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works are a statue of Lincoln in Pro >
pect Park, Brooklyn, and equestrian
statues of Gen. Scott and Nathanael
Greene for the National Government,
etc. He died in Newburg, N. Y., July
10, 1886.

Brown, Jacob, an American army
officer, born in Bucks county, Pa., May
9, 1775. He was a commander on the
Canadian frontier in the War of 1812.
In the engagements at Fort Erie he



Brown

so distinguished himself as to receive
the thanks of Congress, Nov. 13, 1814.
The city of New York also voted him
its freedom. At the close of the war
he was in command of the Northern
Division of the army, and, in March,
1821, became general-in-chief of the
United States army. He died in
Washington, D. C., Feb. 24, 1828.
Brown, John, an American oppo-

i nent of slavery, born in Torrington,
Conn., May 9, 1800. He early con-

! ceived a hatred for slavery, and, hay-
ing removed to Osawatomie, Kan., in

I 1855, he took an active part against
the pro-slavery party, the slavery

j question there having given rise al-

i most to a civil war. In the summer
of 1859 he rented a farmhouse about
6 miles from Harper's Ferry, and or-
ganized a plot to liberate the slaves of
Virginia. On Oct. 16, he, with the
aid of about 20 friends, surprised and
captured the arsenal at Harper's Fer-
ry, but was wounded and taken pris-
oner by the Virginia militia next day ;
and was tried and executed at Charles-
town, Dec. 2, 1859. His fate aroused
much sympathy in the North, and un-
doubtedly hastened the great anti-
slavery conflict. " John Brown's body
lies moldering in the grave, But his
soul is marching on," was a favorite
marching song of the Union troops in
the Civil War.

Brown, John George, an Anglo-
American painter, born in Durham,
England, Nov. 11, 1831; was edu-
cated in the common schools in New-
castle-on-Tyne, and came to the Unit-
ed States in 1853. He studied in the
schools of the National Academy of
Design ; was elected an Academician
in 1863 ; received honorable mention
at the Paris Exposition in 1899; and
in 1900 was president of the American
Water Color Society. Died, 1913.

Brown, John Hamilton, an
American inventor, born in Liber-
ty, Me., July 28, 1837. At the age of 18
he was apprenticed to a gunsmith and
in 1857 he entered business in Haver-

Jiill, Mass. He served in the Civil
War as a sharpshooter, and in 1882
was a member of the American Rifle
Team at Wimbledon. He began in
1883 to perfect the invention of a
weapon for military use later known
as the Brown segmental wire-wxmnd



Brown

gun, which, after numerous Govern-
ment tests, was pronounced a success.
Brown, John Howard, an Amer-
ican editor, born in Rhinebeck, N. Y.,
Nov. 8, 1840. After studying law in
New York city and engaging in jour-
nalism in Washington, D. C., and Au-
gusta, Ga., he became a publisher in
New York city. He. was a member of
the American Academy of Political
and Social Science ; the Society of
American Authors, and the American
Social Science Association. D. 1917.

Brown, Joseph Emerson, an
American statesman, born in Pickens
county, S. C., April 15, 1821; edu-
cated at Calhoun Academy, and grad-
uated at Yale in 1846. He settled in
Canton, Ga. ; served in the State Leg-
islature, and was elected governor in
1857 ; serving three terms. As war
governor he opposed Jefferson Davis
in the matter of the conscription laws
and raised 10,000 recruits to oppose
Sherman's march to the sea ; but
would not allow them to leave the
State. After the war he gave hearty
support to the reconstruction meas-
ures, and supported Gen. Grant for
the Presidency. He was Chief Jus-
tice of Georgia in 1868, and United
States Senator in 1880-1891. He
died hi Atlanta, Ga., Nov. 30, 1894.

Brown, Nicholas, an American
merchant, born in Providence, R. I.,
April 4, 1769 ; best known as the chief
patron of Brown University. In hon-
or of his gifts, which exceeded $100,-
000, the name of the institution was
changed, in 1804, from Rhode Island
College to Brown University. He
gave also magnificent sums to other
public institutions of Providence. He
died Oct. 27, 1841.

Brown (or Browne), Robert,
founder of an English religious sect
first called Brownists, and afterward
Independents, was born about 1540,
and studied at Cambridge, where, in
1580, he began openly to attack the
government and liturgy of the Church
of England as anti-Christian.

Brown, Robert, a Scotch botan-
ist, born in Montrose, Dec. 21, 1773.
In 1800 he was appointed naturalist
to Flinders' surveying expedition to
Australia. He returned with nearly
4,000 species of plants. He died in
London, June 10, 1858. As a natural-



Browning

ist Brown occupied the very highest
rank among men of science.

Browne, Charles Farrar, an

American humorist, best known as
ABTEMUS WARD, born at Waterford,
Me., April 26, 1834. Originally a
printer, he became editor of papers in
Ohio, where his humorous letters be-
came very popular. He subsequently
lectured in the United States, and
in England, where he contributed to
" Punch." He died in Southampton,
England, March 6, 1867.

Browne, William, an English
poet, born in Tavistock, Devonshire,
in 1591; died in Ottery St. Mary
about 1643.

Brownell, Franklin P., a Cana-
dian artist, born in New Bedford,
Mass. His specialties are portrait and
figure painting. He has for some
years been principal of the Ottawa
Art School.

Brownell, Henry Howard, an
American poet and historian, born in
Providence, R. I., Feb. 6, 1820. His
first poetic venture was a spirited ver-
sification of Farragut's " General Or
ders " to the fleet below New Orleans.
Afterward he was appointed to an hon-
orary place on the " Hartford," flag-
ship, and had opportunity to observe
actual naval warfare. In " The Bay
Fight " he describes, with truth and
force, the battle of Mobile Bay. He
died at East Hartford, Conn., Oct 31,
1872.

Brownell, William Crary, an
American essayist and critic, born in
New York city, Aug. 30, 1851. He
graduated from Amherst, and devoted
himself to critical and editorial work
in New York.

Brownie, an imaginary being to
whom evil properties were attributed;
a domestic spirit or goblin, meager,
shaggy, and wild, supposed to haunt
many old houses, especially those at-
tached to farms.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, a
distinguished English poet, regarded
by some as the greatest which England
has ever produced ; born in London,
March 6, 1809. In 1846 she was mar-
ried to Robert Browning, and died at
Florence, Italy, June 29, 1861.

Browning, Robert, one of the
greatest of the Victorian poets ; born
in Gamberwell, England, May 7, 1812.



Brownlow



Bruce



His father, who was a clerk in a bank,
iad the boy educated in a school at
Peckham, after which he attended lec-
tures at University College. At the
age of 20 he traveled on the Conti-
nent and resided for some time in
Italy, where he made diligent study
of its mediaeval history. In 1846 he
married Elizabeth Barrett, and settled
with her in Florence, where they re-
mained for nearly 15 years. Recog-
nition of his literary fame, which
came slowly, was made in 1867, when
he was elected an honorary fellow of
Baliol, an M. A. of Oxford, and later
an LL. D. of Cambridge. He died in
Venice, Dec. 12, 1889. His body was
taken from Venice to England, where,
in national recognition of his genius,
it was buried in Westminster Abbey
between Cowley and Chaucer.

Bro willow, William Gannaway
("PABSON BBOWNXOW"), an Ameri-
can politician, journalist, and author,
born in Wythe county, Va., Aug. 29,
1805. During his early career he
was an itinerant preacher, editor, and
lecturer. He was a Union champion
during the Civil War, and was ban-
ished from the Confederate lines on
that ground. In 1865 he was elected
Governor of Tennessee, and was re-
elected in 1867. He was United
States Senator from 1869 to 1875.
He died in Knoxville, Tenn., April
29, 1877.

Brown-Sequard, Charles Edon-
ard, Franco-American physiologist and
physician, was born in Mauritius in
1818, his father being a sea captain
from Philadelphia, who married on the
island a lady named Sequard. The
son studied in Paris, and graduated
M. D. in 1846. He devoted himself
mainly to physiological research, and
received numerous prizes, French and
British, for the results of valuable ex-
periments on blood, muscular irrita-
bility, animal heat, the spinal cord,
and the nervous system. In 1864 he
became Professor of Physiology at
Harvard, but in 1869 returned to
Paris as Professor of Pathology in the
School of Medicine. In 1873 he be-
came a medical practitioner in New
York, treating especially diseases of
the nervous system ; and in 1878 he
succeeded Claude Bernard as Profes-
sor of Experimental Medicine at the



College de France. He died in Paris,
April 1, 1894.

Browason, Orestes Augustus,
an American author ; born in Stock-
bridge, Vt., Sept. 16, 1803; died in
Detroit, Mich., April 17, 1876.

Brownsville, city, port of entry,
and county-seat of Cameron Co., Tex. ;
on the Rio Grande and the Rio
Grande railroad, opposite Matamoras,
Mexico. In the suburbs is Fort
Brown, a garrisoned United States
post. In May, 1840, Brownsville was
occupied and fortified by a small body
of United States troops, who main-
tained their position in the face of a
heavy bombardment that lasted for 160
hours; and in November, 1863, it was
taken from the Confederates by a-
Federal army under General Banks.
Pop. (1910) 10,517.

Brown University, a co-educa-
tional institution in Providence, R. I. ;
organized in Warren in 1764 as Rhode
Island College ; removed to Providence
in 1770, and renamed in honor of
Nicholas Brown in 1804. It has al-
ways been affiliated with the Baptist
Church, but its management is non-
sectarian.

Brozik, Vacslav, a Bohemian ar-
tist, born in Pilsen in 1852. His pic-
ture, " Columbus at the Court of Isa-
bella," was presented to the city of
New York by Morris K. Jesup, and is
in the Metropolitan Museum. He is
a pupil of Pilaty and Munkacsy, and
is considered the foremost historical
painter living.

Brace, Catherine Wolfe, an
American patron of science, born in
New York city. She was a cousin of
Catherine Lorillard Wolfe, from whom
she inherited a fortune, which she
used in furthering astronomical study
at Harvard. She gave $50,000 to the
Harvard Observatory In 1888. The
Bruce Memorial Telescope at Are-
quipa, Peru, was her gift. In 1897
she established a gold medal fund for
the Astronomical Society of the Pa-
cific. She died in New York, March
13, 1900.

Bruce, Edward, a brother of
Robert I., who, after distinguishing
himself in the Scottish War of Inde-
pendence, crossed in 1315 to Ireland
to aid the native septs against the
English. After many successes he



Bruce

was crowned King of Ireland at Car-
rickfergus, but fell in battle near Dun-
dalk in 1318.

Bruce, James, an African trav-
eler, born in Stirling, Dec. 14, 1730.
In 1768 he set out for Cairo, navigated
the Nile to Syene. crossed the desert
to the Red Sea, passed some months
in Arabia Felix, and reached Gondar,
the capital of Abyssinia, in 1770. In
that country he ingratiated himself
with the sovereign and other influen-
tial persons, and in the same year suc-
ceeded in reaching the sources of the
Aba'i, then considered the main stream
of the Nile. Bruce lost his life by an
accident, April 27, 1894.

Bruce, Robert, the greatest of the
Kings of Scotland, born in 1274. In
1296, as Earl of Carrick, he swore
fealty to Edward I., and in 1297
fought on the English side against
Wallace. He then joined the Scot-
tish army, but in the same year re-
turned to his allegiance to Edward
until 1298, when he again joined the
National party, and became in 1299
one of the four regents of the king-
dom. In the three final campaigns,
however, he resumed fidelity to Ed-
ward, and resided for, some time at
his court ; but, learning that the King
meditated putting him to death on in-
formation given by the traitor Comyn,
he fled, in February, 1306, to Scot-
land, stabbed Comyn in a quarrel at
Dumfries, assembled his vassals at
Lochmaben Castle, and claimed the
crown, which he received at Scone,
March 27. Being twice defeated, he
dismissed bis troops, retired to Rath-
lin Island, and was supposed to be j
dead, when, in the spring of 1307, he j
landed on the Carrick coast, defeated
the Earl of Pembroke at Loudon Hill,
and in two years had wrested nearly
the whole country from the English.
He then in successive years advanced
into England, laying waste the coun-
try, and on June 24, 1314, defeated at
Bannockburn the English forces ad-
vancing under Edward II. to the re-
lief of the garrison at Stirling. In
1316 he went to Ireland to the aid of
his brother Edward, and, on his re-
turn in 1318, in retaliation for inroads
made during his absence, he took Ber-
wick and harried Northumberland and
Yorkshire. Hostilities continued un-
til the defeat of Edward near Byland



Bruise

Abbey in 1323, and though in that year
a truce was concluded for 13 years,
it was speedily broken. Not until
March 4, 1328, was the treaty con-
cluded by which the independence of
Scotland was fully recognized. Bruce
did not long survive the completion of
his work, dying at Cardross Castle on
June 7, 1329.

Bruce, Wallace, an American
poet, born in Hillsdale, N. Y., Nov.
10, 1844; graduated at Yale College
in 1867 ; and was United States Con-
sul at Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1889-
1893.

Bruges, a city of Belgium, capital
of West Flanders, at the junction of
the canals from Ghent, Ostend, and
L'Ecluse, 7 miles from the North Sea,
and 60 miles N. W. of Brussels. The
city has a circumference of nearly 4*
miles, and is entered by six gates.
Many large and noble ancient man-
sions and spacious public edifices pre-
sent their pointed gables to the streets,
and afford interesting specimens of
the ornamental Gothic architecture of
the Middle Ages. Among the most re-
markable public edifices are the Ca-
thedral of Notre Dame (Onser
Vrouw), the old Gothic Hospital of
St. John, and the elegant church of
St. Saviour. In the great square is a
lofty Gothic tower or belfry, the most
beautiful in Europe, and its chimes
are harmonious. In this tower there
are 48 bells, some weighing six tons;
they are played upon every quarter of
an hour by means of an immense cop-
per cylinder communicating with the
clock, and weighing about nine tons.
Pop. (1912) 53,635. The city was oc-
cupied by the Germans and greatly
damaged by shell-fire on their violation
of Belgian sovereignty on Oct. 15,
1914. See APPENDIX : World War.

Bruhns, Carl Christian, a re-
markable self-taught astronomer, born
in Plon, Holstein, Nov. 22, 1830, the
son of a locksmith ; died in Leipsic,
July 25, 1881.

Bruise, or Contusion, signifies an
injury inflicted by a blow or sudden
pressure, in which the skin is not
wounded, and no bone is broken ot
dislocated. Both terms, and especial-
ly the latter, are employed in surgery
to include all such injuries in their
widest range, from a black eye to a



Brnmaire



Brunn



thoroughly crushed mass of muscle. j
In the slighter forms of this injury,
as in ordinary simple bruises, there is
no tearing, but only a concussion of I
the textures, the utmost damage done i
being the rupture of a few small blood j
vessels, which occasions the discolora-
tion that is always observed in these
cases.

Brnmaire, the second month of
the year in the French Revolutionary
calendar. It commenced on the 23d i
of October, and ended on the 21st of i
November, thus comprising 30 days, i
It received its name from the fogs that
usually prevail about this time. The
18th of Brumaire, VIII. year (Nov. j
9, 1799), is celebrated for the over- 1
throw of the Directory and the estab-
lishment of the sway of Napoleon.

Brumniel, George Bryan, (the
sometime famous BEAU BBUMMEL) ,
born in London, June 7, 1778. He
was educated at Eton, and there
formed intimacies with the younger
nobility of the day. On his father's
death, inheriting a fortune of about
$150,000, he began his career as a
man of fashion, and became the inti- ;
mate associate of the Prince of Wales ''
(afterward George IV.). He it was
who inaugurated the reign of dandy-
ism, and for a period of 20 years exer-
cised almost despotic sway over Eng- 1
lish society in the matter of dress. !
His fortune being soon swallowed up,
he maintained his position in society
by bis success at play, and the inde-
scribable charm of his manner and
conversation. After a rupture with
the Prince, his influence gradually de-
clined ; and oppressed by debt, and the
falling off of former friends, he re-
tired to Calais, and afterward to Caen,
where he was appointed British con-
sul, and where he died, March 30,
1840.

Brunei, a State in the northern or
British part of the Island of Borneo,
lying N. E. of Sarawak; area 4,000 j
square miles ; pop. estimated at 30,-
000. It was formerly an independent
Mohammedan territory, whose sultan i
was the overlord of the entire island.
Both Brunei and Sarawak were placed
under British protection in 1888, and
the sultan surrendered the adminis-
tration to the British in 1906.
Capital. Brunei ; pop. about 12,000.



Brunei, Sir Marc Isambard, a

French civil engineer, born in Hao
queville, near Rouen, April 25, 1769.
He entered the mercantile marine,
made several voyages to the West In-
dies, and, when the French Revolution
of 1793 drove him from his country,
he went to New York, with the reso-
lution of endeavoring to turn his en-
gineering skill to some account. Ac-
cordingly, he, conjointly with another,
surveyed the ground for the canal
which now connects the Hudson river
at Albany with Lake Champlain. In
1825 he began excavating for the
Thames tunnel. This extraordinary
work was opened to the public in
1843; but previously, in 1841, the
honor of knighthood had been con-
ferred upon him. He died in London,
Dec. 12, 1849.

Brnnel, Isambard Kingdom,
son of the above, born in Portsmouth,
England, April 9, 1806; was educated
at the College of Henri IV., at Caen,
France, and began the study of civil
engineering under his father. He was
the resident engineer of the Thames
tunnel, and the designer and civil en-
gineer of the " Great Western," the
first steamship built to cross the At-
lantic. He was also the constructor
of the magnificent iron steamship, the
" Great Eastern," which was built at
Millwall. He died in Westminster,
Sept. 15, 1859.

Bruneticre, Ferdinand, a
French critic ; born in Toulon, July
19. 1849. He was critic of the " Re-
vue des Deux Mondes " ; became an
Academician 1893; and 1897 lectured
in the U. S. He inclined to the ideal-
ist as opposed to the naturalist school,
and denounced literary fads. He died
Dec. 9, 1906.

Brunn, Heinrich, a German ar-
chaeologist; born in Worlitz, Anhalt,
Jan. 23, 1822; became Professor of
Archfeology at Munich ; and published
seveial works of high repute among
scholars. He died in Munich, July
23, 1894.

Brnnn, an Austrian city, capital of
Moravia, on the railway from Vienna
to Prague, nearly encircled by the
rivers Schwarzawa and Zwittawa. It
is the center of Moravian commerce, a
great part of which is carried on by
fairs. Near it is the fortress of Spiel-



Bruno



Brunswick



berg, in which Trenck and Silvio Pel-
lico were confined. Pop. (1891)
95, 342; (1911) 125,737.

Bruno, Giordano, an Italian phil-
osopher, one of the boldest and most
original thinkers of his age, born in j
Kola, about 1550. He became a Dom-
inican monk, but his religious doubts,
and his censures of the monastic or- ,
ders, compelled him to quit his mon-
astery and Italy. He embraced the
doctrines of Calvin at Geneva, but
doubt and free discussion not being in
favor there, he went, after two years'
stay, to Paris. He gave lectures on
philosophy there, and, by his avowed
opposition to the scholastic system, '
made himself many bitter enemies. He
next spent two years in England, and
became the friend of Sir Philip Sid-
ney. In 1585 he went again to Paris
and renewed his public lectures. Af-
ter visiting and teaching in various
towns in Germany, he returned, in
1592, to Padua, and went afterward
to Venice, where he was, in 1598, ar-
rested by the Inquisition and sent to
Rome. He lay in prison two years,
and on Feb. 17, 1600, was burned as a
heretic.

Brnno the Great, one of the most
eminent men of his time, born about
925, the third son of Henry the Fowl-
er. He became archbishop of Cologne,
and chancellor of the Empire under
his brother, Otto I., and afterward, as
a reward for his services, Duke of
Lorraine. He strove to reform the
monasteries and advance the love of
learning among the clergy. He died in
Rheims, Oct. 11, 965.

Brunswick, Duchy of, in Ger-
many, consists of five detached por-
tions of territory on the rivers Weser,
Seine, Ocker and 'Aller. It occupies
part of the vast plain which stretches
from the foot of the Ha'rtz Mountains
and their continuations (the Soiling)
to the German Ocean and the Baltic,
with a portion of the rise of those
chains on the N. side. The largest
portion contains the districts of
Wolfenbuttel and Schoningen, in
which the cities of Brunswick and
Wolfenbuttel, and the towns of Kon-
igsbutter and Helmstadt, are situated.
Two small detached portions of terri-
tory, viz., the circles of Theding-
hausen on the Weser, and that of



Badenburg, are inclosed by the Han-
overian territory, and form part, the
former of the Weser district, the lat-
ter of the Seine district. Finally, the
detached circle of Kalvorde, inclosed
within the Prussian Province of Sax-
ony, belongs to the district of Schon-
ingen. The duchy has an area of 1,526
square miles. The inhabitants are
mostly engaged in agricultural and
mining pursuits. Iron is the chief
produce of the mines worked in the
three districts of the Hartz, Weser
and Blankenburg. Nearly the whole
of the inhabitants are members of the
Lutheran Church. Pop. (1910) 494,-
339. Brunswick, the capital, is on the
Ocker, in a level and fertile district.
A fine avenue of linden trees leads to
the ducal palace, which, destroyed by
fire in 1830 and 1865, was rebuilt in
1869. Pop. (1910) 143,552.

Brunswick, Family of, a distin-
guished family founded by Albert
Azo II., Marquis of Reggio and Mo-
dena, a descendant, by the female line,
of Charlemagne. In 1047 he married
Cunigunda, heiress of the Counts of
Altorf, thus uniting the two houses
of Este and Guelph. His son Guelph,
was created Duke of Bavaria in 1071,
and married Judith of Flanders, a de-
scendant of Alfred of England. From
Guelph was descended George Louis,
son of Ernest Augustus and Sophia,
granddaughter of James I. of Eng-
land, who succeeded his father as
Elector of Hanover in 1698, and was
called to the throne of Great Britain
in 1714 as George I.

Brunswick, Friedrich Wil-
helm, Duke of, fourth and youngest
son of Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand
of Brunswick, born in 1771. During
the war against France in 1792 and
subsequently, he fought in the Prus-
sian armies, was twice wounded, and
once made prisoner with Blucher at
Lubeck. For the campaign of 1809
he raised a free corps in Bohemia, but
was compelled to embark his troops
for England, where he was received
with enthusiasm. His corps immedi-
ately entered the British service, and
was afterward employed in Portugal
and Spain, returning to his hereditary
dominions, 1813. The events of 1815
called him again to arms, and he fell
at Quatre Bras, 1815. Caroline, wife of
George IV., was a sister of this prince.



Brush



Brutus



Brash, Charles Francis, an
American scientist ; born in Euclid,
near Cleveland, O., March 17, 1849.
He was graduated at the University
of Michigan, in 1869. He invented
the modern arc system of electric
lighting and founded the Brush Elec-
tric Company.

Brussels, the capital of Belgium ;
on the river Senne, communicates with
Antwerp and the Baltic Sea by means
of the Scheldt canal, and railroads
connect it with Germany, France, and
Holland, as well as with all the prin-
cipal towns of Belgium. Pop. (1912)
with suburbs, 663,647.

On the outbreak of the World War
(July, 1914), Germany invaded Bel-
gium on its attempted march on Paris.
On Aug. 20 the Germans occupied
Brussels, on Oct. 9, Antwerp, and on
Oct. 15, Ostend. The Belgian Gov-
ernment then accepted asylum in
Havre, France, and Germany assumed
the civil government of the occupied
territory. From October, 1915, to
October, 1916, the Germans levied on



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