George Jotham Hagar.

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post of chief-justice of Massachusetts,
but he soon after resigned the ap-
pointment. He published at this time
"Thoughts on Government, applicable
to the Present State of the American
Colonies," in which he supported self-
government by the different colonies
with confederation. He seconded the
motion for a declaration of independ-
ence proposed by Richard Henry Lee
of Virginia, and was appointed a mem-
ber of committee to draw it up, He


was a signer of the Declaration.
He was also appointed a member of the
Committee on Foreign Relations. He
was next appointed chairman of the
board of war and ordnance, a position
which he held for 18 months. Near
the end of 1777 he was sent to France
on a special mission, and for 10 years
he resided abroad as representative of
his country in France, Holland, and
England. He succeeded in negotiating
various loans with Holland, and after
taking part in the peace negotiations
was appointed, in 1785, the first min-
ister of the United States to the court
of St. James. He was recalled in 1788
and elected Vice-President of the re-
public under Washington. In 1790 he
published "Discourses on Davila," in
which he opposed the principles of the
French revolution. In 1792 he was
reflected Vice-President, and at the
following election he became President.
The country was then divided into two
parties, the Federalists, who favored
aristocratic and were suspected of
monarchic views, and the Republicans.
Adams adhered to the former party.
Hamilton did his utmost with his own
party to prevent the election of Ad-
ams, and his term of office proved a
stormy one, which broke up and dis-
solved the Federalist party. His re-
election was again opposed by Hamil-
ton, which ended in effecting the
return of the Republican candidate
Jefferson. Living to a great age he be-
came, as one of the last survivors of
the Revolution, a hero to the following
generation. In 1820 he became a mem-
ber of a State convention to revise the
constitution of Massachusetts. He died
July 4, 1826, on the 50th anniversary
of the Declaration of Independence,
and on the same day as Jefferson.
Adams's works were ably and care-
fully edited by his grandson Charles
Francis Adams.

Adams, John Quincy, 6th Presi-
dent of the United States, son of John
Adams, 2d President ; born in Brain-
tree, Mass., July 11, 1767. In his llth
year he accompanied his father on his
first embassy to France, and was
placed at school near Paris. He re-
turned with his father in about 18
months, but soon went back to Europe,
and attended school in Holland and at
the University of Leyden. At the age


of 15 Francis Dana, his father's secre-
tary of legation, who had been ap-
pointed on a diplomatic mission to
Russia, took him with him as his pri-
vate secretary. After 14 months' stay
in Russia he traveled back alone
through Sweden and Denmark to The
Hague. Soon after his father's ap-
pointment as ambassador at London
he returned home to complete his
studies. He graduated at Harvard in
1788, entered the office of Theophilus
Parsons, and in 1791 was admitted to
the bar. He now began to take an
active interest in politics. He wrote
a series of letters to the Boston "Sen-
tinel" under the signature of "Publi-
cola," in reply to Payne's "Rights of
Man," and in 1793 defended Washing-
ton's policy of neutrality under the
signature of "Marcellus." These let-
ters attracted attention, and in 1794
Washington appointed him minister to
The Hague. In 1798 he received a
commission to negotiate a treaty of
commerce with Sweden. On the acces-
sion of Jefferson to the presidency he
was recalled. The Federalist party
had still sufficient influence in Massa-
chusetts to elect him to the Senate in
1803. On the question of embargo, he
abandoned his party. Having lost his
reelection on this account, be immedi-
ately resigned his seat and retired to
the professorship of rhetoric at Har-
vard, which he held from 1806 to 1809.
On the accession of Madison he was
appointed (1809) ambassador to Rus-
sia. He assisted in negotiating the
peace of 1814 with England, and was
afterward appointed resident minister
at London. On the accession of Mon-
roe to the presidency he was offered
and accepted the post of Secretary of
State, and at the expiration of Mon-
roe's term of office he succeeded him
in the presidency (1825). In 1831 he
was returned to Congress by Massa-
chusetts,, and represented that State
till his death, Feb. 21, 1848.

Adams, Julius "Walker, an
American civil engineer, born in Bos-
ton, Mass., Oct. 18, 1812 ; took part of
the course at the United States Mili-
tary Academy ; was Colonel of the
G7th New York Volunteers in the Civil
War ; and was the pioneer engineer ol
the East River bridge. He died Dec.
13, 1899.



Adams, Maude, an American act-
ress, born at Salt Lake City, Nov. 11,
1872; daughter of an actress who was
leading woman of a stock company in
that city, under the stage name of Ad-
ams. At 16 years of age Miss Adams
joined B. H. Sothern's company in the
" Midnight Bell ; " afterward she was I
in Charles Frohman's stock company,
and later supported John Drew. She
made a great success in J. M. Barrie's
" Little Minister " in 1899-1900.

Adams, Oscar Fay, an American
compiler and miscellaneous writer,
born in Worcester, Mass.

Adams, Samuel, an American
statesman and Revolutionary patriot,
born at Boston, Mass., in 1722. He
was elected to the Massachusetts legis-
lature in 1765, was a delegate to the
first Continental Congress in Philadel-
phia, and a signer of the Declaration!
of Independence. He was active ^in:
framing the constitution of his native j
state, which he served as President!
of the Senate, Lieutenant-Governor !
(1789-1794), and Governor (1794-!
1797). He was zealous for popular
rights, and fearless in his opposition to
monarchism. He died in 1803.

Adams, Sarah Flower, an Eng-
lish hymn-writer ; born at Great Har-
low, Essex, Feb. 22, 1805. In 1834
she was married to William Bridges
Adams, a noted inventor. She wrote
many lyrics and hymns, the most pop-
ular of which is " Nearer, My God, to
Thee." She died in August, 184&

Adams, "William Taylor, an
American author and editor, best
known by the pseudonym " Oliver Op-
tic ; " born July 30, 1822. He was a
voluminous and highly popular writer
of fiction for young readers, his works
including several series of travel and
adventure. He died March 27, 1897.
' Addams, Jane, an American phi-
lanthropist, born in Cedarville, 111.,
Sept. 6, 1860. She was graduated at
Rockford College in 1881, and after
post-graduate studies in Europe and
the United States, became an active
social reformer. She inaugurated in
1889 the establishment known as Hull
House, an adaptation of the " social
settlement " plan to Chicago condi-
tions. She has acted as street clean-
ing inspector in Chicago, and has lec-

tured on the improvement of the con-
dition of the poor in great cities. In
1909 she became president of the Na-
tional Conference on Charities and
Correction, and in 1917 was chairman
of the Woman's Peace Party. Notable
publications : "Democracy and Social
Ethics" (1902), and "A New Con-
science and an Ancient Evil" (1911).

Addison, Joseph, an English es-
sayist, son of the Rev. Lancelot Addi-
son, subsequently dean of Lichfield ;
born at his father's rectory, Milston,
Wiltshire, May 1, 1672. Died at Hol-
land House, June 17, 1719. He was
one of England's greatest writers.

Beside the independent efforts of his
own he aspired to be a judge and cen-
sor of the literary productions of oth-
ers, and he was, perhaps, beyond any
man of his day, well qualified for the
task. Certainly his judgments had
less force and perhaps less depth than
Johnson's, but they had much more
breadth, harmony, and completeness,
were woven with more art into a sys-
tem depending on theoretical princi-
ples, and were delivered with a grace
and eloquence of which the oracular
moralist was no master. If his system
was somewhat shallow, it had probably
the merit of directing attention more
to criticism, and preparing the way
for better and more philosophic stan-
dards of appreciation. Addison was
buried in Westminster Abbey.

Ade, George, an American jour-
nalist and author, born in Kentland,
Ind., Feb. 9, 1866. He has published
ftbles, etc., and is a popular writer.

Adee, Alvey Augustus, Second
Assistant Secretary of State of the
United States since 1886, born in As-
toria, N. Y., Nov. 27, 1842 ; appointed
Secretary of Legation at Madrid,
1870; Chief of Diplomatic Bureau,
1878; Third Assistant Secretary of
State, 1882; Second Assistant Secre-
tary of State, 1886. Appointed Secre-
tary of State ad interim to fill vacan-
cy, Sept. 17 to Sept. 29, 1898; was
acting Secretary of State during a
critical period of the Chinese troubles
in Aug. and Sept. 1900.

Adelsberg, a town of Austria-
Hungary, remarkable for stalactical
caves in its vicinity. The principal


one, in the mouth of which the Poik
disappears in a vast chasm, extends to
the distance of two or three miles, and
is found to terminate in a lake. After
proceeding 200 yards into it a vast
gloomy space, called the Dome, form-
ing a hall 3*00 feet long by 100 feet
high, is entered. The river is heard
rushing below, and on crossing it by a
wooden bridge and ascending a flight
of steps cut in the rock, a series of
lofty halls, supported by gigantic con-
cretions resembling lofty Gothic col-
umns, and apparently filled with stat-
ues of exquisite whiteness and delicacy,
meets the view.

Adelnng, Joliann Christoph, a
German philologist and lexicographer ;
born in Spantekow, Aug. 8, 1732. His
life was devoted to an exhaustive in-
vestigation of his native language,
which he traced to its remotest origins
with a patience and a thoroughness
that have remained unsurpassed. He
died in Dresden, Sept. 10, 1806.

Aden, a peninsula and town be-
longing to Great Britain, on the S. W.
coast of Arabia, 105 miles E. of the
strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, the entrance
to the Red Sea. The peninsula is a
mass of volcanic rocks, 5 miles long
from E. to W., and rising to 1,776
feet. It is joined to the mainland by
a narrow, level, and sandy isthmus.
The town is on the eastern shore of the
peninsula, stands in the crater of an
extinct volcano, and is surrounded by
barren, cinder-like rocks. Frequently
the heat is intense ; but the very dry,
hot climate, though depressing, is un-
usually healthy for the tropics. It has
a garrison and strong fortifications,
and a population of over 41,000.

Adirondack Mountains, the
highest range in New York State,
covering an area of about 12,500
square miles, and occupying parts
of Clinton, Essex, Franklin, and
Hamilton counties. These mountains,
the geological formation of which are
chiefly granite, run in five parallel
ranges; the highest range, or Adiron-
dack proper, is on the E. side of the
district, and the peaks rise to a great
height Mt. Marcy is 5,345 feet ; Gray
peak, 4,900 feet; White Face, 4,870
feet, etc. This whole district, some-
times called the Adirondack Wilder-
ness, is covered with dense forests, ex-


cept the tallest peaks, and some of
these forests are still unexplored. The
1,000 lakes in the valleys beautifully
diversify the scenery.

Adirondack Park, a large district
principally forest land, set apart by
the State of New York, in 1892, for
the protection of the watershed of the
Hudson and other rivers of the State,
for public recreation, and for the prac-
tical study of forestry. It covers
Hamilton county, and parts of Essex,
Franklin, Herkimer and St. Lawrence
counties, and contains many moun-
tains and lakes. Area, 4,387 square

Adjutant, in military language, in
the United States army, an officer se-
lected by the colonel, whose duties in
respect to his regiment are similar to
those of an adjutant general with an
army. Adjutant general : the principal
organ of the commander of an army in
publishing orders. The same organ of
the commander of a corps, or depart-
ment, is styled assistant adjutant gen-
eral. The adjutant general has charge
of the drill and discipline of the army.

Adjutant Bird, a large grallato-
rial or wading bird of Asia belonging
to the stork family.

Adler, Felix, an American lecturer
and scholar, born at Alzey, Germany,
1851. The son of an eminent Jewish
rabbi, he emigrated when young to the
United States, where, and at Berlin
and Heidelberg, he was educated. Af-
ter being for some time professor at
Cornell University, he founded in New
York (1876) the Society of Ethical
Culture, of which he is lecturer. Sim-
ilar societies have been established
elsewhere in the United States and in
other countries. He is an effective
writer and speaker. He has published
"Creed and Deed" (1878); "The
Moral Instruction of Children "
( 1892) . In June, 1902, he was called
to the newly-created professorship of
social and political thics in the de-
partment of philosophy in Columbia

Adler, Hermann, a German writ-
er, born in Hanover, May 29, 1839.
He has lived most of his life in Eng-
land, having been, since 1891, Chief
Rabbi of the British Empire.

Administration, in law, the man-
agement of the personal estate of any-


one dying intestate, or without an
executor. The word is also applied to
the official terms of the President of
the United States, and the Governors
of States, mayors, etc., and to their
official advisers.

Admiral, the title of the highest
rank of naval officer. In 1917 the
United States navy had on the active
list one admiral and twenty-four rear-
admirals and on the retired list
seventy-four rear-admirals. After the j
declaration of war against the Im- |
perial German Government many re- j
tired rear-admirals were recalled to
active service.

Admiralty Island, a mountain-
ous island, 90 miles long, off the W.
coast of Alaska, to the N. E. of Sitka ;
belongs to the United States.

Admiralty Islands, a group of
40 islands, to the N.E. of New Guinea ;
Basco, the largest of them, being 60
miles in length, and is mountainous,
but fruitful. The total area of the
islands is 878 square miles. Together
with New Britain and some adjoining
groups, they were annexed by Ger-
many, in 1885, and now form part of
the Bismarck Archipelago.

Adobe, the name given in south-
western America to sun-dried bricks,
and the structures built of them.

Adonai, a Hebrew name for the
Supreme Being; a plural form of
Adon, "lord," combined with the pro-
noun of the first person. In reading
the Scriptures aloud, the Jews pro-
nounce "Adonai" wherever the old
name "Jhvh" is found in the text,
and the name Jehovah has risen out
of the consonants of "Jhvh," with the
vowel points of Adonai.

Adonis, a pheasant's eye. A genus
of plants so called because the red
color of the species made them look as
if they had been stained by the blood
of Adonis. It is a beautiful plant,
with bright, scarlet flowers, and hav-
ing very markedly composite leaves,
with linear segments. Plants of this
genus are easily cultivated.

Adoption, the act of taking a
stranger into one's family, as a son or
daughter; or the taking of a person, a
society, etc., into more intimate rela-
tions than formerly existed with an-
other person or society ; or the taking

Adrian IV.

as one's own, with or without acknow-
ledgment, an opinion, plan, etc., orig-
inating with another ; also the selecting
one from several courses open to a
person's choice.

Adrian, or Hadrian, Publins
JElins, a Roman emperor, born at
Rome, 76 A. D. Entering the army
quite young, he became tribune of a
legion, and married Sabina, the heiress
of Trajan, whom he accompanied on
his expeditions, and became successive-
ly praetor, governor of Pannonia, and
consul. On Trajan's death, in 117, he
assumed the government, made peace
with the Persians, and remitted the
debts of the Roman people. In his
reign, the Christians underwent a
dreadful persecution. He built a tem-
ple to Jupiter, on Mount Calvary, and
placed a statue of Adonis in the
manger of Bethlehem ; he also had im-
ages of swine engraved on the gates
of Jerusalem, all of which acts indi-
cate a contempt for Christianity. Ad-
rian died at Baiae, in 139.

Adrian I., Pope, born at Rome;
succeeded Stephen III. in 772. Adrian
died after a pontificate of nearly 24
years, 795.

Adrian II., born at Rome; suc-
ceeded Nicholas I. in the papal chair
in 867. He had been married, and
had a daughter by his wife Stephania,
from whom he afterward separated in
order to live in celibacy. During the
pontificate of Adrian, Photius, Patri-
arch of Constantinople, withdrew from
the Church of Rome, from which time
the schism between the Greek and
Latin Churches dates, which continues
to this day. Adrian died in 872, and
was succeeded by John VIII.

Adrian IV., the only Englishman
who was ever raised to the dignity of
the papal chair, succeeded Anastasiua
IV. in 1154. His name was Nicholas
Breakespere; and for some time he
filled a mean situation in the monas-
tery of St. Albans. Being refused the
habit in that house, he went to France,
and became a clerk in the monastery
of St. Rufus, of which he was after-
ward chosen abbot. Eugenius III.
created him cardinal, in 1146, and, in
1148, made him legate to Denmark
and Norway, which nations he con*
verted to the Christian faith. When
nominated pope, he granted to Henry


1 1. a bull for the conquest of Ireland.
In 1155, be excommunicated tbe King
of Sicily; and, about the same time,
the Emperor Frederic, meeting him
near Sutinam, held his stirrup while
he mounted his horse. Adrian took
the Emperor with him, and conse-
crated him King of the Romans, in
St. Peter's church. The next year the
King of Sicily submitted, and was ab-
solved. Died, supposed of poison, in

Adrianople, the third city in what
was European Turkey, on the naviga-
ble Maritza (ancient Hebrus), 198
miles by rail W. N. W. of Constanti-
nople ; pop. over 80,000. The city was
the seat of the Ottoman sultanate in
1366-1453, and contains the most mag-
nificent Moslem temple extant that
of the Sultan Selim. It has been con-
spicuous in warfare several times. See
APPENDIX: World War.

Adriatic Sea, a large arm of the
Mediterranean Sea, extending, in a
N. W. direction, between the E. coast
of Italy and the W. coast of the Bal-
kan peninsula.

Adulteration, a term applied to
the fraudulent mixture of articles of
commerce, food, drink, drugs, seeds,
&c., with noxious or inferior ingre-
dients. The chief objects of adultera-
tion are to increase the weight or vol-
ume of the article, to give a color
which either makes a good article more
pleasing to the eye or else disguises
an inferior one, to substitute a cheap-
er form of the article, or the same
Bubtances from which the strength has
been extracted, or to give it false
strength. Laws against the practice
have existed since the 13th century;
it is forbidden in civilized countries.

Advent, a term applied to cer-
tain weeks before Christmas. An-
ciently, the season of Advent con-
sisted of six weeks, and this is
still the duration of it in the
Greek Church. In the Roman Cath-
olic Church, however, and in the
Protestant Churches that observe Ad-
vent, it only lasts four weeks, begin-
ning with the Sunday nearest St. An-
drew's Day (Nov. 30), either before
or after.

Adventists, a sect in the United
States, founded by William Miller,
ind sometimes called Millerites, which

believed that Christ's second coming
would occur in October, 1843. When
their hopes were not realized, the num-
ber of believers decreased. The Ad-
ventists still look with certainty for
the coming of Christ, but not at a
fixed time. They are now divided into
the following bodies : Evangelical, Ad-
vent Christian, Seventh Day, Church
of God, Life and Advent Union, and
Churches of God in Jesus Christ. The
following table gives a summary of the
various Adventist Churches in the
United States as reported in 1916 in
the "Bulletin of Church Statistics" for
the previous year :


Minis- itiuni-

Denominations ters Churches cants

1. Evangelical 8 18 481

2. Advent Christian. 566 637 28,990

3. Seventh Day 552 1,987 73,343

4. Church of God... 34 22 800
6. Life and Advent

Union 12 12 509

6. Churches of God

in Jesus Christ. 61 66 2,224

Total Adventists.. 1,233 2,742 106,347

Advocate. (1) Originally one
whose aid was called in or invoked;
one who helped in any business mat-
ter; (2) In law, at first, one who
gave his legal aid in a case, without,
however, pleading.

Now, in English and American law,
one who pleads a cause in any court,
civil or criminal. It is not, properly
speaking, a technical word, but is used
only in a popular sense, as synony-
mous with barrister or counsel.

In the army the judge-advocate is
the officer through whom prosecutions
before courts-martial are conducted.
There is also a judge-advocate-general
for the army at large.

.ZEdile, in ancient Rome magis-

i trates who had charge of public and

I private buildings, of .aqueducts, roads.

I sewers, weights, measures, the national

worship, and, specially when there

were no censors, public morality.

.ZEgean Sea, the old name of the
gulf between Asia Minor and Greece,
now usually called the Grecian Archi-
| pelago.

.Xgina, a Greek island about 40
i square miles in area, in the Gulf of


JEgis, the shield of Zeus, which had
been fashioned by Hephaestus (Vul-
can). It was the symbol of divine

JEneas, a Trojan prince, the hero
of Virgil's great epic.

JEneid, one of the great epic poems
of the world. It was written in Latin
by Virgil, and published after his
death, which took place about 16 B. c.

JEolian Harp, a harp played by
yEolus in other words, by the wind.
It is made by stretching strings of cat-
gut over a wooden sound-box.

-?olus, the god ef the winds, who
was fabied by the early poets to have
his seat in the floating island of
^Colia ; but the Latin and later Greek
poets placed him in the Lipari isles.

JEpinns, Francis Maria Tllric
Theodore, a distinguished electrician,
who was the first to see the affinity
between magnetism and electricity in
its full extent. Born at Rostock, Ger-
many, in 1724 ; died at Dorpat, in Li-
vonia, in 1802.

Aerodynamics, the science which
treats of the force exerted by air when
in motion.

Aeronautics, the art of aerial
navigation by ballooning and aviation.
Ballooning involves the use of a bag-
like receptacle which is made in vari-
ous shapes, of silk or other material,
rendered impervious by a coating of
rubber, linseed oil or suitable varnish,
and inflated with hydrogen, coal-gas,
or other gaseous matter, specifically
lighter than air. Aviation discards
anything in the shape of a balloon
and utilizes aeroplanes or lifting and
sustaining surfaces, with apparatus
heavier than air. Aerostation or
aerostatics, the science of weighing
air, has, somewhat erroneously become
a synonym for aeronautics.

The first form in which the idea of
aerial locomotion, naturally suggested
itself was that of providing men with
wings, and the myths of Daedalus and
Icarus show that the attempts of man
to soar above the earth commenced in
prehistoric times. A wooden pigeon
which sustained itself in the air for a
few minutes is recorded as having
been invented by Archytas of Taren-
tum, 400 years B. c. Suetonius states
that Simon Magus was killed in Rome

during the reign of Nero by attempt-
ing to fly from one house to another.
Friar Roger Bacon (1214-94) con-
structed a machine consisting of a
pair of hollow copper globes, ex-
hausted of air, which could rise in the
air supporting a man seated on a
chair. In the 13th century, Elmerus,
a monk, is said to have flown more
than a furlong from the top of a tower
in Spain. Father Francesco Lana
(1631-87), an Italian physicist, de-
scribes an ingenious but impracticable
flying machine. Giovanna Batista
Dante, a mathematician of Perugia,
made several flights above Lake
Thrasimene by means of artificial
wings attached to the body, near the
close of the 15th century, but dis-
continued them after an accident. In
the 17th century, Besnier, a locksmith
of Sable, France, prudently began to
laap from one story windows, and at
last ventured safely on flights from ele-
vated positions, passing over houses,
and over rivers of considerable breadth,

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