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ing from sonorous to sibilant. The
sharp sound is most to be feared, as
arising in the smaller tubes; the
grave, sonorous notes originate in the
larger tubes. Spitting of blood some-
times occurs, and hi severe cases per-
sons actually die suffocated from the
immense quantity of mucus thrown
out, obstructing the tubes and causing
collapse of the vesicular structure of
the lungs. The ratio of the respira-
tion to the pulse is high, going up to
GO or even 70 in the minute, with a
pulse rate of 120 or 130. Chronic
bronchitis, or bronchial catarrh, is ex-
tensively prevalent, especially among
the aged, recurring once or twice a
year in spring or autumn, or both, till
it becomes more or less constant all
the year round.

Bronchocele, an indolent tumor
on the forepart of the neck caused by
enlargement of the thyroid gland, and
attended by protrusion of the eyeballs,
an&mia, and palpitation.

Brongniart, Alexander, a
French geologist and mineralogist,
born in Paris, Feb. 5, 1770; died in
Paris, Oct. 7, 1847. His son, ADOLPHB
THEODORE BBONGNIART, born in 1801,
died in 1876, became Professor of Bo-
tany at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris,
1833, and was the author of several
botanical works held in high esteem.

Bronte, a town of Sicily, at the
W. base of Alt. Etna, 33 miles N. W.
of Catania. The lava streams of 1651
and 1843 lie on either side, but the
district around is fertile, and produces
wine. Lord Nelson was created Duke
of Bronte by the Neapolitan Govern-
ment in 1799. Pop. (1901) 20,366.

Bronte, Anne, an English novelist
and poetess, born in Haworth, York-
shire, March 24, 1820 ; sister of CHAB-
LOTTE BRONTE. She died in Scarbor-
ough, May 28, 1849.



SJronte

Bronte, Charlotte, (afterward
Mrs. Nicholls), an English novelist,
born in Thornton, Yorkshire, April
21, 1816; was the third daughter of
the Rev. Patrick Broate, rector of
Thornton, from which he removed in
1820 on becoming incumbent of Ha-
worth, in the West Riding of York-
shire, about 4 miles from Keighley.
Her mother died soon after this re-
moval, and her father, an able though
eccentric man, brought up Charlotte
and her sisters in quite a Spartan
fashion, inuring them to every kind of
industry and fatigue. After an edu-
cation received partly at home and
partly at neighboring schools, Char-
lotte became a teacher, and then a
governess in a family. In 1844 ar-
rangements were entered into by the
three sisters to open a school at Ha-
worth, but from the want of success
in obtaining pupils no progress was
ever made with their scheme. They
resolved now to turn their attention
to literary composition ; and, in 1846,
a volume of poems by the three sis-
ters was published, under the names of
CXJRRER, ELLIS and ACTON BELL. It
was issued at their^ own risk, and at-
tracted little attention, so they quitted
poetry for prose fiction, and produced
each a novel. Charlotte (CuBREB
BELL) entitled her production "The
Professor," but it was everywhere re-
fused by the publishing trade, and
was not given to the world till after
her death. Emily ( ELLIS BELL) with
her tale of " Wuthering Heights,"
end Anne ( ACTON BELL) with "Ag-
nes Grey," were more successful. I
Charlotte's failure, however, did not
discourage her, and she composed the I
novel of " Jane Eyre," which was pub- j
lished in October, 1847. Its success
was immediate and decided. Her sec-
ond novel of " Shirley " appeared, in
1849. Previous to this she had lost
her two sisters, Emily dying on Dec.
19, 1848, and Anne May 28, 18491
(after publishing a second novel, the
" Tenant of Wildfell Hall "). In the
autumn of 1852 appeared Charlotte's
third novel, " Villette." Shortly af-
ter, she married her father's curate,
the Rev. Arthur Bell Nicholls, but in
nine months died of consumption,
March 31, 1855. Her originally re-
jected tale of " The Professor " was
published after her death in 1857, and

E. 24.



Bronze!

the same year a biography of her ap-
peared from the pen of Mrs. Gaskell.

Brontosaurus Excelsus, a species
of herbivorous dinosaur of the Trias-
sic and Jurassic periods. It is sup-
posed to have been a hippopotamus-
like animal, and to have lived on vege-
tation in the waters. It was about 60
feet long, and 15 feet high at the
middle of the body, and, although its
body was of this great size, it had one
of the smallest heads known among
vertebrates.

Brontotherinm, or Titanother-
ium, a genus of the extinct mammals
first found in the Bad Lands of South
Dakota, and later in Nebraska and
Colorado. The brontotherium was
about the size of the elephant. The
nose was evidently flexible, but there
was no true proboscis.

Bronx, The, a borough of Greater
New York, lying N. and E. of the
borough or Manhattan, between the
Hudson river, East river, and Long
Island Sound, including City, Riker's,
Hunter's, Twin, Hart, High and sev-
eral adjacent islands; area, 25,270
acres; pop. (1916) 575,877. It con-
tains an extensive public park, with a
botanical garden of 250 acres, and is
the site of the newly established New
York Zoological Gardens. The statis-
tics of this borough are included with
those of Manhattan borough. See
NEW YORK CITY.

Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin.
It was usejd by the ancient Assyrians
and Egyptians. Layard brought many
ornaments and other articles of this
metal from Assyria. Bronze is more
fusible, as well as harder than copper.
It is also a fine-grained metal, taking
a smooth and polished surface; hence
its universal use, both in ancient and
modern times, in making casts of all
kinds, medals, bas-reliefs, statues, etc.
Its color is a reddish-yellow, and is
darkened by exposure to the atmos-
phere. Its composition varie^ accord-
ing to the purpose for which it is to be
employed, and other constituents be-
sides copper and tin frequently enter
into it. Whatever alloy is principally
formed of these metals, however, is
called bronze.

Bronzes, in archaeology, works of
art cast in bronze. Bronze was con-
sidered by men of ancient times as



Bronzing

sacred to the gods ; and the Roman
emperors who struck gold and silver
coins could not strike them of bronze
without the permission of the senate ;
hence the inscription S. C. (Senatus
consulto).

Bronzing:, the process of giving a
bronze-like or antique metallic ap-
pearance to the surface of metals or
plaster casts.

Brooch, a kind of ornament worn
on the dress, to which it is attached
by a pin stuck through the fabric.

Brooke, Henry, an Irish novelist
and dramatist; born in Rantavan,
County Cavan, Ireland, about 1703 ;
died in Dublin, Oct. 10, 1783.

Brooke, Sir James, Rajah of Sar-
awak, was born in Benares, India,
April 29, 1803. In 1838, having gone
to Borneo, he assisted the Sultan of
Brunei (the nominal ruler of the
island) in suppressing a revolt For
his services he was made Rajah and
Governor of Sarawak, a district on
the N. W. coast of the island, and,
being established in the Government,
he endeavored to induce the Dyak na-
tives to abandon their irregular and
piratical mode of life and to turn
themselves to agriculture and com-
merce ; and his efforts to introduce
civilization were crowned with won-
derful success. He was made a K. C.
B. in 1847, and was appointed Gover-
nor of Labuan. He died in Devon-
shire, England, June 11, 1868.

Brooke, John Rutter, an Ameri-
can military officer, born in Pottsville,
Pa., July 21, 1838. He entered the
army as captain in a volunteer regi-
ment on the breaking out of the Civil
War in 1861, and resigned in Febru-
ary, 1866, with the rank of Brevet
Major-General. In July of the same
year he was appointed Lieutenant-
Colonel of the 37th United States In-
fantry. He was promoted to Colonel
in March, 1879; Brigadier-General,
April 6, 1888, and Major-General,
May 22, 1897. After the declaration
of war against Spain, he was placed
in command of the First Provisional
Army Corps, and subsequently distin-
guished himself in the campaign in
Porto Rico, and was made a member
of the joint military commission to
arrange the cession of the island to
the United States. On Dec. 13, 1898,



Brooklyn

he was appointed Military and Civil
Governor of Cuba, a post which he
held tilJ April, 1900, when he was
succeeded by Gen. Leonard Wood. On
May 10, following, he succeeded Ma-
jor-General Wesley Merritt as com-
mander of the Military Department of
the East, with headquarters in New
York. Retired in 1902.

Brooke, Stopford Augustus, an
English Unitarian preacher, born in
Dublin in 1832. He was educated at
Trinity College, Dublin. He has held
important curacies in London, and in
1872 was appointed Chaplain in Or-
dinary to the Queen. He subsequently
became a Unitarian.

Brook Farm Association, a
community which originated in 1841,
with William Henry Channing, George
Ripley, and Sophia, his wife, with
whom were united from time to time
George William Curtis, Nathaniel
Hawthorne, Theodore Parker, Charles
Anderson Dana, John Sullivan Dwight,
Margaret Fuller, and other personages
ol a philosophic turn of mind. The
scheme of the association contemplat-
ed utilizing the labor physically
and intellectually of each of its
members, at a certain fixed rate, the
intention being to dispose of the re-
sults of such labor to the outside pub-
lic, and with such profit that all the
delights and adornments of life were
to be procurable therefrom, and were
to be held in common by the mem-
bers. The whole undertaking came
to an end in 1846.

Brookline, a town in Norfolk
county, Mass. ; on the Charles river
and the Boston & Maine railroad ; 3
miles W. of Boston ; manufactures
electrical and philosophical appli-
ances ; is best known as one of the
wealthiest and most beautiful resi-
dential sections in the country ; has
a property valuation exceeding $150,-
000,000. Pop. (1915) 33,490.

Brooklyn, a former city, and the
fourth in population in the United
States, according to the Federal cen-
sus of 1890; since Jan. 1, 1898, one
of the five boroughs of the city of
Greater New York ; situated on the
W. extremity of Long Island, on New
York Bay and the East river, which
separates it from New York and con-
nects Long Island Sound with New
York Bay. Brooklyn is connected



Brooklyn

with New York by several bridges,
tunnels, and numerous ferries. It com-
prises Brooklyn proper, Williamsburg,
Gravesend, Flatbush, Flat Lands, New
Lots, New Utrecht and several smaller
suburban towns that were united with
it prior to its consolidation with New
York. It now extends from the At-
lantic Ocean at Coney Island to the
East river and New York harbor, and
occupies the whole of Kings county ;
area 66.39 square miles ; pop. (1900)
1,166,582; (1916) 1,928,432.

There are 30 parks in Brooklyn,
with an area of 1,126 acres. Prospect
Park is the largest, with 526 acres,
including 77 acres of lakes and water-
ways, 70 acres of meadows, 110 acres
of woodland, and 259 of plantations.
It is situated on an elevated ridge and
commands a magnificent view of the
ocean, the Sound, Long Island, New
Jersey, and New York city. It has
been left to a great extent in its origi-
nal wooded condition, making it one
of the most picturesque parks in the
United States. There are 8 miles of
drives, 11 miles of walks, and 4 of
bridle paths. The Flatbush avenue
entrance, or the Plaza, is paved with
stone and surrounded by grass. There
is a Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial
Arch and a statue of President Lin-
coln at this entrance. Of the other
parks, Washington Park, the site of
Revolutionary fortifications, of which
Fort Green is the principal one, is the
largest. A memorial to Lafayette was
dedicated by Marshal Joffre, of the
French War Mission, in 1917.

The most notable and important
navy yard in the United States is lo-
acted here, and is always a place of
large patriotic interest, because of its
buildings, its relics, and the old and
new types of warships that are gen-
erally to be seen here.

Brooklyn has been widely known as
the City of Churches. There are now
about 650 of such edifices and chapels.
The Roman Catholic, with 113 church-
es, is the strongest denomination.
Then follow the Methodist Episcopal
(54) ; Protestant Episcopal (86) ;
Baptist (52) ; Lutheran (64) ; Pres-
byterian (49) ; Congregational (38) ;
Reformed (40) ; synagogues^ (40) ;
and others of various denominations
(about 100). In 1912 there were 603,-
475 church members ; 138,136 Sunday



Brook*

School scholars, and, in the same year,
the churches owned property, church-
es, chapels, parsonages, etc., valued at
$42,500,000.

The most important hospitals in
Brooklyn are the Long Island College,
Brooklyn, Brooklyn Homoeopathic,
General, St. Mary's Methodist, St.
John's, and St. Peter's. The city has
24 dispensaries, 5 training-schools for
nurses, 25 orphan asylums and indus-
trial schools, 11 homes for the aged,
and 6 nurseries. The public institu-
tions are mostly at Flatbush, and con-
sist of the Insane Asylum, Hospital,
and Almshouse. There is an Inebri-
ates' Home in Bay Ridge.

The borough is noted for the number
and standing of its educational insti-
tutions, public and private. The
Packer Institute for girls, the Poly-
technic Institute for boys, Adelphi Col-
lege, and the Pratt Institute have na-
tional renown. The Brooklyn Insti-
tute of Arts and Sciences, an out-
growth from an association founded in
1823, is another noted institution. It
includes 25 departments with lectures,
so that its teaching methods resemble
those of a large university.

Brooklyn was settled by the Dutch
in 1636 at New Utrecht. In 1646 five
small towns consolidated under the
name of Breuckelen, from the Dutch
town whence most of the settlers
came. In 1666 the first Dutch church
was built in Breukelen. About this
time the English came into possession
of New York and Long Island, and
Breuckelen became a part of West
Riding. On Aug. 27, 1776, the battle
of Long Island was fought in Brook-
lyn, and the village was held by the
British till 1783. Brooklyn was in-
corporated as a village in 1816 ; and
in 1834 it became a city. Several ad-
joining towns were annexed from time
to time, and in 1896 Brooklyn com-
prised all of Kings county. On Jan.
1, 1898, Brooklyn was consolidated
with Greater New York, under the
name of the Borough of Brooklyn.

Brooks, Eldredge Streeter, an

American author; born in Lowell,
Mass., in 1846 ; died in Somerville,
Mass., Jan. 7, 1902.

Brooks, Maria Gowan, an Amer-
ican poet, pseudonym MARIA DEL Oc-
CIDENTE, born in Medford, Mass.,



Brooks

about 1795 ; spent her youth in
Charlestown, Mass., and the rest of
her life in London, New York and
Cuba. She died in Matanzas, Cuba,
Nov. 11, 1845.

Brook*, Noah, an American jour-
nalist and author, born in Castine,
Me., Oct. 30, 1830. Died Aug. 16, 1903.
. Brooks, Phillips, an American
clergyman of the Episcopal Church,
born in Boston, Dec. 13, 1835. He
was rector of Protestant Episcopal
churches successively in Philadelphia
and in Boston, and was made Bishop
of Massachusetts in 1891. He was an
impressive pulpit orator, had great
spiritual force, and published many
volumes of sermons and lectures. He
died in Boston, Jan. 23, 1893.

Brooks, Preston Smith, an
American legislator, born in Edgefield,
S. C., Aug. 14, 1819. He served in
the Mexican War ; was elected to Con-
gress in 1853, and on May 22, 1856,
he assaulted Senator Charles Sumner
in the Senate Chamber, beating him
into insensibility with a cane. He
afterward resigned, but was immedi-
ately returned to the House by his
District He died in Washington, D.
G, Jan. 27, 1857.

Brooks, William Keith, natu-
ralist, born in Cleveland, O., March
25, 1848, graduated LL. D. from Will-
iams College (1870) ; Ph. D. Harvard
(1874). From 1876 assistant-profes-
sor, and after 188?, professor of zool-
ogy in Johns Hopkins University. His
works include " Invertebrate Zoology."
He died Nov. 12, 1908.

Brother Jonathan, a phrase ap-
plied to the people of the United
States, as " John Bull " is to the peo-
ple of England. Washington, on as-
suming command of the New England
Revolutionary forces, was in great
straits for arms and war material.
The governor of Connecticut, Jona-
than Trumbull, was a man of excellent
judgment and an esteemed friend of
Washington. In the emergency Wash-
ington said, " We must consult Broth-
er Jonathan." This expression was
repeated on other difficult occasions,
and became a convenient name for the
whole people.

Brotherhoods, Religions, were
societies instituted for pious and ben- ,



Brougham

evolent purposes, and were numerous
in the Middle Ages.

Brotherhood of Andrew and
Phillip, founded in 1888 by Rev.
Rufus W. Miller of the Second Re-
formed Church, Reading, Pa., has
grown into a religious and social order
among 15 Protestant denominations ;
with 1,402 chapters and 18,000 mem-
bers in the United States, and chap-
ters also in Canada, Japan, and Aus-
tralia.

Brotherhood of St. Andrew,

of the Protestant Episcopal Church,
founded in Chicago in 1883 by the
Rev. W. H. Vibbert and James Hough-
teling for " the spread of Christ's
Kingdom among young men ;" has 1,-
200 active chapters, and about 13,000
members.

Brotherhood of St. Paul, of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, founded
1895 by the Rev. F. D. Leete, Roches-
ter, N. Y., comprises the Orders of
Jerusalem, Damascus, and Rome, for
various grades of membership.

Brougham, Henry Peter, Lord
Brougham and Vanx, a British
statesman, orator, and author, born in
Edinburgh, Sept. 19, 1778; entered
the University of Edinburgh in 1792.
In 1802 he helped to found the " Ed-
inburgh Review," contributing to the
first four numbers 21 articles, and to
the first 20 numbers 80 articles. The
article on Byron's " Hours of Idle-
ness " provoked the poet to write his
" English Bards and Scotch Review-
ers." In 1810 Brougham entered
Parliament, where his remarkable elo-
quence gave him at once a command-
ing place. He was counsel for Queen
Caroline in George IV. 's suit against
her (1820), winning a decisive vic-
tory, which raised him to the height
of fame and popularity. He became
Lord Chancellor in 1830, and was at
the same time created a baron ; he re-
signed on the defeat of the Whigs in
1834, and never again held public
office, though still taking effective part
in the business and debates of the
House of Lords. He died in Cannes,
France, May 7, 1868.

Brongham, John, an American
actor and playwright, born in Dublin,
Ireland, May 9, 1810; made his debut
as an actor in England in 1830. He
came to the United States in 1842,



Bremgliton



Broi



and, with the exception of a short re-
turn trip to England in 1800, re-
mained here until bis death. He was
the author of over 100 comedies,
farces, and burlesques. He died in
New York, June 7, 1880.

Bronghton, Rhoda, an English
novelist, daughter of a clergyman,
born in Wales, 1840. Among her works
are "Alas !" ; "Scylla or Charybdis" ;
"Dear Faustina" ; "Foes in Law", etc.

Broussa, Brussa, or Boursa, the
ancient Prusa, where the Kings of
Bithynia usually resided, situated in
Asiatic Turkey, at the foot of Mount
Olympus, in Asia Minor, 13 miles S.
of the Sea of Marmora. Broussa is
pleasantly situated, facing a beautiful
and luxuriant plain. The water sup-
ply is good, and water flows down the
center of some of the streets, which
are clean, but for most part narrow
and dark, and the bazaars very good.
It contains about 200 mosques, some
of which are very fine buildings, also
three Greek churches, an Armenian
and several synagogues. The vilayet
of Broussa has an area of 25,400
square miles and pop. of 1,626,800.

Broussais. Francois Joseph
Victor, a French physician, born in
St Malp, Dec. 17, 1772. Professor at
the Military Hospital of Val de Grace
in 1820, he became Professor of Gen-
eral Pathology in the Faculty of Med-
icine, in Paris, 1832, and afterward
was made a member of the Institute.
The influence of Broussais in his gen-
eration was unbounded, and his so-
called " Physiological Doctrine " rap-
idly acquired a great sway, the traces
of which are visible even now, though
a more exact knowledge of physiology
has demonstrated that the views of
Broussais were one-sided and exag-
gerated. The basis of Broussais' doc-
trine was the assumption that the ani-
mal tissues are endowed with a prop-
erty called irritability, a property
which is called" into play by the action
of stimuli of various kinds, and by the
operations of which all vital phenom-
ena are produced. He died in Paris,
Nov. 17, 1838.

Brown, the color produced when
certain substances wood or paper,
for example are scorched or par-
tially burned. Brown is not one of
the primary colors in a spectrum. It



is composed of red and yellow, with
black, the negation of color. It is
also the name of a genus of colors, of
which the typical species is ordinary
brown, tinged with grayish or black-
ish. The other species are chestnut
brown, deep brown, bright brown,
rusty, cinnamon, red brown, rufous,
glandaceous, liver colored, sooty, and
lurid.

Brown, Benjamin Gratz, an
American politician, born in Lexing-
1 ton, Ky., May 28, 182G ; graduated at
Yale in 1847. He practiced law in
! Missouri, and was a member of the
State Legislature in 1852-1858. In
the Civil War he served in the Union
army, recruiting a regiment, and be-
coming a Brigadier-General of volun-
teers. In 1863-1867 he was United
States Senator from Missouri, and in
1871 was elected governor of his State.
He was the candidate for the Vice-
Presidency of the United States on
the ticket with Horace Greeley in
1872. He died in St. Louis, Dec. 13,
1885.

Brown, Charles Brockden, an
American novelist, born in Philadel-
phia, Jan. 17, 1771, was of a highly
respectable family, of Quaker descent.
He studied law, but took a disgust to
the practice of the profession, and
abandoned it for literature. In 1798
he established himself in New York,
and when the yellow fever broke out
there he refused to forsake his friends
and neighbors ; and, after performing
the last offices of affection for one of
them, a young physician, was himself
attacked by the pestilence. Between
1803 and 1809 he published three po-
litical pamphlets, which excited gen-
eral attention. He died Feb. 22, 1810.

Brown, Charles Ruf us, an
American clergyman and Hebrew
scholar, born in East Kingston, N. H.,
Feb. 22, 1849. He was ordained a
Baptist minister in 1881, and became
Professor of Hebrew at Newton The-
ological Institution 1886. He died
Feb. 2, 1914.

Brown, Elmer Ellsworth, an
American educator, born in Kiantone,
N. Y., Aug. 28, 1861; was United
States Commissioner of Education in
1906-11; then became Chancellor of
the University of New York.

Brown, Emma Elizabeth, ("B.
E. E."), an American author and



Brown

artist, born in Concord, N. H., Oct.
18, 1847.

Brown, Sir George, an English
military officer, born near Elgin in
1790 ; served in the Peninsular War,
and in the American campaign of
1814. He became lieutenant-general
in 1851 ; and distinguished himself in
the Crimean War at Alma, Inker-
mann, and Sebastopol. He was made
K. C. B. in 1855, and died in 1865.

Brown., Goold, an American gram-
marian, born in Providence, R. I.,
March 7, 1791 ; died in Lynn, Mass.,
March 31, 1857.

Brown, Harvey, an American
army officer, born in Rahway, N. J.,
in 1795 ; graduated at West Point in
1818. He was in constant service for
more than 45 years. In the Black
Hawk expedition, the Seminole In-
dian campaigns, in the Army of Occu-
pation in Mexico, and to the time of
the Civil War, he did gallant duty,
for which he received several brevets.
In 18G2 he was brevetted a Brigadier-
General in the Regular army and pro-
moted Colonel, and in 1863 was pro-
moted to Major-General, U. S. A., and
retired. He died in Clifton, Staten
Island, N. Y., March 31, 1874.

Brown, Henry Kirke, an Ameri-
can sculptor, born in, Leyden, Mass.,
Feb. 24, 1814. He made the eques-
trian statue of Washington in Union
Square, New York, the altar piece for
the Church of the Annunciation in
the same city, portrait busts of Wil-
liam Cullen Bryant, Dr. Willard
Parker, Erastus Corning and other
New York men, and the statue of De
W 7 itt Clinton in Greenwood cemetery.
The last named was the first bronze
statue cast in the United States. Mr.
Brown brought skilled workmen from
Europe and did the firct work in
bronze casting attempted in this coun*
try. Some of his other well known



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