George Jotham Hagar.

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| bumen, and this symptom is followed
by other complications, usually in
rapid sequence. The most commonly
observed pathological effects are drop-
sy, uraemia, and, in some cases, petri-
fication of the kidneys and ureters.

Brindaban, or Brindrahan, a
town of the Northwest Provinces,
British India ; on the right bank of
the Jumna, 6 miles N. of Muttra. It
is one of the holiest cities of the Hin-
dus, and crowds of pilgrims go there
from all parts of India.

Brindisi, (ancient BRUNDUSIUM),
a seaport and fortified town, Province
of Lecce, Southern Italy, on the Adri-
atic. In ancient times Brundusium
was an important city, and with its
excellent port became a considerable
naval station of the Romans. Its im-


portance as a seaport declined in the
Middle Ages, but it has recently be-
come an important torpedo station.

Brindley, James, an English civil
engineer, born in 1716. After distin-
guishing himself by the contrivance of
water engines and other mechanical
apparatus, he became known to the
Duke of Bridgewater, then planning
his great scheme of inland navigation
for connecting Liverpool and Manches-
ter by means of a canal, and after al-
most insuperable difficulties, the suc-
cess of this bold attempt was triumph-
antly established. In 1766 Brindley
commenced the formation of the Grand
Trunk Canal, uniting the rivers Trent
and Mersey ; which undertaking was
completed after his death (1772), in

Brine, water saturated with com-
mon salt. It is naturally produced in
many places beneath the surface of the
earth, and is also made artificially, for
preserving meat, a little saltpetre
being generally added to the solution.

Brine Shrimp, the only animal,
except a species of fly, which lives in
the Great Salt Lake of Utah. It is a
phyllopod crustacean, with stalked
eyes, a delicate, slender body, which is
provided with 11 pairs of broad, pad-
dle-like or leaf-like feet. It is about
% of an inch long. Similar forms
live in brine vats in various parts of
the world.

Brinton, Daniel Garrison, an
American surgeon, archaeologist and
ethnologist, born at Thornbury, Pa.,
May 13, 1837. During the Civil War
he was a surgeon in the Union army.
From 1867 to 1887 he was editor of
the " Medical and Surgical Reporter."
He was a high authority on all Amer-
ican archaeological topics. He died in
Atlantic City, N. J., July 31, 1899.

Briquette, the name, originally
French ("small brick"), given to a
comparatively new form of fuel, made
mostly from waste coal dust, and used,
not merely for household purposes, but
in various industries. A briquette is
simply an admixture of coal dust with
pitch, molded under pressure and heat,
the pitch or some similar substance
being introduced to form the cement-
ing material.

Brisbane, the capital, a seaport
and chief seat of trade of Queensland,


Australia, situated about 500 miles N.
of Sydney, in Moreton District. It
stands about 25 miles from the mouth
of a river of its own name, which falls
into Moreton Bay, and it is divided
into the four divisions of North Bris-
bane, South Brisbane, Kangaroo Point,
and Fortitude Valley. Pop. of por-
tions within a 10-mile radius (1914)

Brisson, Eugene Henri, a French
politician and journalist, born in
Bourges, July 31, 1835. He entered
the Chamber of Deputies, in 1871, and
won much attention by urging am-
nesty, for the Communists and other
political offenders. Afterward he was
one of the foremost members of the
Radical Party. He was elected Presi-
dent of the Chamber, in 1881, and re-
tained that office until the overthrow of
the Ferry ministry in 1885, when he
accepted the Premiership. He was re-
elected to the Presidency of the Cham-
ber in 1894, and, in 1895, retired and
was a conspicuous candidate for the
Presidency of France. He died April
14 1912

Brissbt de Warville, Jean
Pierre, a French political writer;
born in 1754. Embracing the Revolu-
tion, he was elected to the National
Assembly for Paris and to the Con-
vention for the Department of the
Eure et Loir. As leader of the Giron-
dist party, his history belongs hence-
forward to the history of France. He
voted, out of policy, for the death of
Louis XVI., subject to confirmation
by the vote of the people ; and he
caused war to be declared against
Holland and England in February,
1793. This was his last political act.
He was executed in Paris, Oct. 30,

Bristles, the strong hairs growing
on the back of the hog and wild boar,
and extensively used in the manufao
ture of brushes, and also by shoemak-
ers and saddlers.

Bristol, a cathedral city of En-
gland, a municipal and a parliamentary
borough, situated partly in Gloucester-
shire, partly in Somersetshire, but
forming a county in itself. It stands
at the confluence of the rivers Avon
and Frome, which unite within the
city, whence the combined stream (the
Avon) pursues a course of nearly 7
miles to the Bristol Channel. Th

Bristol Bay

British Empire

Avon is a navigable river, and the
tides rise in it to a great height. Se-
bastian Cabot, Chatterton, and Sou-
they were natives of Bristol. Pop.
(1911) 357,048.

Bristol Bay, an arm of Bering
Sea immediately N. of Alaska.

Bristol Channel, an arm of the
Atlantic, extending between the S.
shores of Wales and the S. W. penin-
sula of England, and forming the con-
tinuation of the estuary of the Severn.
It is remarkable for its high tides.

Bristow, Benjamin Helm, an
American lawyer, born in Elkton, Ky.,
June 20, 1832. He was admitted to
the bar in Kentucky in 1853. He
served with distinction in the Civil
War, and at its close was appointed
United States District Attorney of
Kentucky. In 1874 he became Secre-
tary of the Treasury, and made his
name memorable by the exposure and
prosecution of a notorious whiskey
ring. He died in New York city, June
22, 1896.

Bristow Station (old form, now
Bristoe), a village in Prince William
Co., Va. ; 4 miles S. W. of Manassas
Junction. On Aug. 27, 1862, a drawn
battle took place here between the
Federal army under General Hooker,
and a Confederate one under General
Early, and on Oct. 14, 1863, the Fed-
eral troops under General Warren re-
pulsed with severe loss a Confederate
attack under Gen. A. P. Hill.

Brittannia, the name applied by
Caesar and other Roman writers to the
island of Great Britain.

Britannia Metal, an alloy of
brass, tin, antimony, and bismuth, used
to make cheap spoons, teapots, etc.

Brittany. See BEETAGNE.

British Association for the
Advancement of Science, a society
first organized in 1831, mainly through
the exertions of Sir David Brewster,
whose object is to assist the progress
of discovery, and to disseminate the
latest results of scientific research, by
bringing together men eminent in all
the several departments of science.

British Central Africa Protec-
torate, The, former name (since 1907
the Nyassaland Protectorate) of the
part of British Central Africa border-
ing the shores of Lake Nyassa. It in-
cludes all British Nyassaland, as well

as the Shire Highlands, and the great*
er part of the basin of the river Shire.
Thp area of the Protectorate is about
39,315 square miles ; the European in-
habitants number about 831, and the
native inhabitants are about 1,088,000.

British Columbia, a Province
(including Vancouver Island) of the
Dominion of Canada, bounded on the
N. by the 60th parallel of lat. ; E. by
the Rocky Mountains ; S. by the
United States ; and W. by Alaska, the
Pacific Ocean, and Queen Charlotte's
Sound ; area, 355,855 square miles ;
pop. (1911) 392,480 ; capital, Victoria.

It is to its mineral wealth that
British Columbia owes its present im-
portance. Gold was discovered in
1857, and was the cause of the estab-
lishment of the separate colony. In
1897 the disclosing of the phenomenal
gold field in the Klondike region led
to great excitement throughput both
Canada and the U. S., and since gold
mines have been worked extensively
at Rossland. Branch lines of the Can-
adian Pacific and the U. S. Great
Northern railroads have opened up
rich mineral, farming, and fruit-grow-
ing districts.

This Province has probably the
richest fisheries in the world, the only
obstacle to their rapid development
being their remoteness from the con-
sumers. Salmon is the principal
catch, and is famous all over the
world. British Columbia was origin-
ally a portion of the Hudson Bay Ter-
ritory, and known as New Caledonia*
In 1858 it was created a colony ; in
1866 the colony of Vancouver Island
was united to it ; and in 1871 the
united colony was admitted to the
Dominion of Canada.

British East Africa, a territory
of East Africa, between former Ger-
man East Africa and the Italian pro-
tectorate of Somalila-nd. In 1916, it
comprised the protectorates of Nyns-
aland (39,573 sq. m., pop. 1,139.900,
capital, Zomba) ; East Africa (248,-
000 sq. m., pop. est. 4,000.000, capi-
tal, Mombasa) ; Uganda (109,119 sq.
m., pop. 2,927,494, capital, Entebbe) ;
Zanzibar (1,020 sq. m., pop. 197.199,
capital, Zanzibar) ; and Somaliland
(68,000 sq. m., pop. 300,000, capital,

British Empire, The. Britain,
or rather Britannica, was the name

British Empire

British Empire

which was given by the Romans to
modern England and Scotland. The
name Great Britain was applied to
England and Scotland after James I.
ascended the English throne in 1603.

Extent of Empire. The European
dominions of the British empire com-
prise in addition to Great Britain,
Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the
Channel Islands the rocky promon-
tory of Gibraltar, captured from Spain
in 1704; and Malta, Gozo, and ad-
jacent islets, ceded to Great Britain
in 1800. The most important of the
Asiatic possessions of Great Britain
is India, acquired gradually since the
incorporation of the East India Com-
pany in 1600, and especially during the
great struggle with France in the 18th
century. Great Britain also possesses
Ceylon, acquired by conquest from the
Dutch and from native rulers in 1796-
1815; the Straits Settlements of Sin-
gapore (ceded in 1824), Penang
(1786), Wellesley Province (1800),
and Malacca (1824), on which are de-
pendent various native States of the
Malay peninsula ; the island of Hong-
Kong (taken in 1841) and territory
on the adjacent mainland ; portions of
the islands of Borneo, namely British
North Borneo (company chartered in
1881), to which is attached the island
of Labuan (ceded 1846), the sultan-
ate of Brunei, and Sarawak (practi-
cally British since 1842) ; Aden
(1839), the island of Perim, the Koo-
ria Mooria Islands, and the Bahrein
Islands. Cyprus, though belonging to
Turkey, has since 1878 been adminis-
tered by Great Britain. In Africa
Great Britain owns Cape Colony,
gradually developed since its final ac-
quirement in 1806, and including Wal-
fisch bay; Basutoland (British since
1868) ; the Bechuanaland Protector-
ate (acquired in 1884) ; Natal (pro-
claimed British in 1843), to which are
now annexed Zululand, and Tonga-
land (acquired in 1887) ; Rhodesia,
including Matabeleland, Mashonaland,
Barotseland, etc., recently begun to be
developed by the British South Africa
Company; the Central Africa Protec-
torate (acquired in 1889-1890, and
proclaimed a protectorate in 1891) ;
the West African Colonies; namely,
Gambia (recognized as British in
1783), the Gold Coast (partly ac-
quired in the 17th century), Sierra

Leone (ceded 1787 ) ? and Lagos, with
dependencies (occupied in 1861) ; Ni-
geria, including the Niger Coast Pro -
tectorate (1884) and the territories!
formerly administered by the Royal
Niger Company (chartered in 1886) ;
the East Africa Protectorate, pro-
claimed in 1895 over territories pre-
viously under the Imperial British
East Africa Company (chartered
1888) ; the Uganda Protectorate, now
including also Unyoro, Usoga, etc.
(proclaimed in 1894) ; the Zanzibar
Protectorate, consisting of the islands
of Zanzibar and Pemba (under the
protection of Great Britain since
1890) ; the Somali Coast Protectorate
(acquired in 1884) ; the islands of
Mauritius (taken from France in
1810), with its dependencies the Sey-
chelles, etc. ; the island of Socotra
(1886) ; and the Atlantic islands, St.
Helena (1651), Ascension (1815),
and Tristan d'Acunha (1816). Be-
sides Great Britain virtually rules
Egypt and the reconquered Egyptian
Sudan (1898), though the former is
nominally part of the Ottoman em-
pire ; and, since the South African
War, the former territories of the
Orange Free State, and the Transvaal.
Her possessions in the New World
comprise the Dominion of Canada,
most of which was obtained from
France by conquest and treaty be-
tween 1713 and 1763; the island of
Newfoundland, the oldest English col-
ony (discovered by John Cabot in
1497), with its dependency Labrador;
British Honduras (1783) ; the Bermu-
das Islands (1609) ; the West Indian
Islands, namely, Jamaica (1655), the
Bahamas (1629), several of the Lee-
ward Islands (Antigua, St. Christo-
pher, Dominica, etc.), the Windward
Islands (Barbados, St. Lucia, St.
Vincent, Grenada, the Grenadines, To-
bago, etc.), and Trinidad (1797);
British Guiana (1814) ; and the
Falkland Islands (organized 1833)
and South Georgia. The British em-
pire in Australasia includes Australia
(explored and settled from the latter
part of the 18th century onward) ;
Tasmania (settled by Englishmen in
1803) ; New Zealand (begun to be
colonized in 1839) ; a portion of New
Guinea (1884) ; the Fiji Islands
(1874) ; and many small islands U)
the PacifiCt

British Museum


Early results of the World War ac-
cruing to Great Britain include the
establishment of a protectorate over
Egypt, Dec. 19, 1914, and the occupa-
tion of German Togoland, Aug. 27,
1914 ; German Samoa, Aug. 29, 1914 ;
German New Guinea, Sept. 11, 1914 ;
German Southwest Africa, July 8,
1915 ; and the German Kamerun col-
ony, in February, 1916.

British Museum, the great na-
tional museum in London, owes its
foundation to Sir Hans Sloane, who,
in 1753, bequeathed his various collec-
tions, including 50,000 books and
MSS., to the nation, on condition
of $100,000 being paid to his heirs.
The British Museum is under the
management of 48 trustees, among the
chief being the Archbishop of Can-
terbury, the Lord-Chancellor, and the
Speaker of the House of Commons.
The museum is open daily, free of
charge. Admission to the reading-
room as a regular reader is by ticket,
procurable on application to the chief
librarian, there being certain simple
-conditions attached. The institution
contains something like 2,000,000
volumes in the department of printed
books. A copy of every book, pam-
phlet, newspaper, piece of music, etc.,
published anywhere in British terri-
tory, must be conveyed free of charge
to the museum.

British South Africa Com-
pany, a corporation founded in 1889,
with a royal charter, by Cecil Rhodes
and others, for the purpose of con-
trolling, settling, administering and
opening up by railways and telegraphs,
etc., certain territories in Central
South Africa. Mashonaland was first
settled, and, in 1893, Matabeleland
was annexed and settled after the de-
feat of King Lobengula. In 1895,
North Zambezia, in British Central
Africa, was added, as well as a strip
of territory in the Bechuanaland Pro-
tectorate. This territory is now
known as Rhodesia (q. v.), has an
area of 438,575 square miles and a
pop. est. at 1,570,559, and is divided
into two parts by the Zambesi river,
Northern and Southern Rhodesia.
Rhodes resigned from the company in
1896, and a joint administrator of the
territory was appointed.

Britton, Nathaniel Lord, an
American botanist ; born on Staten

Island, N. ., Jan. 15, 1858. He was
Professor of Botany in Columbia
School of Mines in 1888-1896, and
later Director of the New York Bo-
tanical Garden.

Broad Arrow, the mark cut or
stamped on all English government
property and stores. It was the cog-
nizance of Henry, Viscount Sydney,
Earl of Romney, Master-General of
the Ordnance, 1693-1702, and was at
first placed only on military stores.
It is also the mark used in the Brit-
ish Ordnance Survey to denote points
from which measurements have been

Broad Bill, a species of wild duck,
the shoveler ; also the spoon bill.

Brpadhead, Garland Car, an
American geologist ; born in Albemarle
Co., Va., Oct. 30, 1827. He studied at
the University of Missouri and was
long the State Expert in Geology.
From 1887 to 1897 he was Professor
of Geology at the University of Mis-
souri. He died in 1912.

Broad Mountain, a mountain
ridge of Pennsylvania, in Carbon and
Schuylkill counties, about 50 miles

Broad River, a river of North
Carolina, rising in the Blue Ridge
mountains, and making a junction
with the Saluda at Columbia to form
the Congaree ; about 200 miles long.

Broad Top Mountain, a moun-
tain in Bedford and Huntington coun-
ties, Pennsylvania ; extensively mined
for anthracite coaL Height about
2,500 feet

Broadway, the great business
street of New York. Starting from
Bowling Green, at the lower extremity
of the island, it runs northward in a
somewhat diagonal direction, separat-
ing the city into substantially equal
eastern and western parts. It was
formerly the Boulevard above 59th
street, but the whole length of the
thoroughfare is now known as Broad-
way. It is part of a continuous road
from New York to Albany. A portion
of the rapid transit subway has been
built under Broadway, and an under-
ground trolley line is on the surface
in New York city.

Broccoli, a late variety of the
cauliflower, hardier and with more
color in the lower leaves. The part


of the plant used is the succulent
flower stalks. Although broccoli is
inferior in flavor to cauliflower it
serves as a fair substitute.

Brock, Sir Isaac, a British mili-
tary commander, born in Guernsey,
Oct. 6, 1709 ; suppressed a threatened
mutiny in Canada in 1802 ; made Lieu-
tenant-Governor of Upper Canada in
1810 ; took Detroit from the Ameri-
cans under General Hull in 1812 ; and
was killed at the battle of Queens-
town, Oct. 13, 1812. A monument to
his memory stands on the W. bank of
the Niagara river.

Brocken, the culminating point of
the Hartz Mountains, in North Ger-
many, Kingdom of Saxony, cultivated
nearly to its summit, which is 3,740
feet above the level of the sea. The
phenomenon called the " Specter of
the Brocken " is here occasionally seen
at sunset and sunrise. It is caused by
the rising of the mists from the val-
ley opposite to the sun.

Brockton, a city in Plymouth
county, Mass.; on the New York,
New Havea & Hartford railroad; 20
miles S. of Boston; is one of the
largest boot and shoe manufacturing
places in the country, with also a a
extensive output of shoe machinery,
rubber goods, and sewing machines,
and has a property valuation exceed-
ing $40,000,000. Pop. (1910) 56,878.

Brockville, a port of entry and
capital of Leeds county, Ontario,
Canada; ou the St. Lawrence river
and the Grand Trunk and other rail-
roads, 125 miles S. W. of Montreal.
Pop. (1911) 9,374.

Broderick, David Colbretli, an
American legislator, born in Washing-
ton, D. C., Feb. 4, 1820; was defeated
for Congress in New York in 1846;
went to California, and was elected a
member of the Constitutional Conven-
tion of 1849 ; served as Speaker of ^the
Senate ; and was elected to the United
States Senate in 1856, where he ac-
tively opposed the admission of Kan-
sas. He was killed in a duel by Judge
David S. Terry, Sept. 16, 1859.

Brodhead, John Romeyn, an
American historian, born in Philadel-
phia, Jan. 2, 1814; graduated at Rut-
gers College in 1831 ; made a valuable
collection of documents in Europe
bearing upon American history that


was published by the State of New
York ; author of a " History of the
State of New York." He died in New
York city, May 6, 1873.

Brody, a town of Galicia, Austria,
62 miles E. of Lemberg by rail and
9 miles from the Russian frontier ;
long noted for its extensive commer-
cial interests, especially with Russia.
Pop. about 19,000, of which two-thirds
are Hebrews. The town was conspic-
uous in the great Galicia campaign of
1916-17. See APPENDIX : World War,

Broglie, a prominent French fam-
ily, of Piedmontese origin. JACQUES
VICTOB ALBEBT, Due de Broglie, born
June 13, 1821, early entered the field
of literature, and was elected an Acad-
emician in 1862. Returned as a dep-
uty in 1871, he was, till May, 1872,
Ambassador at London ; he then be-
came leader of the Conservative Right
Center, and with a view to force a
monarchial government on France,
he brought about the resignation of
Thiers, and the election of MacMa-
hon, in 1873. He was twice Premier,
resignation being on both occasions
forced by Gambetta's exposures. He
died Jan. 19, 1901.

Broiling:, the cooking of meat or
fish on a gridiron above a fire, or by
laying it directly on the coals, a very
wholesome method of cookery.

Broke, Sir Philip Bowes Vere,
a British admiral, born near Ipswich,
Sept 9, 1776; distinguished himself
particularly in 1813, as commander of
the " Shannon," in the memorable ac-
tion which that vessel fought with the
United States vessel " Chesapeake "
off the American coast, and in which
the latter was captured. He died in
London, Jan. 2, 1841.

Broken Wind, a disease of the
organs of respiration in horses, com-
monly produced by the rupture of the
lung cellular tissue.

Broker, an agent employed to
make bargains and contracts between
other persons, in matters of commerce,
for a compensation commonly called
brokerage. A broker usually confines
his attention to one particular mar-
ket, as wool, sugar, or iron, and the
special knowledge he thus acquires
renders his services useful to the gen-
eral merchant, who has no such inti-
mate acquaintance with the trade.



The broker is strictly a middleman, or
intermediate negotiator between the
parties, finding buyers or sellers as re-
quired. He does not act in his own
name, nor has he generally the custody
of the goods in which he deals, thus
differing from a factor, and he cannot
cell publicly like an auctioneer. He is
treated as the agent of both parties,
though primarily he is deemed the
agent of the party by whom he is
originally employed. Besides ordinary
commercial brokers, there are several
ether sorts, such as stock-brokers,
ehare-brokers, ship-brokers, insurance-
brokers, bill-brokers, etc.

Bromide, a combination of bromine
with a metal or a radical. Bromides
are soluble in water, except silver and
mercurpus bromides; lead bromide is
very slightly soluble.

Bromine, a non-metallic element.
Bromine has been applied externally
as a caustic, but rarely. Its chief
officinal preparations are bromide of
ammonium, useful in whooping cough,
infantile, convulsions, and nervous
diseases generally ; and bromide of po-
tassium, now very extensively used,
especially in epilepsy, hysteria, deli-
rium tremens, diseases of the throat
and larynx, bronchocele, enlarged
spleen, hypertrophy of liver, fibroid
tumors, etc. Also, as an antaphro-
disiac, for sleeplessness, glandular
ewellings, and skin diseases. Its al-
terative powers are similar to but less
than those of the iodides. It has a
pungent saline taste, no odor, and oc-
curs in colorless cubic crystals, close-
ly resembling the iodide. As a hypnot-
ic its usefulness is much increased by
combining it with morphia or chloral

Bronchi, the two branches into
which the trachea or windpipe divides
in the chest, one going to the right
lung, the other to the left, and rami-
fying into innumerable smaller tubes
the bronchial tubes.

Bronchitis, inflammation of the
air tubes leading to the pulmonary
vesicles, accompanied by hoarseness,
cough, increase of temperature, and
soreness of the chest anteriorly. The
uneasy sensations begin about the re-
gion of the frontal sinuses, passing
from the nasal mucous passages, tra-
chea, and windpipe to_ the chest, with

hoarseness, cough, and expectoration;
but in capillary bronchities the cough
is dry and without expectoration. In
acute cases the sputum is first thin,
then opaque and tenacious, lastly pu-
rulent ; the breathing is hurried and
laborious, the pulse quickened, and the
skin dry. The danger increases in
proportion as the finer bronchial
tubes become involved, and, instead of
the healthy respiratory sound we have
sharp, chirping, whistling notes, vary-

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