.

Bowen, Herbert Wolcott,
United States Minister to Venezuela,
who acquired world-wide repute as a
diplomatist by his management in be-
half of Venezuela of negotiations with
England, Germany, and Italy, which
brought to a close the blockade of
Venezuela ports by those powers in
1902-1903. Mr. Bowen was born in
Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 29, 1856 ; studied
at the Brooklyn Polytechnic, in Europe
and at Yale, and was graduated
with honor from the Columbia Law
School in 1881. He practiced law in
New York, and was appointed in 1890
Consul and Consul-General to Barce-
lona, and afterward Minister to Per-
sia. In June, 1901, he was appointed
Minister to Venezuela. When the al-
lies began war on Venezuela to compel

E. 22.


payment of certain claims President
Castro requested Mr. Bowen to act in
behalf of Venezuela in arranging terms
for a settlement. He was a successful
diplomat, but in June, 1905, was dis-
missed from government service owing
to injudicious charges against his
predecessor, Assist. Sec. of State F.
B. Loomis.

Bower Birds, the name given to
certain birds found in Australia. The
name is given because these birds are
in the habit of building bowers as well
as nests.

Bowery, The, a New York street.
It begins at Chatham Square and ter-
minates at Cooper Union. It was long
notorious for the resorts located along
its length, but its character has under-
gone improvement.

Bowie, James, an American fron-
tiersman, born in Burke county, Ga.,
about 1790. He took part in the re-
volt of Texas against Mexico, and fell
in the Alamo massacre, March 6, 1836.
He gave his name to the bowie knife.

Bowling, an ancient English game,
still exceedingly popular. The favor-
ite form in the United States is
played indoors, in an " alley " 50-65
feet long and about 6 feet wide. At
the further end 10 " pins," generally
of ash wood, are set up in the form
of a triangle. The players roll wooden
balls at these, with the object of
knocking down as many as possible
at each throw.

Bowman, Edward Morris, Amer-
ican organist and musical theorist, b.
Barnard, Vt., in 1848 ; studied in Ber-
lin, Paris, and London, under famous
masters ; and was the first American
A. R. C. O. of London. In 1877 he pub-
lished " Bowman- Weitzmann's Manual
of Musical Theory ;" in 1891 succeed-
ed Dr. F. L. Ritter at Vassar; was
organist of the Bapt. Temple, Brook-
lyn, 1895-1905; then of Calvary
Church, N. Y. C. He died Aug. 27,

Bowne, Borden Parker, an
American philosophical writer, born
in Leonardsyille, N. J., Jan. 14, 1847.
He was religious editor of the New
York "Independent," 1875-1876, be-
coming Professor of Philosophy at
Boston University in 1876. D. 1910.

Box, the English name of buxus,
a genus of plants. In its wild state


it is a small tree. It is found all
over the world in some form of spe-
cies. It is an evergreen.

Boxers, members of a Chinese se-
cret society which aims ostensibly at
the expulsion of foreigners. The
origin of the Boxers appears to have
been due to fanatic opposition to
Christian missionaries, and to the en-
croachments of European powers upon
Chinese territory.

Early in 1900 the native popu-
lation in Shantung were found to be
rallying around the standard of the
Boxers and adopting its motto, " Up-
hold the dynasty, drive out the for-
eigners." The Diplomatic Corps at
Peking called upon the Imperial Gov-
ernment to suppress the movement.
In May, 1900, they began a
concerted movement upon the Chinese
capital which, notwithstanding the
protests of the Diplomatic Corps, re-
mained unchecked.

The situation had been rendered ad-
ditionally threatening by the action of
the allies in opening fire upon the forts
at Taku. On June 17 the warships
of the Powers were in force at that
port ; when fired upon by the Chinese
they opened a bombardment. The
demonstration before Taku had been
Deprecated by the United States com-
mander, Admiral Kempff, who did not
participate in the bombardment. His
warning that hostilities would unite
the Chinese against the foreigners was
justified by events.

In June, 1900, Peking was reduced
to a state of siege by the Boxers. The
position of the foreigners in the capi-
tal became precarious. The entire
Diplomatic Corps was cut off from
communication with the outside world.
After capturing Tien-Tsin the forces
of the powers advanced on Peking, de-
feating the Chinese who opposed them,
and rescuing the legations from de-
struction. The troops were just in
time to save the inmates of the lega-
tions, and a large number of native
Christians from outrage and, massacre.
The Chinese court fled from Peking,
and after many months of desultory
warfare and negotiation China con-
sented to pay full indemnity and to
punish the officials guilty of inciting
the Boxers. The society is still a
menace to foreigners.

Boxing. See PUGILISM.


Box Tortoise, a name given to
one or two North American tortoises
that can completely shut themselves
into their shell.

Boyaca, a Department of Colom-
bia, touching Venezuela. In the W. it
is mountainous; in the E. it has vast
prairies, and is watered by the Meta
and its tributaries. The Muzo emer*
aid mine is the richest in the world,
and the Department is rich in salt
springs, coal, .iron, plumbago, and
copper ore. Area, 16,460 square
miles; population (1912) 586,499.
Capital, Tunja.

i>oyar, Boiar, or Boyard, a
name first used by the Bulgarians,
Serbs and Russians, subsequently
adopted by the Moldavians and Walla-
chians, and synonymous with bojarin,
used by the Bohemians, Poles, and
other Slavic tribes, to qualify the high-
est social condition ; corresponding in
certain respects to that of an English

Boycotting, a practice which
owes its name to Capt. C. C. Boycott
(died June 21, 1897), of Lough Mask
House, in Mayo, Ireland, and agent,
in 1880, of Lord Erne, an Irish noble-
man. The former gentleman having
given offense about agrarian matters to
the people among whom he lived, dur-
ing the land agitation of 1880-1881,
no one would gather in his crops. The
case being reported in the " Press,"
about 60 Orangemen, belonging to the
North of Ireland, each man carrying
a revolver, organized themselves into
a " Boycott relief expedition." The
Government gave them a strong es-
cort of cavalry, besides foot soldiers
and constabulary, artillery also being
added on the return journey. The
crops were gathered in and sent away,
and the Captain himself brought off to
a region of greater security. The ob-
ject of a boycott is to put a person
outside the pale of the society, amid
which he lives, and on which he de-
pends; socially to outlaw him, to re-
fuse to sell to, and decline to buy from,
him ; to refuse to work for or to em-
ploy him.

In the United States and in England
the boycott is made use of by trade
unionists as a strike measure. It has
in some instances been enjoined by the
courts, and in some States laws have
been passed against it.


Boyd, Belle, a Confederate spy,
born in Martinsburg, VV. Va., May 9,
1843. She rendered aid to the South-
ern cause by detecting the Federal
plans of campaign and revealing them
to the Confederates. Gen. " Stone-
wall " Jackson sent her a letter of
thanks. She died at Kilbourn, Wis.,
June 11, 1900.

Boyd, Thomas Duckett, an
American educator, born in Wythe-
ville, Va., Jan. 20, 1854. He was
graduated at Louisiana State Univer-
sity, and has held important posts in
the educational institutions of Louisi-
ana. Since 1896 he has been Presi-
dent of Louisiana State University.

Boyden, Seth, an American in-
ventor, born in Foxboro, Mass., Nov.
17, 1788; was brought up on a farm,
and attended a district school. Me-
chanically inclined, he spent much
time experimenting in a blacksmith
shop. His first invention was a ma-
chine for making nails, and in 1809
he undertook to manufacture both
nails and files. Soon afterward he in-
vented a machine for splitting leather,
and in 1815, he took it to Newark, N.
J., where he engaged in the leather
business. In 1816 he invented a ma-
chine for cutting brads, and followed
this by the invention of patent leather,
which he manufactured till 1831, when
he began making malleable iron cast-
ings, on a system of his own. In 1835
he turned his attention to steam en-
gines ; substituted the straight axle for
the crank in locomotives ; and invented
the cut-off now used instead of the
throttle valve. In 1849 he went to
California, but was unsuccessful, and
returned to New Jersey, where he ap-
plied himself to farming, and devel-
oped a variety of strawberry previous-
ly unequaled in size or quality. He
died in Middleville, N. J., March 31,

Boyer, Jean Pierre, President of
the Republic of Haiti, was a mulatto,
born in Port-au-Prince in 1776. He
was educated in France, and, in 1776,
entered the military service. He
was unanimously elected President of
the Republic in 1818. He arranged
the financial affairs, collected funds
into the treasury, improved the admin-
istration, and encouraged arts and sci-
ences. After the death of Christophe,
be united the monarchical part of the


island with the Republic in 1820 ; and,
in 1821, the eastern district also,
which had hitherto remained under the
dominion of Spain; and he urgently
sought the recognition of the inde-
pendence of the youthful State by

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