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name was afterward altered by King
Emanuel to that of Brazil, from the
red wood which the country produces.
The value of Brazil to Portugal con-
tinued steadily to increase after the
discovery of the gold mines in 1698,
and the discovery of the diamond mines
in 1728. Up to the year 1810 Brazil
had sent to Portugal 14,280 hundred-
weights of gold and 2,100 pounds of
diamonds, which foreign countries,
and especially Great Britain, at last
succeeded in purchasing at the Lisbon
market. Rio Janeiro now became the
mart for the proceeds of the Brazilian
mines and native productions. But
the administration was anything but
adapted to promote the prosperity of
the country. The attention of the gov-
ernment was turned almost exclusively
to the gold washings and to the work-
ing of the diamond mines ; and the
policy of the administration consisted
in the exaction of taxes and duties,
which were collected from the fortified
ports, to which trade was solely con-
fined. Foreigners were excluded or
jealously w itched, and trade was par-
alyzed by numerous restrictions. In
the interior, the lands situated on the
great rivers, after being surveyed,
were frequently presented, after the
year 1640, by the kings of the house
of Braganza. to the younger sons of
the Portuguese nobility, whom the sys-
tem of entails excluded from the pros-
pect of inheritance. These grantees
enlisted adventurers, purchased negro
slaves by thousands, and subjected the
original inhabitants or drove them
from their districts, and ruled their
dominions with almost unlimited sway.
The missions of the Jesuits also re-
ceived similar donations from the


On the invasion of Portugal in 1808
by the French, the sovereign of that
kingdom, John VI., sailed for Brazil,
accompanied by his court and a large
body of emigrants. Soon after arriv-
ing there he began to improve the con-
dition of the country by placing the ad-
ministration on a better footing, and
throwing open its ports to all nations.
On the fall of Bonaparte the king
raised Brazil to the rank of a kingdom,
and assumed the title of King of Por-
tugal, Algarve, and Brazil. The revo-
lution which took place in Portugal in

1820, compelled the king to return
to that country; he next year sailed
for Lisbon, leaving Pedro, his eldest
son and successor, as lieutenant and
regent. But as the Portuguese Cortes
was not willing to grant the entire
equality of civil and political relations
demanded by the Brazilians, and had
expressly declared that Brazil was to
be divided into governments, and ruled
by the ministry of State at Lisbon,
and the prince-regent was to be re-
called to Portugal such violent con-
vulsions were excited in Rio Janeiro
and various parts of Brazil, December,

1821, that it was explicitly declared to
the prince-regent that his departure
would be the signal for establishing an
independent republic. The prince,
therefore, resolved to remain in Bra-
zil, and gave a public explanation of
his reasons, Jan. 9, 1822, to his father,
to the Cortes in Portugal, and to the
people of Brazil. The Portuguese
troops were removed from Brazil. The
prince-regent assumed, May 13, 1822,
the title of " perpetual defender of
Brazil," and in June convened a Na-
tional Assembly, composed of 100 dep-
uties, to frame a separate constitution
for the country. The National Assem-
bly of Brazil declared the separation
of that country from Portugal, Aug.
1, 1822. and Oct. 12, appointed Dom
Pedro the constitutional Emperor of
Brazil. The new emperor retained, at
the same time, the title of " perpetual
defender of Brazil."

The king, after some slight and in-
effectual attempts to re-establish the
former relations between Portugal and
Brazil, acknowledged the independence
of the latter country in 1825. Some
years afterward a series of tumultuary
proceedings ended in the abdication of
Dom Pedro, who left Brazil on April

Brazilian Grass


7, 1831, leaving his son, who was un-
der age, as his successor. The rights
of the latter were recognized and pro-
tected, and a regency of three persons
appointed by the Chamber of Deputies
to conduct the government during his
minority. In 1840 the young emperor
was declared of age, being then in his
15th year, and was crowned on July
18, 1841. The new government had
considerable difficulty in crushing the
republican and revolutionary party,
which kept up a series of struggles in
several provinces for some years. In
1845 the insurgents had all laid down
their arms, but in 1848 a new rising
took place, which was put down not
without difficulty in the following
year. In 1851 a war broke out with
Rosas, dictator of Buenos Ayres, in
which Brazil was joined by Paraguay,
Uruguay, Corrientes, and Entre Rios,
and which ended in favor of the allies.
From this war Brazil received a cer-
tain impulse. The trade now in-
creased, the finances of the country
improved, and the government began
to further the development of the
country by constructing roads, encour-
aging immigration, and fostering the
education of the people. In 1853 the
Bank of Brazil was founded, and the
construction of railways began. In
1859 a minister for agriculture, com-
merce, and public work was appointed,
and a large government loan for the
construction of railways was author-
ized. In 1863, in consequence of the
arrest of three English naval officers,
a misunderstanding arose with Eng-
land, which led to the termination of
diplomatic relations for a time between
the two countries. Meanwhile (No-
vember, 18G4) hostilities had been
commenced by the Paraguayans under
President Lopez against Brazil, in
consequence of the interference of the
latter in the affairs of Uruguay; and
in May, 1865, an alliance for the pur-
pose of carrying on war against Par-
aguay was concluded between Brazil,
the Argentine Confederation, and Uru-
guay. This war, the brunt of which
had to be borne by Brazil, lasted till
1870, the Paraguayans having main-
tained a heroic resistance, and having
only given up the contest on the death
of their leader, Lopez, in battle against
the Brazilians (March 1, 1870). This
struggle was attended with an im-

mense expenditure of men and money
to Brazil, but it established her repu-
tation as a great power and secured
the freedom of the navigation of the
La Plata river system. For some
years after this a movement toward
greater freedom went on in Brazil. In
1888 it took the form of a total abol-
ition of slavery without compensation,
and in 1889 it received further devel-
opment in a revolution which over-
threw the monarchy. On Nov. 16 a
provisional government was formed,
the emperor with his family sailed for
Europe, and a new constitution pro-
claimed the Republic of the Federated
United States of Brazil. In 1893-94
an insurrection, confined chiefly to the
navy, was suppressed after some fight-
ing by Pres. Peixoto. In 1906 the
Third International Congress of Amer-
ican Republics assembled at Rio de
Janeiro, the object being to improve
in every way possible the relations
between North, Central, and South
American republics. Mr. Elihu Root,
Secretary of State, headed the delega-
tion from the U. S., and discussions
of the Monroe and Drago doctrines
were features of the Congress.

Brazilian Grass, an incorrect
popular name applied to a substance
used in the manufacture of a very
cheap kind of hats, known as Brazil-
ian grass hats.

Brazil Nuts, the seeds of a Bra-
zilian tree. The nuts or seeds are
largely exported from Para, whence
they are sometimes called Para nuts.

Brazil Tea, a tree the mate,
the leaves of which are used in South
America as a substitute for Chinese or
India tea.

Brazil Wood, a kind of wood
used for dyeing, and extensively im-
ported from the West Indies, Brazil,
and other tropical countries.

Brazing, the act of soldering to-
gether the surfaces of iron, copper,
brass, etc., with an alloy composed of
brass and zinc, sometimes with the ad-
dition of a little tin or silver.

Brazos, a large river of the United
States, in Texas, rising in the N. W.
part of the State, and flowing into the
Gulf of Mexico, after a course of 900
miles, 40 miles W. S. W. of Galves-
ton. During the rainy season, from
February to May inclusive, it is navi-



gable by steamboats for about 300

Breach, the aperture or passage
made in the wall of any fortified place
by the ordnance of the besiegers for !
the purpose of entering the fortress, j

Breach, in law, any violation of a '
law, or the non-performance of a duty
imposed by law.

Bread. In the earliest antiquity
we find the flour or meal of grain used
as food. Bread, as is well known, is
made from the flour or meal of the
cereals, Indian corn, millet, and rice
being principally used for the purpose
in the more S. countries, rye, barley, !
and oats in the more N., and wheat in
the intermediate and temperate re-
gions ; but other vegetable products,
such as beans, peas, lentils, turnips,
carrots, potatoes, and even the bark of
trees, are also sometimes employed <
either alone or mixed with the flour
of the cereals

Breadfruit. The breadfruit is ai
large, globular fruit of a pale-green


color, about the size of a child's head,
marked on the surface with irregular
Bix-sided depressions, and containing a
white and somewhat fibrous pulp,
which when ripe becomes juicy and
yellow. The tree that produces Jt
grows wild in Tahiti and other is-
lands of the South Seas. It is about
40 feet high, with large and spreading
branches, and has large bright green ;


leaves, deeply divided into seven or
nine spear-shaped lobes. The eatable
part of this fruit lies between the skin
and the core, and it is as white as
snow and somewhat of the consistence
of new bread. When gathered it is
generally used immediately ; if it be
kept more than 24 hours, it becomes
hard and choky. The inhabitants of
the South Sea Islands prepare it as
food by dividing the fruit into three
or four parts and roasting it in hot
embers. Its taste is insipid, with a
slight tartness.

As the climate of the South Sea Is-
lands is not very different from that
of the West Indies, it was thought de-
sirable that some of the trees should
be transferred in a growing state to
the British islands there ; and it was
for this purpose that the " Bounty "
sailed in 1787 to the South Seas, un-
der the command of the well-known
Bligh. This expedition being unsuc-
cessful, a second, also under Bligh,
was fitted out in 1791. He arrived in
safety at Tahiti, and after an ab-
sence from England of about 18
months, landed in Jamaica with 352
breadfruit trees in a living state, hav-
ing left many others at different places
in his passage thither. From Jamaica
these trees were transferred to other
islands; but the negroes, having a
general and long-established predilec-
tion for the plantain, the breadfruit
is not much relished by them. Where,
however, it has not been generally
introduced as an article of food, it is
used as a delicacy; and whether em-
ployed as bread or in the form of pud-
ding, it is considered highly palatable
by the white inhabitants.

Breakwater, a pier, wall, mole,
sunken hulk, or anything similar,
placed at the entrance of a harbor, at
the exposed part of an anchorage, or
in any such situation, with the view
of deadening the force of the waves
which roll in from the ocean. There
are several notable breakwaters in this
country one of the longest and most
notable being that in Lake Michigan,
protecting the harbor of the city of
Chicago. It is peculiar in its con-
struction, being built perpendicalarly
and encased with wooden beams. The
Delaware breakwater, in Delaware
Bay, is built with sloping sides, being
much broader at its base than on top.



Bream, the carp bream. It is of a
yellowish white color, which changes,
through age, to a yellowish brown.
The sides are golden, the cheeks and
gill covers silver white, the fins, light
colored, tinged, the ventral one with
red and others with brown. It is
found in deep waters and lakes. It
is sought after by anglers, who, how-
ever, consider the flesh insipid.

Breastwork, in fortification, a
hastily constructed parapet made of
material at hand, such as earth, logs,
rails, timber, and designed to protect
troops from the fire of an enemy. In
architecture, the parapet of a build-
ing. In shipbuilding, a railing or bal-
ustrade standing athwartships across
a deck, as on the forward end of the
quarter deck or roundhouse. The
beam supporting it is a breastbeam.

Breckinridge, Clifton B,., an
American legislator and diplomatist,
born in Lexington, Ky., Nov. 25, 1846 ;
received a public school education and
served in the Confederate army and
navy. After the war he attended
Washington College (now Washing-
ton and Lee University) for three
years, and engaged in mercantile busi-
ness in Pine Bluff, Ark. He was
elected to Congress in 1882 as Repre-
sentative-at-large. On July 19, 1894,
he was appointed United States Min-
ister to Russia, serving until 1897.

Breckinridge, or Breckenriclge,
John, an American statesman, born
in 1760. In 1795 he was made Attor-
ney-General of the new _State of Ken-
tucky, and he served in its Legislature
from 1797 to 1800. He entered the
United States Senate, in 1801, becom-
ing four years later Attorney-General
in Jefferson's cabinet, in which office
he died in 180&

Breckinridge, John Cahell,
Vice-President of the United States,
born near Lexington, Ky., Jan. 21,
1821 ; practiced law in Lexington un-
til 1847, when he was chosen major of
a volunteer regiment for the Mexican
War. He sat in Congress in 1851-
1855, and in 1856 was elected Vice-
President, with James Buchanan as
President. In 1860 he was the pro-
slavery candidate for the presidency,
but was defeated by Abraham Lin-
coln. A United States Senator from
March to December, 1861, he then en-

tered the Confederate army, was ap^
pointed a Major-General, in 1862, and
held some important commands during
the Civil War. He was Secretary of
War in Jefferson Davis' cabinet at the
close of the struggle, and escaped to
Europe, whence he returned in 1868.
He died in Lexington, May 17, 1875.

Breckinridge, Joseph Cahell,
an American military officer, born in
Baltimore, Md., Jan. 14, 1842; a
cousin of Gen. John C. Breckenridge
of the Confederate army. He prac-
ticed law in Danville, Ky., till the be-
ginning of the Civil War, when he
joined the Union army. He was made
a First Lieutenant in the Regular
army Aug. 1, 1863, a Captain in 1874,
Brigadier and Inspector-General in
1889, and Major-General of Volun-
teersj May 4, 1898. He served in the
Santiago campaign and had a horse
shot under him.

Breckinridge, Robert Jeffer-
son, a Presbyterian clergyman and
theological writer, born at CabelPs
Dale, Ky., March 8, 1800. He was
originally a lawyer. He was Presi-
dent of Jefferson College in 1845-
1847; from 1847 he was pastor at
Lexington, Ky. He was a leader in
the division of the Presbyterian Church
in 1837 into Old and New Schools.
He died in Danville, Ky., Dec. 27,

Breda, a town in Holland, Pro-
vince of North Brabant, at the conflu-
ence of the Merk and the Aa. Breda
was once a strong fortress and of
fereat military importance as a strat-
egical position. From the 16th to the
end of the 18th century Breda has an
interesting military history of sieges,
assaults and captures, with which the
names of the most famous generals of
their time, the Duke of Parma, Mau-
rice of Orange, the Marquis Spinola,
Dumouriez, and Pichegru, etc., are
connected. It was the residence for a
time of the exi^ Charles II. of Eng-
land, and it was in the Declaration of
Breda that he promised liberty of
conscience, a general amnesty, etc.,
on his restoration.

Breech, in firearms and ordnance,
the rear portion of a gun ; the portion
behind the chamber; in shipbuilding,
the outer angle of a knee timber; t*ie
inner angle is the throat.

Breeches Bible

Breeches Bible, a name given to
a Bible printed in 1579 ; and so called
from the reading of Gen. iii: 7:
" They sowed figge tree leaves together
and made themselves breeches."

Breech Loader, a firearm in
which the charge is introduced at the '
rear instead of at the muzzle.

Breech. Pin, in firearms, a plug
screwed into the rear end of a barrel, {
forming the bottom of the charge
chamber. Otherwise called a breech
plug or breech screw.

Breech Screw, in firearms, the
plug which closes the rear end of the
bore of a firearm barrel. The parts
are known as the plug, the face, the
tenon, the tang, and the tangscrew I

Breech Sight, the hinder sight of
a gun. In conjunction with the front i
sight, it serves to aim the gun at an

Breeding, the art of improving
races or breeds of domestic animals, |
or modifying them in certain direc-
tions, by continuous attention to their
pairing, in conjunction with a similar
attention to their feeding and general

No sooner had the Revolutionary
War closed than importations of im-
proved stock began. This was kept
up till the War of 1812 temporarily
checked it

Mr. Rommel says that the year 1817
will always be memorable in American
cattle history. In that year, follow-
ing the short-horn importations of
1812, came the beginning of the Devon
and Hereford importations, together
with still another arrival of short-
horns. Growth was slow up to 1827,
when there came renewed activity, es-
pecially in short-horns. Companies
were formed and the improvement of
cattle was marked. In point of num-
bers the shorthorn breed rapidly as-
sumed the foremost position, and till
about the year 3880 was the only beef
of prominence.

The expansion of the cattle business
was rapid. Up to the opening of the
Union Pacific railroad it was mainly
carried on in the part of the country
E. of the Missouri river. Then came
the discovery of the great opportuni-
ties offered by the far Western plains i
for grazing. The grrowth in tie cat- ,

tie raising industry was then abnor-
mal. " In the early eighties," says
Mr. Rommel, " pure-bred cattle by the
thousands were brought from England
to supplement the American herds in
breeding bulls for the range, and the
nearest that the Hereford and Angus
breeds ever came to having a boom in
this country was at this time. After
the collapse, which was bound to fol-
low, the cattle business is now on
what is thought to be a substantial
and healthy foundation.

Breed's Hill, a slight elevation in
the Charlestown district of Boston,
Mass., about 700 yards from Bunker
Hill. Although the famous engage-
ment of June 17, 1775, is known as
the Battle of Bunker Hill, most of the
fighting was done on Breed's Hill.
Here was located the American re-
doubt, against which the British made
their three historical charges, and here
Warren fell. The Bunker Hill monu-
ment stands on Breed's Hill.

Breitenf eld, a village of Saxony,
5 miles N. of Leipsic, remarkable for
three battles fought in its neighbor-
hood. In the first, fought on Sept 17
(old style, 7th), 1631, Gustavus Adol-
phus inflicted a decisive defeat upon
the imperialists under Tilly, who, as
well as his generals, Pappenheim and
Furstenberg, was wounded. The sec-
ond battle was also a victory of the
Swedes under Torstenson over the im-
perial forces under the Archduke Leo-
pold and Piccolomini, Nov. 2 (old
style, Oct 23), 1642. The third bat-
tle was one act of the great " Battle
of the Nations" at Leipsic, Oct 16,

Bremen, a free city of Germany,
an independent member of the Empire,
one of the three Hanse towns, on the
Weser, about 50 miles from its mouth,
in its own small territory of 99 square
miles, besides which it possesses the
port of Bremerhayen, at the mouth of
the river. The city is partly on the
right, partly on the left, bank of the
Weser, the larger portion being on the
former. Its situation renders Bremen
the emporium for Hanover, Bruns-
wick, Hesse, and other countries tra-
versed by the Weser, and next to Ham-
burg it is the principal seat of the ex-
port and import and emigration trade
of Germany. Only small vessels can
pass up to the city itself; the great


bulk of the shipping trade centers in
Bremerhaven and in Geestemunde.
Bremerhaven is now a place of (1910)
24,275 inhabitants, has docks capable
of receiving the largest vessels, and is
connected by railway with Bremen,
where the chief merchants and brokers
have their offices. The chief imports
are tobacco, raw cotton and cotton
goods, wool and woolen goods, rice,
coffee, grain, petroleum, etc., which
are chiefly re-exported to other parts
of Germany and the Continent. Ag-
gregate value of imports 1913, $622,-
825,000; of exports, $598,500,000.
Population of city (1910) 299,526.

Bremer, Fredrika, a Swedish
novelist, was born at Tuorla, Finland,
Aug. 17, 1801 ; was brought up at
Arsta, about 20 miles from Stockholm.
She varied her literary labor by long
journeys in Italy, England, the United
States, Greece, Palestine. She died in
Arsta, Dec. 31, 1865.

Brennns, the name of two individ-
uals known in history. (1) The first
was the hero of an early Roman leg-
end which relates to the migration of
the Gauls into Italy and their march
to Clusium and Rome. In the account
given by Livy, he figures as the Regu-
lus Gallorum, or chieftain of the
Gauls. When he' arrived at Clusium,
the inhabitants called on the Romans
for aid. He engaged with and de-
feated the Romans on the banks of the
Allia, the name of which river they
ever after held in detestation. The
whole city was afterward plundered
and burned, and the capitol would
have been taken but for the bravery
of Manlius. At last, induced by fam-
ine and pestilence, the Romans agreed
that the Gauls should receive 1,000
pounds of gold, on the condition that
they would quit Rome and its terri-
tory altogether; the barbarian
brought false weights, but his fraud
was detected. The tribune Sulpicius
exclaimed against the injustice of
Brennus, who immediately laid his
sword and belt on the scale, and said,
" Woe to the vanquished." The dicta-
tor, Camillus, arrived with his forces
at this critical time, annulled the ca-
pitulation, and ordered him to prepare
tor battle. The Gauls were defeated ;
there was a total slaughter, and not
a man survived to carry home the
news of the defeat. (2) A king of


the Gauls, who, B. c. 279, made an ir-
ruption into Macedonia with a force
of 150,000 men and 10,000 horses. Pro-
ceeding into Greece, he attempted to
plunder the temple at Delphi. He
engaged in many battles, lost many
thousand men, and himself received
many wounds.

Brent, Charles Henry, an Amer-
ican clergyman ; born in Newcastle,
Ontario, Canada, in 1862 ; was grad-
uated at the University of Trinity Col-
lege in 1884 ; ordained deacon in the
Protestant Episcopal Church in 1886,
priest in 1887 ; consecrated the first
bishop of the Protestant Episcopal
Church for the Philippine Islands in
December, 1901 ; declined the bishop-
ric of Washington, 1908, and of New
Jersey, 1914.

Brent Goose, a wild goose, smaller
than the common barnacle goose and
of much darker plumage, remarkable
for length of wing and extent of mi-
gratory power, being a winter bird of
passage in the United States, Can-
ada, etc. It breeds in high northern
latitudes ; it feeds on drifting seaweeds
and saline plants, and is considered
the most delicate for the table of all
the goose tribe.

Brescia, a city of Lombardy, North
Italy. Brescia is a place of consider-
able trade and manufacturing indus-
try. Near it are large iron-works,
and its firearms are esteemed the best
that are made in Italy. It has also
silk, linen, and paper factories, tan-
yards, and oil mills, and is an impor-
tant mart for raw silk. But_ it de-
rives its greatest interest from its fine
Roman remains, having been at one
time the seat of a Roman colony. In
1796 it was taken by the French, and
was assigned to Austria by the general
treaty signed at Vienna on June 9,.
1815. In 1849 it was involved in the
commotions of Continental Europe;
its streets were barricaded ; but the
city was eventually captured by the
Austrians under General Haynau. It
was ceded to Sardinia by the treaty
of Zurich in 1859. Pop. (1915) 89,-

Breslan, a large city of the Ger-
man empire, and the second in the
Prussian dominions, being excelled in
population only by the capital, Ber-

Online LibraryGeorge Jotham HagarThe New world encyclopedia; a library of reference (Volume 1) → online text (page 59 of 91)