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Bishop Wilkins, Sir George Caylay
end others, towards the end of the
18th century, busied themselves with
speculation and experiments on the
subject of aviation.

Henry Cavendish, about 1766, dis-
covered the great levity of hydrogen
gas slightly over 14 times less than
that of atmospheric air and the fol-
lowing year Dr. Black, of Edinburgh,
announced in his lectures that a thin
bladder, filled with this gas, must
ascend into the air. Cavallo made the
requisite experiments in 1782, and
found that a bladder was too heavy,
paper not air-tight, but that soap-bub-
bles filled with hydrogen rose to the
ceiling of the room, where they burst.
The first successful balloon was made
by the Montgolfier brothers, sons of
Peter Montgolfier, a paper manufac-
turer of Annonay, France. It was
a parallelepiped or six-sided bag of
silk, containing 40 cubic ft. ; inflated
with hot air from burning paper it
rose to a height of 36 ft. The broth-
ers, after seeing a petticoat sail to the
ceiling when left to dry by a fire, had
conceived the idea that a bag filled
with a cloud-like substance, such as
smoke, would float in the air. Larger
machines were constructed with great-
er success in ascension, a straw fire,
fed by chopped wool from time to



LATEST TYPES OP A




1 School machine in flight.

2 and 3 Inside views at an aeroplane factory.

4 Biplane ready to take flight.



Copyright U. & U.



IRICAN AEROPLANES




5 American warplanes on the French front.

6 Speedy biplane with 135 H.P. motor.

7 U. S. officers inspecting aeroplanes at a training camp.



Aeronautics

time, being kindled under the aper-
ture of the balloon to produce the
smoke cloud ; the true cause of ascen-
sion, the rarefaction of the heated
air, was not discovered till a later
period. The Montgolfier successes led
to Charles' experiments with hydrogen
gas. Within a short time several cap-
tive ascents by human beings were
successfully made in heated air bal-
loons, and on Nov. 21, 1783, Pilatre
de Rozier and the Marquis d'Arlandes
made the first independent aerial ex-
pedition rising 3,000 ft. and descending
safely, though not without being ex-
posed to considerable danger, 9,000 ft.
from their starting point. Ten days
later, on Dec. 1, Messrs. Charles and
Roberts ascended in a hydrogen bal-
loon fitted with a safety valve, and
travelled over 31 miles. Over 52 bal-
loon ascents are recorded in 1784.
Blanchard, the first professional aero-
naut, with Dr. John Jeffries of Bos-
ton, crossed the English Channel from
Dover to France, in a heated air bal-
loon, Jan. 1, 1785. On June 14, 1785,
Pilatre de Rozier with Mr. Remain at-
tempted to cross from the French side,
in a combination hydrogen and heated-
air balloon, but the machine caught
fire 3,000 ft. in the air and both men
were killed. The disaster was caused
through unfortunate negligence and
the cause of aeronautics did not suffer.
The parachute (q. v.) was invented by
Garnerin, who first made a descent
Oct. 22, 1797.

Following these early experiments,
among notable ascensions during the
19th century taken in the interests of
science were those of Messrs. Robert-
son and Lhoest in 1803-04, of Gay
Lussac and Biot in 1804, of Carlo
Brioschi and Andreani in 1806, of
Green, the English aeronaut, with
Messrs. Holland and Mason in 183G,
of Bixio and Barral in 1850, of Messrs.
Glaisher and Coxwell in 1862, when
they reached a height of 7 miles, and
of Messrs. Camille Flammarion, W.
de Fonvieville, and Gaston Tissandier,
1867-69. In July, 1859, Mr. John
Wise, the American aeronaut with
Mr. John La Mountain and two
others made a remarkable journey
from St. Louis, Mo., to Henderson in
Jefferson Co., N. Y., a distance of
1,150 m., in 19 h. 50 m., or at an aver-
age speed of nearly a mile a minute.



Aeronautics

Since the beginning of the 20th cent,
this has been exceeded onlv by Count
de la Vaulx's flight of 1,200 m. from
Paris to Russia.

Regular balloon corps are attached
to the armies of leading nations, and
in their interests numerous attempts
have been made to construct dirigible
balloons. Gaston and Albert Tissen-
dier achieved some success in 1884,
but the first notable dirigible flight
was that of Col. Renard on Apr. 9,
1884, when, in a cigar-shaped balloon,
with a powerful motor and a front
screw, he left Chalais-Meudqn, and re-
turned to his starting .point in 23 min-
utes after describing an oblong course
of five miles. Since then aerial navi-
gation has developed along the lines
of dirigible balloons and motor aero-
planes.

Two new forms of air-craft were
developed practically during 1913,
viz : the hydro-aeroplane, an aero-
plane capable of rising from the sur-
face of water with the aid of a float-
ing device, and the flying-boat, a com-
bination of a speed motor-boat that
can be operated as slowly as two
miles an hour or as rapidly as
fifty miles, to which is attached a
standard aeroplane. The apparatus
can be used on the water, in the air,
and, with an equipment of wheels, on
the ground, with equal ease and sur-
prising speed, and it quickly gave birth
to a new and exhilarating sport
yachting in the air.

Owing to the commandeering of air-
craft and the enlistment of aviators for
military service in all the belligerent
armies, competitive aviation was so
restricted that from the outbreak of
the World War the International
Aviation Federation accepted no rec-
ords as claimed.

In 1915 many improvements were
made in air-craft, the better to fit the
various types for use as engines of
war. Their speed and carrying capac-
ity were greatly increased so that they
could convey more men and also bombs
and machine guns.

In the United States the Congress
passed an act, approved July 18, 1914,
creating an aviation section of the
signal corps to be composed of 60
captains and first lieutenants and 260
enlisted men. The act provided for an
increase in the pay of military avia-



Aeronautics



Aeronautic*



tors of 75 per cent., of juniors of 50
per cent., and of students of 25 per
cent. Enlisted men were required to
take part at regular periods in aerial
flights.

The Army Appropriation Act of Aug.
29, 1916, appropriated $13,000,000 for
the extension of the aerial service, and
plans which had been previously for-
mulated for extending the service were
further enlarged by the passage of the
act of July 24, 1917, appropriating
$640,000,000 for the construction of
air craft. This latter action, it is to
be noted, was taken after the United
States had entered the war (April 6,
1917).

The task of construction was speed-
ily undertaken in various sections of
the country, aviation schools were es-
tablished, American inventors made
many contributions to the effectiveness
of the latest types of foreign machines,
and experienced instructors from
France and England aided in the
training of the American airmen. As
rapidly as construction and instruc-
tion permitted machines and men were
hurried to the battle-fronts of France,
the first contingent being designated
the Lafayette Escadrille.

The war was still young when the
Germans inaugurated Admiral Von
Tirpits's "campaign of frightfulness,"
by bombing English coast sections from
Zeppelins and other types of craft,
killing inoffensive non-combatants,
and destroying property that should
have been immune, without gaining
any military advantage whatever.
Later the entente belligerents began
retaliating in kind, seeking, how-
ever, bases of supplies and munition
works.

No more terrible exposition of aero-
nautic warfare can be found than in
the record of six days in March, 1918,
viz:

March 9. Ten or twelve squadrons
of German bombing aircraft raided
Paris, killing 13 persons and wounding
50.

March 10. British army aviators
raided motor and munition factories
and other objectives at Stuttgart, Ger-
many, dropping over one and a quarter
tons of bombs.

March 11. Germans raided Naples,
Italy, without damage of a military
character, a hospital and private dwell-
ings chiefly being injured.



British made daylight raid on
Mainz, Germany, with but slight casu-
alties.

March 12. Nine squadrons of
German craft, aggregating nearly 60
units, attacked Paris ; 34 persons
killed, 79 injured, 66 suffocated while
in a refuge.

British aviators dropped a ton of
bombs on Coblenz, Prussia.

German Zeppelins made night raid
on eastern coast of England and
dropped bombs on Hull.

British dropped over thirteen and a
half tons of explosives on various tar-
gets at Mons and Bavay, on large
ammunition depots northeast of St.
Quentin, and on billets east of Lens,
and 7 tons of bombs on billets between
Lille and Cambrai.

March 13. British dropped 3 tons
of bombs on docks at Bruges.

March 14. Zeppelins made night
raid on northeast coast of England.

British airplanes attacked German
munition works and barracks at Frei-
burg, dropping nearly 10 tons of
bombs.

For a concise record of bombing
raids by airplanes from the beginning
of the war to the end of 1917 see
APPENDIX : World War.

A noteworthy feature of the pacific
side of aeronautics was the provision
for an aeroplane mail service between
New York, Philadelphia, and Wash-
ington, scheduled for inauguration
about May 15, 1918.

Excluding the records of phenome-
nal achievements in war air-flights
and of most courageous operations in
France by American aviators, the fol-
lowing shows the most notable of
recent records :

Oct. 6, 1908. Wilbur Wright, in
France, made first flight of more than
1 h. with a passenger.

Oct. 30, 1908. Farman, in France,
made first cross-country flight, 20
miles in 17 m.

July 25, 1909. Louis BleYiot made
first flight across English Channel in
31 m.

Aug. 28, 1909. Glenn H. Curtiss,
at Rheims, won first Gordon-Bennett
Aviation Cup, by 12.42 miles in 15
m. 501 s.

Oct. 19, 1909. Count Charles de
Lambert made first flight over a city,
at Paris, rounding the Eiffel Tower at
height of nearly 1,500 feet, making






Aeronautics



Aeronautics



journey of 50 kilometers in as many
minutes.

Jan. 7, 1910. Hubert Latham, at
Mourmelon, France, broke height rec-
ord with 3,600 feet.

Jan. 11, 1910. Curtiss, at Los An-
geles, Cal., broke record flight with
passenger, 55 miles an hour.

April 19, 1910. Louis Paulhan, at
Rheims, made new cross-country aero-
plane record, 130 miles.

April 28, 1910. Paulhan won $50,-
000 prize for flight from London to
Manchester, Eng., 185 miles, in 3 h.
56 m.

May 29, 1910. Curtiss won $10,-
000 prize for flight from Albany to
Governor's Island, N. Y., 150 miles, in
2 h. 32 m. ; also making both an
American cross-country record and
the world's speed record for such
flights.

June 2, 1910. Sir Charles S. Rolls
made first round-trip flight across
English Channel without stop, 42
miles in 90 m. He was killed in a
flight, July 12, following.

June 22, 1910. Count Zeppelin
opened the first regular airship pas-
senger service with his "Deutsch-
land," and carried 20 passengers from
Friedrichshaven to Diisseldorf, 300
miles, in 9 h. On the 28th the air-
ship was wrecked in a gale.

July 7, 1910. Latham broke pre-
vious height record with over 5,000
feet.

July 7, 1910. M. Olieslagers, at
Rheims, made new world's endurance
record, 158 miles without stop, in 2 h.
35 m. 30 s.

July 9, 1910. M. Labouchere, at
Rheims, made world's record for dis-
tance, 211.14 miles, in 4 h. 37 m. 45 s.

July 9, 1910. Leon Morane, at
Rheims, made new speed record, 6.20
miles, in 5 m. 27 s.

July 9, 1910. Walter Brooking, at
Atlantic City, N. J., broke world's
record for height, 6,100 feet.

July 15, 1910. J. Armstrong Drexel,
at Bournemouth, Eng., made an over-
sea flight of 21 miles in 34 m., and
Morane covered the distance in 25 m.

Aug. 11, 1910. Drexel, at Lanark,
Scotland, made height of 6,750 feet.

Sept. 23, 1910. Chavez crossed the
Alps between Switzerland and Italy
and died from injuries, 27th.

Oct. 15, 1910. Walter Wellman,



with five others, attempted to cross
the Atlantic from Atlantic City, N.
J., in the dirigible balloon "America,"
but was compelled by storm to
abandon the balloon off Cape Hat-
teras on the 18th, having been in the
air nearly 72 hours and covered about
850 miles.

Oct. 17-19, 1910. Alan R. Haw-
ley and Augustus Post, in balloon
"America II," made record for sus-
tained flight, from St. Louis, Mo., to
Chicoutimi county, Quebec, Canada,
about 1,350 miles.

Oct. 29, 1910. Grahame-White, at
Belmont Park, won the Bennett cup,
beating world's speed record for 100
kilometers (62.1 miles) in ! m.,
4 74-100 s.

Oct. 31, 1910. Ralph Johnstone, at
Belmont Park, made biplane height
record, 9,714 feet ; was killed in flight
at Denver, Nov. 17.

Nov. 7, 1910. Phil O. Parmelee
made fastest cross-country flight and
was the first to carry freight : Dayton
to Columbus, O., 65 miles in 65 m.

Nov. 23, 1910. Drexel. at Phila-
delphia, Pa., claimed height of 9,970
feet, world's record ; claim rejected
by Aero Club, but accepted by U. S.
Weather Bureau.

Dec. 9, 1910. M. Legagneux, at
Pau, France, in monoplane, made
height of 10,499 feet ; world's record.

Dec. 10, 1910. Captain Bellanger,
French Army Aviation Corps, broke
speed records, Vincennes to Mour-
melon, 100 miles, in 70 m.

April 12, 1911. Prier flew from
London to Paris (251 miles) in 2 h.

56 m. with stop.

Aug. 2, 1911. Vedrines, from Lon-
don to Dieppe to Paris (267 miles)
in 3 h. 50 m.

Dec. 2, 1911. Prevost, with one

gassenger, made altitude flight at
ourcy, France (9,840 ft.).
Feb. 17, 1912. Tabuteau broke the
world's record for 2 hours' flight by
covering a distance of 227 kilom. 454
metres (141^ miles).

March 14, 1912. Salmet flew from
London to Paris (222 miles) in 2 h.

57 m., taking this short route with-
out stop.

July 27, 1912. H. E. Honeywell
won American National Champion-
ship balloon race from Kansas City,
914 m.



Aeronautics



Afghanistan



Aug. 15, 1912. R. E. Scott, late U.
S. A., won Michelin bomb-dropping
contest, France.

Sept. 9, 1912. Jules Vedrines
(France) won international contest
for Bennett Cup, Chicago ; average
speed, 105.03 m. per h.

Oct. 6, 1912. Pierre Daucourt
(France) made new world record
for single-day cross-country flight,
570 miles, in 8 h. 48 m.

Oct. 27, 1912. World's distance
record broken in balloon race for
Bennett Cup, Stuttgart, Bienaine of
France covering 1,364 miles, Le
Blanc of France, 1,240, and Watts of
U. S., 1,000.

Feb. 9, 1913. H. Faller made dura-
tion record with five passengers, Ger-
many, 1 h. 10 m. 17 s.

March 11, 1913. J. Perreyon alone
made height record, France, 19,600
ft. ; and June 3, made similar record
with one passenger. 16,270 feet.

March 19-21, 1913. E. Rumpel-
mayer made balloon distance record,
Lamotte-Voltchy-Iar, 1,503 miles.

April 15, 1913. F. Champel made
duration record with four passengers,
over circuit, France, 3 h. 1 m. 17 s.

Sept. 29, 1913. M. Prevost won
international contest for Bennett
Cup, Rheims, France, average speed,
101.82 miles per h.

Dec. 22. 1913. German military
officer made balloon flight of 1,740
miles in 87 h.

Feb. 11, 1914. M. Parmelin
(France) made flight over Mont
Blanc from Geneva, Switzerland, to
Aosta, Italy, rising to height of 17,384
ft.

June 24, 1914. Walter S. Brock
(U. S.) won race from London to
Manchester and return, 322 m. in 4
h. 42 m. 26 s.

July 11, 1914. Walter S. Brock
won race from London to Paris and
return, 502 m. in 7 h. 3 m. 6 s.

Reinhold Boehm (Ger.) set endur-
ance record at Johannisthal, Ger-
many, at 24 h. 12 m., covering 1,350
m.

July 14, 1914. Seinrich Oebreich
(Ger.) made altitude flight at Leipsic,
reaching 24,606 ft.

July 27, 1914. Achillo Laudini
(It.), with passenger, crossed the
Monte Rosa range of the Alps from
Novara, Italy, to Visp, Switzerland, at



elevation of over 15,000 ft., in about
3 h.

Oct. 8, 1914. Capt. H. L. Muller
(U. S. A.) made altitude flight at San
Diego, Cal., reaching 17,441 ft.

April 30, 1916. Theodore Mac-
Cauley (U. S.), in hydroplane with
6 passengers, remained in the air 1 h.
10 m. 51 s., traveled 85 m., and as-
cended 950 ft., at Newport News.

Nov. 2, 1916. Victor Carlstrom
(U. S.), in military biplane in attempt
to fly from Chicago to New York that
was interrupted by engine trouble,
traveled 652 m. in 6 h. 7^ m., and
made 480 m. between Chicago and
Erie, Pa., without a stop in 4 h. 1 m.

Nov. 19, 1916. Miss Ruth Law (U.
S.) flew from Chicago to Hornell,
N. Y., 590 m., without a stop ; then
went on to Binghamton, N. Y., making
967 m. in 8 h. 26 m.

Aug. 29, 1917. Capt. G. Laureami
made flight from Turin to Naples and
return, 920 m., in 10 h. 33 m.

Oct. 22, 1917. Lieut. A. Baldioli
made cross-country run between Nor-
folk, Va., and Mineola, L. L, 330 m.,
in 2 h. 55 m.

Afghanistan, the land of the Af-
ghans, a country in Asia, bounded
on the E. mainly by India, S. by
Baluchistan, W. by Persia, and N. by
the Russian Transcaspian territory,
Bokhara and the Russian Pamir
territory ; length about 560, breadth
about 450 miles ; area about 225,000
square miles ; pop. about 5,000.000.

The inhabitants belong to different
races, but the Afghans proper form
the great mass of the people. These
call themselves Pushtaneh or Pukta-
neh, Afghans being the Persian
name._ ^They^ are an Iranic race, and
are divided into a number of tribes,
nmpng which the Duranis and
Ghilzais are the most important, the
latter being the strongest of all the
tribes. A tradition, evidently mod-
ern and legendary, gives them an
Israelitish origin. The Afghans are
bold, hardy, and warlike, fond of
freedom and resolute in maintaining
it, but of a restless, turbulent tem-
per, and much given to plunder.

The boundary between Afghanistan
and British India was long uncertain,
but in 1893 an arrangement was come



Africa



Africa



to between the Ameer Abdur-Rah-
man, and Sir Mortimer Durand.
The boundary then agreed on was
demarcated shortly afterward and
is so drawn as to leave Chitral,
Bajaur, Swat, Chilas, and Wazir-
istan to Great Britain, while Af-
ghanistan is given the territories of
Asmar, Birmal, and Kafiristan. The
Ameer's annual subsidy was also in-
creased from 12 to 18 lacs, and restric-
tions on the import of arms, etc., were
removed. Abdur-Rahman died in Ka-
bul, Oct. 3, 1901. He was succeeded
by his son, Habibulla Khan, who was
said to be more friendly to Russian
influence than his father was, a fact
which for a time excited much anxiety
in Great Britain.

Africa, one of the three great di-
visions of the Old World, and the
third in area of the five continents,
lies nearly due S. of Europe and S.
W. of Asia. It is of a compact form,
being nearly equal at its extreme
points in length and breadth. The N.
section of the continent, however, has
an average breadth of nearly double
the S. This great change of form
arises mostly from the greater pro-
jection of the upper part toward the
W., and the transition on this side
from the broad to the narrow section
is effected suddenly by an inward turn
of the W. coast, which faces S. for
nearly 20 of longitude, forming the
Gulf of Guinea, the greatest indenta-
tion of the coast.

Africa is united to Asia at its N. E.
extremity by the Isthmus of Suez,
now crossed by a great ship canal.
From this point the coast runs in a
W. and somewhat N. direction to the
Strait of Gibraltar, the point of great-
est proximity to Europe. This N.
coast forms the S. shore of the Med-
iterranean Sea, and brings all the N.
countries of Africa into close proxim-
ity with the European and Asiatic
countries lying contiguous to that
great ocean highway, which formed
the chief medium of communication
between the principal divisions of the
ancient world.

The center of Africa possesses an
exuberant tropical vegetation. The
open pastoral belt at the extremities
of the tropics is distinguished by a
rich and varied flora. A special char-
acteristic of the vegetation of the S.



extremity of Africa is the remarkable
variety, size, and beauty of the heaths,
some of which grow to 12 or 15 feet,
in the fertile parts of Nubia.

The fauna of Africa is extensive
and varied, and numerous species of
mammals are peculiar to the conti-
nent. According to a common view of
the geographical distribution of ani-
mals, the N. of Africa belongs to the
Mediterranean sub-region, while the
rest of the continent forms the Ethi-
opian region. Africa possesses nu-
merous species of the order quadru-
mana (apes and monkeys), most of
which are peculiar to it. They abound
especially in the tropics. The most
remarkable are the chimpanzee and
the gorilla. The lion is the typical
carnivore of Africa. Latterly he has
been driven from the coast settlements
to the interior, where he still reigns
king of the forest. There are three
varieties, the Barbary, Senegal, and
Cape lions. The leopard and pan-
ther rank next to the lion among car-
nivora. Hyenas of more than one
species, and jackals, are found all
over Africa. Elephants in large herds
abound in the forests of the tropical
regions, and their tusks form a prin-
cipal article of commerce. These are
larger and heavier than those of
Asiatic elephants. The elephant is
not a domestic animal in Africa as it
is in Asia. The rhinoceros is found,
like the elephant, in Middle and
Southern Africa. Hippopotami abound
in many of the large rivers and the
lakes. The zebra and quagga used to
abound in Central and Southern Af-
rica, but the latter is said to be now
entirely extinct Of antelopes, the
most numerous and characteristic of
the ruminating animals of Africa, at
least 50 species are considered pecu-
liar to this continent, of which 23
used to occur in Cape Colony. The
giraffe is found in the interior, and is
exclusively an African animal. Sev-
eral species of wild buffaloes have
been found in the interior, and the
buffalo has been naturalized in the
N. The camel, common in the N. as
a beast of burden, has no doubt been
introduced from Asia. The horse and
the ass (onager) are natives of Bar-
bary. The cattle of Abyssinia and
Bornu have horns of immense size,
hut extremely light In Barbary and



Africa



the Cape of Good Hope the sheep are |
broad-tailed; in Egypt and Nubia
they are long-legged and short-tailed.
Goats are in some parts more nu-
merous than sheep. The ibex breed ex-
tends to Abyssinia. Dogs are numer-
ous, but cats rare, in Egypt and
Barbary.

There is a marked distinction be-
tween the races in the N. and E. of i
the great desert and those in the Cen-
tral Sudan and the rest of Africa and I
the S. The main elements of the
population of North Africa, including
Egypt and Abyssinia, are Hamitic
and Semitic, but in the N. the Ham- i
ite Berbers are mingled with peoples !
of the same race as those of prehis-
toric Southern Europe, and other
types of various origins, and in the
E. and S. E. with peoples of the negro
type. The Semitic Arabs are found
all over the N. region, and even in
the Western Sahara and Central Su-
dan, and far down the E. coast as
traders. The Somalis and Gallas are
mainly Hamitic. In the Central Su-
dan and the whole of the country
between the desert and the Gulf of
Guinea the population is pure negro
people of the black, flat- or broad-
nosed, thick-lipped type, with narrow
heads, woolly hair, high cheek-bones,
and prognathous jaws. Scattered
among them are peoples of a probably
Hamitic stock. Nearly the whole of
the narrow S. section of Africa is in-
habited by what are known as the
Bantu races, of which the Zulu or
Kaffir may be taken as the type.
The languages of the Bantu peoples
are all of the same structure, even
though the physical type vary, some
resembling the true negro, and others
having prominent noses and compara-
tively thin lips. The Bushmen of
South Africa are of a different type
from the Bantu, probably the remains
of an aboriginal population, while the
Hottentots are apparently a mixture
of Bushmen and Kaffirs. Scattered
over Central Africa, mainly in the
forest regions, are pigmy tribes, who
are generally supposed to be the re-
mains of an aboriginal population.
The bulk of the inhabitants of Mada-
gascar are of Malay affinities. The
total population is estimated at about
175.000,000.

As regards religion, a great pro*



portion of the inhabitants are heath-
ens of the lowest type. Mohamme-
danism possesses a large number of
adherents in Northern Africa and
is rapidly spreading in the Sudan.
Christianity prevails chiefly among



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