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France, which was obtained, in 1825,
upon payment of an indemnity of 150,-
000,000 francs. Boyer carried on the
government of the Republic of Haiti
for 15 years from this time with the
most perfect peace ; but his policy,
which was rather arbitrary, and direct-
ed to the object of depressing the ne-
groes in favor of his own race, result-
ed in a victorious insurrection in 1843.
Boyer fled to Jamaica. In 1848 he
went to Paris, and died there, July 9,
1850.

Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth, an
American novelist, born at Frederiks-
varn, Norway, Sept. 23, 1848. He
came to the United States in 1869;
returned to Europe in 1872 and studied
Germanic Philology at Leipsic two
years; then, returning to this country,
he was Professor of German in Cor-
nell University for six years, and then
of Germanic Languages and Litera-
ture in Columbia College till his death.
He died in New York, Oct. 4, 1895.

Boy Scouts, a semi-military or-
ganization, founded' in England in
1910 and introduced into the United
States the same year. The object is
to develop patriotism, discipline, cour-
age, and self-control in boys, as well
as to put the Golden Rule into daily
practice. The unit of the organiza-
tion is the " patrol " of from six to
eight boys; a "troop" comprises two
or more "patrols;" and the "scout
master " is the officer in charge of
a troop. Lieut.-Gen. Sir Robert Ba-
den-Powell was the father of the boy
scout movement in England, and
Ernest Thompson, Seton in the United
States. In both countries the idea
took at once with boys and found
general favor among their elders. In
1910 the founder visited New York
in its interest.

Boyton, Paul, an Irish-Ameri-
can swimmer, born in Dublin, June 29,
1848; served in the United States navy
in 1863-1865. He invented a life-pre-
serving suit, in which in 1874, he
leaped from a vessel off the coast of
Ireland, and, after remaining seven
hours in the water, reached land safe-



Bozrah



Bradford



ly. On May 28, 1875, he crossed the
[English Channel in this suit, swim-
ming across in 24 hours. In 1876 he
made the run from the Bayou Goula
to New Orleans, La., 100 miles, in
24 hours. In May, the same year,
he descended the Danube from Linz to
Budapest, 460 miles, in six days.
Later he went from Oil City, Pa., to
the Gulf of Mexico, 2,342 miles, hi 80
days, being exposed at first to great
cold and later to extreme heat. In
November, 1879, he descended the
Connecticut river from Canada to
Long Island Sound. On Sept.
17, 1881, he started from Cedar
Creek, Mont, to swim to St. Louis,
Mo., and accomplished the long jour-
ney, 3,580 miles, Nov. 20. In 1888 he
made a voyage down the Ohio river.
He published an account of his travels.

Bozrah, an ancient city of Pales-
tine, E. of the Jordan, and about 80
miles S. of Damascus.

Bozzaris, Marcos, a Greek pa-
triot, born in 1789. He was a Su-
liote, and distinguished himself by his
devotion to his country, in defending
it against the Turks. He fell in a
night attack upon a body of the Turco-
Albanian army, who were advancing
with the view of taking Missalonghi,
which he had successfully defended
for a considerable time, Aug. 20,
1823.

Brabant, the central district of
the lowlands of Holland and Belgium,
extending from the Waal to the
sources of the Dyle, and from the
Meuse and Limburg plains to the
Lower Scheldt. It is divided between
the Kingdoms of Holland and Belgium,
into three provinces, (1) Dutch or
North Brabant, area 1,920 square
miles, pop. (1913) 657,672; (2) Bel-
gian Province of Antwerp, area 1,093
square miles, pop., 1,004,909 ; and
(3) the Belgian Province of South
Brabant, area, 1,268 square miles,
pop., 1,522,941.

Brachiopoda, animals with arm-
like feet ; one of the great classes into
which the moluscous sub-kingdom of
the animal kingdom is divided.

Bracken, or Brake, a species of
fern very common in the United States
and Europe generally, and often cov-
ering large areas on hillsides and
waste grounds.



Braddock, a borough in Alle-
gheny county, Pa.; on the Mononga-
hela river and the Pennsylvania and
other railroads; 10 miles S. E. of
Pittsburg; has extensive iron and
steel, wire, chain, car, and ice plants,
and large coal-mining interests. It
was the scene of Gen. Braddock's
defeat. Pop. (1910) 19,357.

Braddock, Edward, a British
soldier, born in Perthshire, Scotland,
about 1695, entered the Coldstream
Guards in 1710, and was appointed
Major-General in 1754. Nine months
later he sailed as commander against
the French in America, and, with a
force of nearly 2,000 British and
provincial troops, reached the Monon-
gahela, on July 8, 1755. On the 9th
he pushed forward to invest Fort
Duquesne, on the present site of
Pittsburg, Pa. On the right bank of
the river he was attacked by a party
of 900 French and Indians, and 63 out
of 86 officers, and 914 out of 1,373
men engaged, were either killed or
wounded. Braddock was carried
from the field, and died July 13.

Bradford, city in McKean co., Pa.;
on several railroads; 67 miles S. of
Buffalo, N. Y.; is in a noted petroleum,
natural gas, and coal-mining region;
has oil pipe-lines to seaboard; and
manufactures machinery, glass, boil-
ers, motor-cycles, chemicals, and tanks
and well supplies. Pop. (1910) 14,544.

Bradford, a municipal and par-
liamentary borough and important
manufacturing town in the W. Riding
of Yorkshire, England, the chief seat
in England of the spinning and weav-
ing of worsted yarn and woolens.
Pop. (1911) 288,458. 1

Bradford, Joseph, an American
journalist and dramatic author, born
near Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 24, 1843.
His real name was WILLIAM RAN-
DOLPH HUNTER. Besides satirical
verses he wrote a number of poems
which were highly esteemed, especially
those on the death of Victor Hugo
and of General Grant. He died in
Boston, Mass., April 13, 1886.

Bradford, Royal B., an Ameri-
can naval officer, born in Turner, Me.,
July 22, 1844. He was graduated at
the United States Naval Academy in
1865, and received promotion through
various grades to the rank of Coir



Bradford

mander. He made a specialty of
equipment, and after 1897 was chief
of the Bureau of Equipment of the
Navy. He died Aug. 4, 1914.
1 Bradford, William, an Ameri-
can painter, born in New Bedford,
Mass., in 1827. He entered business
early in life, but abandoned it for art
His subjects were the ice fields of the
North Atlantic. He died in New York
city, April 25, 1892.

Bradford, William, an Ameri-
can colonial governor and author, born
in Austerfield, Yorkshire, England, in
March, 1588. He was one of the sign-
ers of the celebrated compact on the
Mayflower ; and, in 1621, on the death
of the first governor, John Carver, was
elected to the same office, which he
continued to fill (with the exception
of a brief period when he declined re-
election) until his death. His admin-
istration was remarkably efficient and
successful, especially in dealing with
the Indians. He died in Plymouth,
Mass., May 9, 1657.

Bradlee, Nathaniel, an Ameri-
can architect, born in Boston in 1829 ;
began the study of architecture in
1846. He achieved wonderful suc-
cess, having been the architect of over
500 prominent buildings in the city of
Boston. In 1869 he made a national
reputation by moving bodily the large
brick structure known as the Hotel
Pelham to the corner of Tremont and
Boylston streets. The work attracted
wide attention, both in this country
and in Europe. He subsequently su-
perintended the removal of the Boyls-
ton Market He died in 1888.

Bradley, John Edwin, an Amer-
ican educator, born in Lee, Mass. He
was graduated at Williams College, in
1865. He served as principal of the
High School at Pittsfield, Mass., and
at Albany, N. Y. In 1892-1900 he
was President of the Illinois College.
Bradley, Joseph Philo, an Amer-
ican jurist, born in Berne, N. Y.,
March 14, 1843; was graduated at
Rutgers College in 1836; admitted to
the bar in 1839; and became a
Justice of the United States Supreme
Court in 1870. As a member of the
Electoral Commission he cast the vote
which gave the Presidency to General
Hayes, in 1877. He died in Washing-
ton, D. C., Jan. 22, 1892.



Bragg

Bradstreet, Anne, the earliest
American poet, born in Northampton,
England, in 1612. She was a daugh-
ter of Gov. Thomas Dudley. In 1630
she emigrated to America with her
husband, Simon Bradstreet, Governor
of Massachusetts. Her poems are
quaint and literal in style. She died
Sept 16, 1672.

Brady, Cyras Townsend, author
and P. E. clergyman, born in Alle-
gheny, Pa., Dec. 20, 1861; graduated
1883 at the United States Naval Acad-
emy ; and was ordained priest in 1890.
His published writings include several
volumes of fiction, and semi-historical
works, all exceedingly popular.

Bragg, Braxton, an American
military officer; born in Warren Co.,
N. C., March 22, 1817; graduated at
West Point, in 1837; was appointed
Second Lieutenant in the 3d Artillery ;
served with distinction under General
I Taylor in the Mexican War ; and re-
| tired to private life in 1856. At the
outbreak of the Civil War, he became
a Brigadier-General in the Confeder-
ate army, and was stationed at Pensa-
cola to act against Fort Pickens. In
1862, having been appointed a general
of division, with orders to act under
Gen. A. S. Johnston, commanding the
Army of the Mississippi, he took an
important part in the two days" bat-
tle of Shiloh. On Johnston's death he
was appointed to his command, with
the full rank of General, and succeed-
ed General Beauregard as commander
of the Department, in July of the
same year. The last command he re-
signed in December, 1863. His chief
success was at Chickamauga, in Sep-
tember, 1863, when he inflicted a de-
feat on the army of General Rose-
crans, but was himself, in turn, de-
feated by General Grant, which led to
his temporary removal from command
in January, 1864, and he was appoint-
ed military adviser to Jefferson Davis.
In 1864, he assumed command of the
Department of North Carolina. After
the war he was chief engineer of the
State of Alabama, and superintended
the improvements in Mobile Bay. He
died in Galveston, Tex., Sept. 27, 1876.
Bragg, Edward Stnyvesant, an
American legislator, born in Unadilla,
N. Y., Feb. 20, 1827; educated at
Geneva, now Hobart, College, and ad-
mitted to the bar in New York, in



Bragi

1848. He removed to Fond du Lac,
Wis., served in the Union army during
the Civil War, and won his way to
the rank of Brigadier-General. He
was a member of the Union Conven-
tion, at Philadelphia, in 1866; Repre-
sentative in Congress in 1877-1885;
and a delegate to the Democratic Na-
tional Conventions of 1872, 1884, 1892,
and 1896. In the Convention of 1884,
he seconded the renomination of Gro-
ver Cleveland, when he uttered the
memorable phrase, " We love him for
the enemies he has made." In 1888
he was appointed minister to Mexico;
and in June, 1902, became the first
United States consul-general in Ha-
vana under the new republic of Cuba,
retiring the same year on account of
a letter which he wrote reflecting on
the Cubans. He died June 20, 1912.

Bragi, the Scandinavian god of
poetry. He is represented as an old
man with a long flowing beard, like
Odin; yet with a serene and unwrin-
kled brow. His wife was Idunna.

Brake, Tycho, a Swedish astron-
omer, born in Knudstrup, near Lund,
Dec. 14, 1546. He was descended from
a noble family, and was sent, at the
age of 13. to the University of Copen-
hagen, where he had not been more
than a year, when an eclipse of the
sun turned his attention to astronomy.
His uncle destined him for the law,
but Brahe, while his tutor slept,
busied himself nightly with the stars.
In 1573 he married a peasant girl.
After some time spent in travel, Brahe
received from his sovereign, Frederic
II., the offer of the island of Hven or
Hoene, in the Sound, as the site for
an observatory, the King also offering
to defray the cost of erection, and of
the necessary astronomical instrur
ments, as well as to provide him with
a suitable salary. Brahe accepted
the generous proposal, and, in 1576,
the foundation stone of the castle of
Uraienburg ("fortress of the heav-
ens ") was laid. Here, for a period of
20 years, Brahe prosecuted his obser-
vations with the most unwearied in-
dustry. So long as his munificent pat-
ron, Frederick II., lived, Brahe's posi-
tion was all that he could have de-
sired, but on his death in 1588 it was
greatly changed. For some years, un-
der Christian IV., Brahe was just tol-
erated; but in 1597 his persecution



Brainard

had grown so unbearable that he left
the country altogether, having been
the year before deprived of his ob-
servatory and emoluments. After re-
siding a short time at Kostock and at
Wandsbeck, near Hamburg, he accept-
ed an invitation of the Emperor Ru-
dolf II. who conferred on him a pen-
sion of 3,000 ducats to Benatek, a
few miles from Prague, where a new
Uranienburg was to have been erected
for him; but he died at Prague on
Oct. 24, 1601.

Brahma, the name of the first of
the three gods who constitute the triad
of principal Hindu deities. The epi-
thets applied to this divinity are very
numerous.

Brahman, Brahmin, Bramin,
or Brachman, one of the Aryan
conquerors of India, who discharged
priestly functions, whose ascendency,
however, over his fellows was intellec-
tual and spiritual, but not yet political
or supported by the caste system ; also
one of the four leading castes of India.

Brahmanism, or Brahminism,
the system of religious belief and prac-
tice introduced and propagated by the
Brahmans.

Brahmaputra, a large river of
Asia, whose sources, not yet explored,
are situated near Lake Manasarovara,
in Tibet, near those of Indus.

Brahmo-Spmaj, or the Thiestic
Church of India, was founded in 1830
by an enlightened Brahman, who
sought to purify his religion from im-
purities and idolatries.

Brain, the encephalon, or center
of the nervous system and the seat of
consciousness and volition in man and
the higher animals.

Brainard, David Legge, an
American explorer, born in Herkimer
county, N. Y., Dec. 21, 1856. He re-
ceived a common school education and
enlisted as a private in the United
States army in 1876. He rose to dis-
tinction in various conflicts with the
Indians and in the Greeley and other
Arctic Expeditions, and was promoted
to Colonel, June 8, 1912. In 1899 he
became Chief Commissary at Manila.

Brainard, John Gardiner, Cal-
kins, an American poet, born in New
London, Conn., Oct. 21, 1796 ; died in
New London, Conn., Sept. 26, 1828.



Brain*



Bramante d'TJrbino



Braine, Daniel Lawrence, an
American naval officer, born in New
York city, May 18, 1829. He entered
the United States navy in 1846 and
became a Rear-Admiral. He served
with distinction through the Mexican
and Civil Wars. In 1873 he obtained
the surrender by Spain of 102 sur-
vivors of the " Virginius " prisoners.
He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 30,
1898.




HUMAN BBAIN.

Median Longitudinal Section through
Head and Upper Part of Neck, to Show
Relation of Brain to Cranium and the
Spinal Cord.

C, cerebrum; cb, cerebellum; sc, spinal
cord; spc, spinal column; mo, medulla
oblongata passing, through foramen
magnum, into the spinal cord; pv, pons
Varolii; cp, cerebral peduncles or crura
cerebri; cqa, anterior corpora quadrige-
mina; cqp, posterior corpora quadnge-
mina; pg, pineal gland; pb, pituitary
body; cc, corpus collosum, divided trans-
versely; f, fornix; mg, marginal gyrus;
f^i gyrus fornicatus; ctng, calloso-mar-
ginal suleus; O, occipital lobe; po,
parieto-occipital fissure; cf, calcarine fis-
sure; dm, dura mater, separating cere-
brum from cerebellum.

Brainerd, David, an American
missionary, born at Haddam, Conn.,
April 20, 1718. He entered Yale Col-
lege in 1739, but three years later was
expelled for declaring that one of the
college tutors had no more of the grace
of God than a chair. That same year



he was licensed to preach, and sent as
a missionary to the Indians in Massa-
chusetts. He labored afterward among
the Indians in Pennsylvania, and with
much success in New Jersey, baptizing
there no fewer than 77 converts, of
whom 38 were adults. He died in
Northampton, Mass., Oct. 9, 1747.

Brain Fever, a term in common
use for inflammation of the lining
membranes of the brain, meningitis;
or of the brain itself, cerebritis. Brain
fever is characterized by violent head-
ache, intolerance of light, excitement,
extreme sensitiveness, hyperffimia, de-
lirium, convulsions, and coma.

Braintree, a town in Norfolk
county, Mass.; on the New York,
New Haven & Hartford railroad; 10
miles S. of Boston; is noted as the
birth-place of many of the Adams
family; and is chiefly engaged in
granite quarrying. Pop. (1910) 8,066.

Brake, a device for regulating or
stopping motion by friction. Rail-
road air-brakes consist of a cylinder
and piston under each car, connected
by tubes with a reservoir for com-
pressed air, automatically filled by a
special engine under control of the
engineer.

Braniah, Joseph, an English in-
ventor; born in Yorkshire in 1749;
especially known for an ingenious lock,
and for the hydraulic press. He died
in Pimlico, Dec. 9, 1814.

Bramante d'TTrbino (real name
DONATO LAZZARI), an Italian archi-
tect, born in 1444. Showing an early
taste for drawing, he was brought up
to the profession of a painter, but he
quitted it to dedicate bis talents to
architecture, which he cultivated with
uncommon success. He first designed
and commenced in 1513, the erection
of St. Peter's at Rome, carried on and
finished by other architects after his
death. He was a great favorite with
Pope Julius II., who made him super-
intendent of his buildings, and, under
that pontiff, he formed, the magnificent
project of connecting the Belvidere
Palace with the Vatican by means of
two grand galleries carried across a
valley. He built many churches, mon-
asteries, and palaces at Rome, and in
other I'talian cities, and was employed
by Pope Julius as an engineer to forti-
fy Bologna, 1504. Bramante painted
portraits with ability, and he was



Brambanan

skilled in music and poetry. He died
in 1514.

Brambanan, a district of the
Province of Surakarta, Java, rich in
remains of Hindu temples, of which
there are six groups, with two appar-
ently monastic buildings. The edifices
are composed entirely of hewn stone,
and no mortar has been used in their
construction. The largest is a cruci-
form temple, surrounded by five con-
centric squares, formed by rows of de-
tached cells or shrines, embracing an
area of 500 feet square. In several of
these dagobas the cross-legged figures
of Buddha remain but the larger fig-
ures which must have occupied the
central temples have disappeared from
all but one.

Bramble, or Blackberry, a
plant having prickly stems, which
somewhat resemble those of the rasp-
berry. The flowers do not appear till
the summer is considerably advanced,
and the fruit ripens toward the end
of it, continuing to be produced till
the frosts of winter set in. The fruit
is too well known to need description.
In the United States blackberries are
extensively cultivated for their fruit.

Bramwcll, John Milne, a Brit-
ish physician and author, born at
Perth, New Brunswick, Canada, 1852.
He graduated from the University of
Edinburgh, and made a specialty of
hypnotism, combining with consider-
able success the Parisian and Nancy
methods of hyponosis. His published
writings include " What is Hypno-
tism?"

Bran, the skins or husks of
ground maize, wheat, rye, or other
grain, separated from the flour. The
nutritive value of these husks in-
creases as we proceed from the out-
side of the grain toward the interior.
The outer skin, or coarse bran, is very
indigestible, owing to the presence of a
layer of silica.

Branch, that part of a plant which
is produced from a lateral leaf bud on
the primary axis or stem. It is looked
upon as part of the stem, and not as
a distinct organ.

Branchia, the gills of fishes and
various other inhabitants of water.
They are the apparatus for enabling
the animal to extract oxygen from the
water, instead of being dependent on,



Brandenburg

the atmosphere.

Brand, Sir John Henry, a Boer
statesman, born in Cape Town, Dec.
6, 1823. Queen Victoria knighted him
in recognition of his aid. Brandford

i was named in his honor, and Lady-
brand was named in honor of his wife.

I He died July 15, 1888.

Brandeis, Louis Dembitz, an
American jurist, born in Louisville,
Ky., Nov. 13, 1856; was admitted to
the bar in 1878 ; began practice in
Boston in 1879 ; gave special atten-

i tion to railroad problems ; was spe-
cial counsel for the Interstate Com-
merce Commission in 1913-14, also in
various Federal and municipal inves-
tigations ; chairman of the Provisional
Committee for General Zionist Affairs
in 1914-15 ; widely known as an effi-
ciency expert ; was confirmed as an
Associate Justice of the United States
Supreme Court, June 1, 1916.

Brandenburg, a province of
Prussia, surrounded mainly by Meck-
lenburg and the provinces of Pome-
rania, Posen, Silesia, and Prussian
Saxony. The soil consists in many
parts of barren sands, heaths, and
moors ; yet the province produces much

frain, as well as fruits, hemp, flax, to-
acco, etc., and supports many sheep.
The forests are very extensive. The
principal streams are the Elbe, the
Oder, the Havel, and the Spree ; but
the first two merely skirt the territory.
Brandenburg carries on an active
trade in manufactured articles, and is
well situated for commerce, since it
has many canals, rivers, good roads,
and is intersected by the railways from
Berlin to Leipsic, etc. The province
of Brandenburg includes, besides some
other districts, the greater part of the
former mark of Brandenburg, which
formed the cradle of the Prussian mon-
archy, and the center round which the
present extensive kingdom has grown
up. > It is divided into the three ad-
ministrative divisions of Berlin, Pots-
dam, and Frankfort, and it has a total
area of 15,376 square miles, with a
pop.. (census 1910) 4,092,616. Most
of the inhabitants are Lutherans ; the
rest are chiefly Roman Catholics and
Jews. From 1685 to 1688 many
French refugees, Walloons, and inhab-
itants of Lorraine and of Palatinate,
settled here. It is now the most impor-
tant Prussian province, including as it



Brandes

does the capital (Berlin) , and the gov-
ernments of Potsdam and Frankfort.

Brandes, Georg, a Danish liter-
ary critic of Jewish family ; born in
Copenhagen, Feb. 4, 1842, where he
graduated at the university in 1864.
Several books on aesthetic and philoso-
phic subjects brought on him a charge
of skepticism which was not removed
by an epoch-making series of lectures,
delivered before large audiences. In
1882 he returned to Copenhagen,
his countrymen having guaranteed
him an income of 4,000 crowns,
with the one stipulation that he should
deliver public lectures on literature.

Branding, an ancient mode of
punishment by inflicting a mark on
an offender with a hot iron. It is gen-
erally disused under the English civil !
law, but is a recognized punishment
for some military offenses, as deser-
tion. It is not, however, now done by
a hot iron, but with ink, gunpowder,
or some other preparation, so as to be
visible, and not liable to be obliterated.
The mark is the letter " D," not less
than an inch in length, and is marked
on the left side two inches below the
armpit

Brandt, Sebastian, a German
author ; born in Strasburg, in 1458 ;
studied law and the classics with zeal
at Basel, where he received permis-
sion to teach ; and soon became one
of the most influential lecturers in
that city. The Emperor Maximilian
showed his regard for Brandt by ap-
pointing him an imperial councilor.
His fame rests wholly upon " The
Ship of Fools," a satire on the follies
and vices of the time (1494). Its
distinguishing note is its abounding
humor ; but it owed its great popular
success very largely to the clever j
woodcuts with which it was illustrat-
ed. He died in Strasburg in 1521.

Brandy, a spirit produced by the
distillation of both white and red
wines, and largely manufactured in
the United States.

Brandy wine Creek, in Pennsyl-
vania and Delaware, is formed of two !
forks, the E. and W., which effect a
junction in Chester county of the first
named State, and, taking a S. E.
course, empties into Christiana creek
at Wilmington. Here, Sept 11, 1777,



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