George Jotham Hagar.

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overflow water pipes in the least in-
convenient places ; the location and
formation of chimneys ; the protection
of walls from damp, of timber from
moisture and stagnant air ; of metals
from corroding causes, etc., besides the
multitude of details which attend the
completion of any structure.

In modern times, attention has long
been devoted to devising means and
providing materials for building pur-
poses that will withstand the dangers
and destruction caused by fire. The
production of incombustible materials,
rather than the rendering of wood and
other combustibles fireproof by chem-
ical treatment, has been an important
factor in the development of present-
day building methods.

During the experimental stage in
fireproof construction in the United
States from 1854 to 1870, the substi-
tution of iron for wood for all con-
structive purposes was thought an im-
portant advance until iron of all
kinds proved unreliable when exposed
to temperatures of 900 degrees Fahr.
and over. The danger from the new
style of building was greater than
from the old. In many instances,
buildings with cast-iron fronts col-
lapsed completely during a fire, and
the plan of unprotected iron construc-
tion was abandoned.

Between 1875 and 1879, however,
the advantages of protected iron con-
struction was recognized, and with the
improvement of incombustible mate-
rials for building purposes, steel skele-
ton construction is now generally
adopted for all new structures of any
magnitude throughout the United
States, and is extending to foreign

In the use of concrete, a wooden
mould of desired width, placed about
the steel girders, receives under pres-
sure the liquid stone which is left to
harden. When the wooden shields are
removed, a smooth wall is presented,
which grows harder with the passage
of time and withstands a greater pres-
sure than granite or steel itself.

The building of a modern iron-frame
skyscraper is chiefly a matter of as-


Building Associations

sembling the parts or "members." Lit-
tle of the real work is done on the
site of the building as in the old days
of stone construction. The digging of
the cellar and the sinking of caissons
in order to lay a bed for the iron-
work is the principal engineering work
done on the spot. All departments
work simultaneously excavators,
draughtsmen, rolling mills, iron-work-
ers, masons, plumbers and finishers.
How much weight each upright and
floor will have to carry is figured out,
and for the guidance of the rolling-
mill man detail sketches are made of
every beam, girder and upright to be
used, with every dimension calculated
to the sixteenth of an inch, and every
rivet hole exactly indicated as to place
and size. Every piece is numbered to
correspond with the number on the
builder's plan, the floors they are to
occupy being indicated by letters.
Thus M 114 signifies for M, the thir-
teenth floor, and 114, its position on
that floor. By this plan the stone-
work may often be seen built up on
the higher stories, while the floors be-
low show only the iron skeleton left
open for various reasons, such as the
late arrival of boilers, engines, etc.
The ideal method in the assembling
and putting together of the different
parts of the modern building is tokeep
the stone masons, housesmiths and
plumbers one floor behind the iron-
workers, the carpenters one floor be-
hind these, the plasterers one floor
behind the carpenters, and so on till
the top story is finished.

Modern buildings are erected accord-
ing to the standard regulations for
fireproof buildings suggested by the
National Board of Fire Underwriters
and incorporated in the Building

Building and Loan Associa-
tions, combinations of individuals,
who agree to pay a fixed sum monthly,
by which a fund is accumulated which
is loaned to members, who desire to
purchase or improve real estate. Their
capital stock, which is prospective, is
usualy divided into shares of a par
value of $200 each. Each shareholder
pays upon each share he holds a
monthly subscription of $1, till such
payments, with accrued profits, brings
the value of the share to par. The
number of shares each member may

hold varies in different associations,
the general rule being not less than
two nor more than 25, the latter limi-
tation being intended to prevent specu-
lation. When money sufficient to de-
clare a loan has accumulated in the
treasury, a single share of $200 is put
up at auction and knocked down to
the member who bids the highest
premium. He has the option, at the
same premium, of taking as many
shares as he may desire, within the
limits fixed by the association. The
age of the asociation depends on the
size of these premiums ; the larger the
premium bid the more quickly the as-
sociation terminates. Premiums vary
with the age and location of the asso-
ciation, and also with the demand for
money. There are two methods of
treating these premiums, known as the
gross and instalment plans. The gross
plan treats the premium at once as
profits earned, though the amount bid
will not be paid in full for 10 or more
years. The instalment plan declares
as profits only such amount of the
premium as is actually paid in during
the year. So far as the final result is
concerned, there is no difference be-
tween the two. Building and loan
associations are formed on two plans,
called terminal and serial. The termi-
nal associations compel all members
to begin payments on the same day.
A new member joining after the be-
ginning of the association is thus
forced to pay arrearages. This is
avoided in serial associations by al-
lowing new members to join at stated
intervals, usually six months or a
year, without the payment of arrear-
ages. The advantages of building and
loan associations are : That each
share, whether borrowed upon or not,
has credited to it a pro rata amount
of all profits declared. Loans are gen-
erally advanced to within 80 per cent
of the appraised value of the property.
No large salaries are paid. All offi-
cers, appraisers, auditors, etc., are
elected in open meeting. Members
may withdraw at any time after the
first year, obtaining a fair share of
the profits. Loans are invariably se-
cured by first mortgage. Only mem-
bers may obtain loans. Mortgages
may be paid off at any time. There
are no speculative features, the asso-
ciation buys nothing, the borrowing


member making all contracts. On
Jan. 1, 1916, there were 6,806 build-
ing and loan associations in the United
States, reporting a total membership
of 3,334,899, total assets of $1,484,-
205,875, and an increase in a year of
230,964 in membership and $126,497,-
975 in assets.

Bukowina, ("beech land"), a
Province in the extreme E. of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, surround-
ed by Galicia, Russia, Moldavia, and
Hungary. Area, 4,033 square miles ;
pop. (1912) 814,247, of whom 42 per
cent, were Ruthenians, 32 Moldavians,
and 13 Jews, while 70 per cent, be-
longed to the Greek Church. It is tra-
versed by offsets of the Carpathians,
culminating at 6,077 feet ; gives rise
to many rivers flowing toward the
Black Sea ; and abounds in wood,
along with considerable mineral riches.

Bukowina belonged originally to
Turkey, was occupied by the Russians
in 1769 and the Austrians in 1774,
was ceded by Turkey to Austria in
1777, was incorporated with Galicia
in 1786, but was separated from it in
1849. The province was the center of
vast military ope'rations for a long
time after the outbreak of the great
war. On Feb. 24, 1915, the Russians
were defeated in a stubborn attack
here ; on June 23, 1916, they occupied
a part of the territory.

Bulacan, a town in Luzon, Phil-
ippine Islands, about 22 miles N. W.
of Manila, with which it is connected
by railway ; pop. about 10,000. The
town is composed mainly of native
huts, although there are factories in
which silk matting is made. Sugar
making is also an industry of impor-
tance. The place has strategic advan-
tages, which caused it to become a
theater of military operations after
the Spanish-American War.

Bulawayo, the principal town and
chief commercial center of Matabele-
land, in Southern Rhodesia, South
Africa, to which point the railroad
from Cape Town was completed in
1897, a total distance of 1,360 miles.
The place had a pop. (1911) 10,859 ;
several hotels, good business blocks
and residences, and is rapidly growing
in size and importance. Bulawayo a
few years ago was the site of a native
village of rude huts, in an inclosure


of wattles, whose inhabitants were
savages of the lowest type.

Bnlbnl, the Indian name of any
bird belonging to a sub-family of

Bulfinch, Charles, an American
architect, born in Boston 1763 ; died
1844. He built the first playhouse
erected in New England, the old Fed-
eral street theatre in Boston, and drew
plans for the Massachusetts State
house. His principal work was the
rotunda, the west approaches, and the
portico, in the Capitol at Washington.

Bulgaria, a former Turkish prin-
cipality, created by the Treaty of
Berlin (1878), declared her indepen-
dence on Oct. 5, 1908, bounded on the
N. by Rumania, on the W. by Servia
and Greece, on the E. by the Black
Sea, and on the S. by Turkey and the
^Egean Sea; area, 43,310 square
miles; pop. (1914) est. 4,752,997;
capital, Sofia. The soil is excellent and
the slopes of the mountains are richly
wooded. The inhabitants, though not
skilled in agriculture, are able to pro-
duce a considerable export in grain
products beyond what they require for
themselves. Wheat is the chief ex-
port. Fruit is raised in abundance,
and vegetables for home use ; roses,
for the production of the attar, are
raised in large quantities ; 80,000 gal-
lons of wine are made annually ; silk
worms are bred in some regions, and
tobacco is raised. There is little min-
ing, although the mountains are rich
in minerals. Domestic industries are
chiefly carpets, cloths, hosiery, and
ribbons. The roads are very bad,
and there is but a single line of rail-
road ; about 500 miles, on the route
between Vienna and Constantinople.
All traffic is carried on by the rivers,
and the export trade by the Black
Sea. The population is about 74
per cent. Bulgarians, 19 per cent.
Turks, the rest Spanish Jews, with
a sprinkling of Greeks ; 77 per
cent, are of the faith of the Or-
thodox Greeks Church ; only 2^ per
cent. Moslems. The government is
Christian ; there is a National militia ;
military service compulsory. The Bul-
garians were originally of Finnish ex-
traction, but coalesced with a Slavic
populace, whose language was the
richest of the old Slavic tongues. In


their older literature are found many
valuable works, chiefly popular song-
and translations of the Bible. They j
adopted Christianity in the 9th cen- 1
tury. From that to the 12th their
rulers were powerful over the Balkan
Peninsula. Then they were conquered
and ruled by the Turks for about 500
years. In 1876, on account of the
atrocities of the Turkish soldiers, an
insurrection broke out. Russia took
the part of Bulgaria against Turkey, i
and the war of 1877-1878 followed.
In 1879, Alexander of Battenberg, a
German Prince, was made sovereign
of part of Bulgaria, the rest being
made a separate province called East
Rumelia, to prevent Bulgaria becom-
ing a strong State. In 1885 there
was a revolution in East Rumelia,
which annexed itself to Bulgaria.
Servia intervened, and Alexander was
forced to abdicate. Against Russia's
will, Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg ac-
cepted the vacant throne in 1887.
Since 1908 the government has been
that of an independent kingdom, with
a responsible ministry and a single-
chamber National Assembly (one mem-
ber to every 20,000 of population)
elected by universal manhood suffrage
for four years. In 1903 Bulgaria noti-
fied the Great Powrrs that unless they
compelled Turkey to cease the mas-
sacre of Bulgarians in Macedonia, Bul-
faria would take the issue into her own
ands. This declaration caused a pro-
found sensation throughout Europe
and Turkey began preparations for
war, but nothing further resulted at the

On Sept. 30, 1912, Bulgaria allied
with Servia, Greece, and Montenegro
began war on Turkey (the first Balk-
an war), which was ended by the
treaty of London, May 30, 1913, by
which Turkey ceded to the Allies all
its European territory west of a line
drawn from Midia on the Black Sea
to Enos on the ^Bgean, and also Crete.
On June 29, 1913, she opened war
on her former allies because of dis-
content with her share of the spoil
(the second Balkan war), was badly
defeated, and lost more than she had
gained. In October, 1915, she allied
herself with Germany, Austria, and
Turkey in the great war, and at sev-
eral places, singly and in conjunction
with her new allies, again waged war-


fare on her former allies. See AP-
PENDIX: World War.

Bull, an instrument, edict, ordi-
nance, or decree of the Pope, equiva-
lent to the proclamations, edicts, let-
ters patent, or ukases of secular

Boll, George Joseph, a Cana-
dian ophthalmic surgeon, born in
Hamilton, Ontario, Feb. 16, 1848. He
was graduated at McGill University
in 1869, and, after studying in Paris,
began the practice of medicine in
Montreal, devoting himself especially
to diseases of the eye. He took up
his residence in Paris in 1886, and
has won celebrity as an expert in oph-
thalmic subjects. He has written
" Ophthalmia and Optometry," and
many similar works.

Bull, John, the popular sobri-
quet or characteristic name applied to
the English nation. Its origin is ob-
scure. a It appears to have been first
used in Arbuthnot's famous satire,
the " History of John Bull," written
in ridicule of the Duke of Marlbor-
ough. This work is included hi those
of Dean Swift

Bull, Ole Bornemann, a Nor-
wegian violinist, born in Bergen, Feb.
5, 1810. He secured great triumphs
both throughout Europe and in the
United States by his wonderful play-
ing. He lost all his money in a scheme
to found a colony of his countrymen
in Pennsylvania, and had to take
again to his violin to repair his broken
fortunes. He afterward settled in
Cambridge, Mass., and had also a
summer residence in his native city,
where he died, Aug. 17, 1880.

Bull Baiting, the barbarous sport
of setting dogs on a bull, who is tied
to a stake and worried by the dogs for
the amusement of the spectators. It
was a favorite sport in England from
a very early period, till it was finally
put down by Act of Parliament in

Bulldog, a variety of the common
dog, remarkable for its short, broad
muzzle, and the projection of its
lower jaw which causes the lower
front teeth to protrude beyond the
upper. The head is massive and
broadj and the frontal sinuses large.
The lips are thick and pendulous ; the
ears pendant at the extremity; the


neck robust and short ; the body long
and stout ; and the legs short and
thick. The bulldog is a slow motioned
animal, better suited as a watchdog
than for any purpose requiring activ-
ity and intelligence. He is also said
to be capable of great affection for
bis master. His fearlessness is well
known, and in fighting, bulldogs dis-
play the most indomitable spirit. They
are apt to become vicious as they ad-
vance in years, but ordinarily a bull-
dog is not more ready than any other
dog to attack persons without some

The name was originally given to
this dog on account of its being com-
monly employed in bull-baiting in the
days when this barbarous sport was
fn vogue. The bull terrier is a dog
that partakes of the character of both
the bulldog and the terrier, and is
rather a favorite among lovers of dogs.

Buller, Sir Bedvers Henry, a
British soldier; born in Devonshire,
England, in 1839 ; entered the army in
1858 ; served in the campaigns in
China (1860), Ashanti (1873-1874),
South Africa (1878-1879), Egypt
(1882-1884), and the Sudan (1884-
1885) ; in 1890 succeeded Lord Wolse-
ley as adjutant-general of the army
and became lieutenant-general. On
the breaking out of the Boer-British
War in South Africa, in October,
1899, he was placed in command of
the British forces who went to the re-
lief of Ladysmith. On Dec. 15, fol-
lowing, in attempting to force the
passage of the Tugela river at Colen-
so, he was repulsed, with a loss of
1,097 officers and men and 11 guns.
After several repulses he succeeded in
relieving Ladysmith, March 3, 1900.
He was afterward relieved from com-
mand on the ground of failure to meet
the expectations of his military su-
periors, and much scandal was caused
by a controversy which followed re-
garding the responsibility for his
failure. He died June 2, 1908.

Bullet, the projectile used for
small-arms, either spherical or of an
elongated form. The elongated bullet
is now in general use for rifles, and
there has also been introduced some
means of dilating the bullet at the
moment of explosion, so that it is
forced into the grooves of the rifle and
exactly fits the barrel.

Bull Finck

Bullfights, the favorite or na-
tional diversion of the Spaniards, as
now practised said to be of compara-
tively modern origin, having been de-
vised by the Moors of Spain mainly
for the exhibition of horsemanship,
courage, and dexterity with the lance.
At first it was practised by gentlemen
armed only with a short spear or jave-
lin ; and on grand occasions, especially
the coronation of a king, such com-
bats are still exhibited. But generally
the combatants are professionals. The
excommunications of the Popes have
not been sufficient to induce the Span-
iards to abandon this amusement.
Charles IV. abolished it ; but it was
soon revived again. The assailants
are seldom killed in these sports. Bull-
fights are got up either for private
gain or for the benefit of some public
institution. This characteristic na-
tional- sport or diversion is exhibited
at Madrid through the summer at least
once a week for the benefit of the gen-
eral hospital. The bullfights are held
in special rings or amphitheaters, that
at Madrid being capable of seating
12,700 persons, its cost of erection
having been $400,000.


Bull Fiuch, a well known bird,
locally known as the norskpipe, the
coal-hood, the hoop, or the tony hoop,
the alp, and the hope. Its song Is

Bull Frog

much prized. It is often domesticated.
It is found in many lands.

Bull Frog, any frog which croaks
with a deep rather than a sharp sound.
A species of frog found in Carolina
and the parts adjacent, which has a
voice not unlike that of a bull. It is
six or eight inches long, by three or
four broad, without the legs. It swal-
lows ducks and young goslings whole.
It is difficult to catch from its length
of leap, besides which it is generally
left unharmed because it is said to
purify rather than to pollute the
water in which it lives.

Bullhead, various fishes having
large heads.

Bullinger, Henri, a celebrated
Swiss reformer ; born in Bremgar-
ten in 1504 ; died in Zurich in 1575.

Bullion, uncoined gold and silver
in bars or in the mass. United States
standard bullion contains 900 parts of
pure gold or pure silver, and 100 parts
of copper alloy. The coining value of
an ounce of pure gold is $20.67183,
and the coining value of an ounce of
standard gold is $18.60465. The coin-
ing value in standard silver dollars of
an ounce of pure silver is $1.2929, and
the coining value of an ounce of stan-
dard silver is $1.1636.

Bull Run, or Bull's Run, a
stream in Virginia, dividing Fairfax
and Prince William counties, in the
N. E. part of the State, and flowing
into the Oecoquan river 14 miles from
the Potomac. On its banks were
fought two of the most memorable bat-
tles during the Civil War. After a
series of heavy skirmishes, July 16-
19. 1861, the Union army under Gen-
eral McDowell was on the 21st utter-
ly routed by the Confederates under
the command of Generals Beauregard
and J. E. Johnston. The Union loss
was about 3,000 men, while that of
the Confederates was estimated at
nearly 2,000 men. The former lost,
in addition, 27 guns, besides an im-
mense quantity of small arms, ammu-
nition, stores, provisions, and accou-
trements. On Aug. 30, 1862, another
great battle was fought here between
the Union forces commanded by Gen-
eral Pope, and the Confederates un-
der Generals Lee, Longstreet, and
** Stonewall " Jackson, when the for-
mer were again defeated with heavy


loss. The three battles of Groveton,
Bull's Run, and Chantilly, fought in
three successive days, cost the Union
cause about 20,000 men in killed,
wounded, missing, and prisoners, 30
guns, and 30,000 small arms. The
first battle of Bull Run is sometimes
known as the battle of Manassas.

Bull Terrier, a variety of dog, a
cross breed between the bull dog and

Bulnes, Manuel, a Chilian sol-
dier and statesman, born in Concep-
cion, Dec. 25, 1799. He served in
most of the battles of the Chilean rev-
olution. In 1838 he commanded the
Chilean army of 5,000 men against
Santa Cruz, in Peru, and was finally
instrumental in driving Santa Cruz
from the country and breaking up the
Peru-Bolivian confederation. In 1841
he was elected President of Chile and
served for 10 years. He was after-
ward Senator and Councilor of State.
He died in Santiago, Oct. 18, 1866.

Bulpw, Hans Guido von, a Ger-
man pianist and composer, born in
Dresden, Jan. 8, 1830; died in Cairo,
Feb. 13, 1894.

Bulow, Karl Eduard von, a
German author, born at Burg vor
Eilenburg in Saxony in 1803 ; died in

Bulow, Margarete von, a Ger-
man novelist, born in Berlin in 1860.
She lost her life in an attempt to res-
cue a boy from drowning, in 1885.

Buloz, Francois, born near Ge-
neva, Switzerland, 1803, died at Paris
in 1877 ; founder and editor of the
" Revue des Deux Mondes," the cele-
brated French fortnightly literary

Bulrush, or Bullrush, called
also cat's tail or reed mace. The bul-
rush of Scripture is the translation of
two distinct Hebrew words, agmon,
possibly an arundo or some similar
genus, in Isa. Iviii : 5, and gome, evi-
dently the papyrus nilotica (Ex. ii:
3, Isa. xviii: 2).

Bulthaupt, Heinrich Alfred,
a German poet and dramatist, born in
Bremen, Oct. 26, 1849. On quitting
the university he was for a while a
private tutor ; then he traveled in the
East, in Greece, and in Italy. He
was a lawyer in his native town for


some years, and in 1879 became cus-
todian of the city library. Of his
dramatic compositions the list is very

Bulwer. Henry Lytton Earle
(Lord Balling), an English author
and diplomatist, brother of Sir Ed-
ward Bulwer-Lytton, born Feb. 13,
1801 ; died in Naples, May 23, 1872.

Bui wer- Clayton Treaty, a
treaty negotiated at Washington, D.
C., in April, 1850, by John M. Clay-
ton, Secretary of State under Presi-
dent Taylor, and Sir Henry Bulwer,
British Minister to the United States.
The treaty provided that neither the
United States nor Great Britain
should attempt to control a proposed
canal across Nicaragua. The treaty
provided further for the neutrality
of the canal, and it guaranteed en-
couragement to all lines of inter-
oceanic communication. The terms
of the treaty were afterward much
disputed. On March 3, 1899, Con-
gress passed a bill providing for the
construction of a canal on the Nica-
ragua route, which also authorized
the President to open negotiations
with Great Britain for the abroga-
tion of the Bulwer-Clayton Treaty,
and under the last clause a conven-
tion between the two countries, abro-
gating portions of the treaty, was
signed in Washington, Feb. 5, 1900.

Bnlwer-Lytton. See LYTTON,

Bulyea, George Henry Vicars,
a Canadian official: born in Gage-
town, N. B., Feb. 17, 1859; removed
to Qu'appelle (in the former Assini-
boia District, N. W. T.); became
Commissioner of Yukon Territory,
Territorial Secretary and Minister of
Agriculture, and the first lieutenant-
governor of the new Province of Al-
berta (1905).

Bunce, Oliver Bell, author and
editor, born New York, Feb. 8, 1828.
He edited " Appleton's Journal," " Pic-
turesque America," " Picturesque Eu-
rope," "Picturesque Palestine," etc.,
and wrote " Romance of the Revolu-
tion," " Don't : A Manual of Mistakes
and Improprieties," " My House : An
Ideal ; " a novel, and plays. He died at
New York, May 15, 1890.

Buncombe, a county in North
Carolina. The term bunkunu mean-

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