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used by settlers in the Western States
and Arctic explorers.

Cachet, Lettre de, a name given
especially to letters proceeding from
and signed by the kings of France,
and countersigned by a secretary of
state.

Cache-long, a beautiful mineral,
regarded as a variety of semi-opal.
It is sometimes called pearl opal, or
mother-of-pearl opal. It is generally
of a milk-white color, rarely with a
yellowish or reddish tinge.

Cactaceae (named from the cac-
tus), Indian figs. About 800 are
known. The fruit of some species is
refreshing and agreeable, that of oth-
ers insipid.

Cactus, an old and extensive ge-
nus of Linnseus. The plant, though
now seen all over India, undoubtedly
came at first from a foreign and a
distant country. It grows very ex-
tensively in the western and south-
western part of the United States and
all over tropical America, usually on
arid lands. Once rooted in a place,
it spreads so widely abroad that it is
difficult to get it out again, and it
is believed to impoverish the land
of which it takes possession.

Caddoan Indians, a family of
North American Indians, comprising
the Arikari tribe in North Dakota;
the four Pawnee villages. Grand, Tap-
age, Republican, and Skidi, in the
Indian Territory ; and the Caddo, Ki-
chai, Wichita, and other tribes, for-
merly in Louisiana, Texas, and Ar-
kansas.

Cade, Jack, the leader of a popu-
lar insurrection in the reign of Henry
VI. of England. He collected 20,000
followers, chiefly Kentish men, who,
in June, 1450, flocked to his standard,
that they might claim redress for the
grievances so widely felt. Cade de-
feated a detachment of the royal for-
ces at Seven Oaks, and obtained pos-
session of London, the King having
retired to Kenilworth ; but having put
Lord Say cruelly to death, and laid
aside the appearance of moderation



Cadence

which he had at first assumed, the
citizens rose, gave his followers bat-
tle, dispersed them, and put Cade to
death, 1450.

Cadence, a close, the device which
in music answers the use of stops in
language.

Cadenza, a flourish of indefinite
form introduced upon a bass note im-
mediately preceding a close.

Cadet, a younger or youngest son;
a junior male member of a noble fam-
ily. Also the name or title given to a
young man in training for the rank
of an officer in the army or navy, or
in a military school. In the United
States cadets are trained for military
life at West Point, N. Y., and for
naval life at Annapolis, Md.

Cadi, or Kadi, in Arabic, a judge
or jurist. Among the Turks cadi sig-
nifies an inferior judge, in distinction
from the mollah, or superior judge.
They belong to the higher priesthood,
as the Turks derive their law from
their prophet.

Cadiz, Spain, an important sea-
port city, capital of a province, which
forms a part of Andalusia. It reached
its highest prosperity after the dis-
covery of America, when it became the
depot of all the commerce with the New
World; declined greatly as a com-
mercial city after the emancipation
of the Spanish colonies in South
America; but again revived, owing
partly to the extension of the Span-
ish railway system, and partly to the
establishment of lines of steamers.

Cadiz is one of the most ancient
towns in Europe, having been built by
the Phoenicians, under the name of
Gaddir ("fortress"), about 1100 B.
C. It afterwards passed into the
bands of the Carthaginians, from
whom it was captured by the Ro-
mans, who named it Gades, and under
them it soon became a city of vast
wealth and importance. Occupied af-
terward by the Goths and Moors, it
was taken by the Spaniards in 1262.

In 1898 it was the rendezvous of
the vessels of the Spanish navy
which, for a time during the war be-
tween the United States and Spain,
were expected to make a demonstra-
tion against some of the principal
American cities on the Atlantic sea-
board. Pop. (1910) 67,174.



Ceesar

Cadorna, Luigi, an Italian mili-
tary officer, born in Pallawza, Sept.
4, 1850, of a family distinguished in
the military history of Italy ; was
graduated at the Turin Military Acade-
my in 1868 and afterward at the
School of War ; was for several years
attached to the General Staff ; was
appointed its Chief when Italy entered
the great war ; and so distinguished
himself in the operations against
Austria that he was called the Joffre
of the Italian army. See APPENDIX:
World War.

Caduceus, Mercury's rod ; a winged
rod entwisted by two serpents borne
by Mercury as an ensign of quality
and office.

Cadwalader, George, an Ameri-
can lawyer and soldier ; born in Phila-
delphia, in 1804. He practiced law
till 1846 ; was made brigadier-general
of volunteers ; and won distinction at
Chapultepec. He resumed his law
practice till 1861 ; became major-gen-
eral of State volunteers ; was placed
in command at Baltimore; accom-
panied Patterson's expedition to Win-
chester (1861) ; and, as one of a mili-
tary board, directed the United States
army operations. He died in Phila-
delphia, Pa., Feb. 3, 1879.

Cadwalader, John, an American
soldier, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 10,
1742. At the outbreak of the Revolu-
tion he was placed in command of a
battalion and soon became brigadier-
general. He fought at Trenton,
Brandywine, Germantown, and Mon-
mouth. He died in Shrewsbury, Pa.,
Feb. 10, 1786.

Caen, a town of France, in Nor-
mandy, chief place in the department
of Calvados, 125 miles N. W. of Paris,
and about 9 miles from the mouth of
the Orne. Two remarkable churches
are St. Etienne or Church of the Ab-
baye-aux-Hommes, built by _ William
the Conqueror, who was buried in it,
and La Ste. Trinite or Church of the
Abbaye-aux-Dames, founded by the
Conqueror's wife. Pop. (1911) 46,-
934.

Caerleon, a town of England on
the Usk, 18 miles S. of Monmouth.
Many fine Roman remains have been,
and are still, found here.

Caesar, Cains Julius, son of a
family of the Julian gens, claiming



Caesar



Cagliari



descent from lulus, son of JEneas.
The origin of the name is uncertain.

Caesar, Cains Julius, son of a
Roman praetor of the same name, was
born July 12, 100 B. c., according to
Mommsen in 102 B. c. One of the
greatest, if not the greatest of mili-
tary commanders, he was likewise
peerless in his time as politician and
statesman. He overcame all his ene-
mies in the field, and was the dictator,
and virtually the first emperor of
Rome. During the year 46 B. C. he
conferred a benefit on Rome and on
the world by the reformation of the
calendar, which had been greatly
abused by the pontifical college for
political purposes. After quelling an
insurrection which broke out in Spain,
where Pompey's sons, Cneius and Sex-
tus, had collected an army, he received
the title of "Father of his Country,"
and also of imperator, was made dic-
tator and prsefectus morum for life,
and consul for 10 years; his person
was declared sacred, and even divine ;
he obtained a body-guard of knights
and senators ; his statue was placed
in the temples ; his portrait was struck
on coins ; the month Quintilis was
called Julius in his honor, and on all
public occasions he was permitted to
wear the triumphal robe. He pro-
posed to make a digest of the whole
Roman law for public use, to found
libraries for the same purpose, to
drain the Pontine Marshes, to enlarge
the harbor of Ostia, to dig a canal
through the Isthmus of Corinth, and
to quell the inroads of the barbarians
on the E. frontiers; but in the midst
of these vast designs he was cut off
by assassination on the Ides (15th)
of March, 44 B. O.

Csesarea, the ancient name of
many cities, such as: (1) Caesarea
Philippi in Palestine, N. of the Sea
of Galilee, rebuilt by Philip, tetrarch
of Galilee, son of Herod the Great.
(2) Csesarea, on the shores of the
Mediterranean, about 55 miles N. W.
from Jerusalem, enlarged and beauti-
fied by Herod the Great, and named
in honor of Caesar Augustus ; the place
where St. Paul was imprisoned two
years (Acts xxiii-xxv). (3) The
capital of Cappadocia, in Asia Minor.

Caesarian Operation, the most
serious operation in midwifery, and
nly resorted to to save life.

E. 27.



Csesarion, son of Julius Caesar and
Cleopatra, put to death by order of
Augustus.

Caesars, The Era of, also known
as the Spanish Era, a period of time
reckoned from Jan. 1, 38 B. C., being
the year following the conquest of
Spain by Augustus. It was much
used in Africa, Spain, and the S. of
France ; but by a synod held in 1180
its use was abolished in all the church-
es dependent on Barcelona. Pedro
IV. of Arragon abolished the use of
it in his dominions in 1350. John of
Castile did the same in 1383. It was
used in Portugal till 1415, if not till
1422. The months and days of this
era are identical with the Julian cal-
endar, and to turn the time into that
of our era, subtract 38 from the year ;
but if before the Christian era, sub-
tract 39.

Caesium, an element discovered by
Bunsen in I860. The pure metal is
rare ; it is similar to potassium, and
has such an affinity for oxygen, it will
burst into flame when exposed to the
air.

Caffeine, Theine, or Gnaranine,
an alkaloid found in tea, coffee and
other plants used as beverages. About
1 per cent, is found in coffee, and
from 2 to 4 per cent, in tea. It has
no nutritive value. In small doses as
in a cUp of tea or coffee it helps the
circulation. In large doses, or after
prolonged drinking of tea or coffee,
it paralyses the heart's action. It is
used in medicine for various nervous
ailments. It is the element that makes
tea and coffee drinking so injurious for
some persons.

Cagayan, an island of the Philip-
pines ; the largest of six small islets,
known as the Cagayan-Sulu group.
It is 5 miles wide and 8 miles long.
Pop. (1903) 2,000. There are moun-
tains attaining a height of 1,100 feet.
The chief products are tobacco and
sugar. There are pearl and shell fish-
eries. Cagayan was sold by Spain to ,
the United States, with Sibutu, in
1900, upon payment of $100,000, hav-
ing been inadvertently excluded from
the terms of the treaty of peace.

Cagliari, Paul, also known under
the name of Paul Veronese, a painter
of Verona, born 1528; died 1588.
See VEBONESE, PAUL.



Oagliostro

Cagliostro, Alessandro, Count
of, (real name GIUSEPPE BALSAMO),
a celebrated charlatan ; born in Pa-
lermo, Italy, June 8, 1743. The dis-
covery of the philosopher's stone, the
preparation of a precious elixir vita?,
etc.,' were the pretenses by means of
which he extracted considerable sums
from credulous people. Died in 1795.

Caguas, a town in the department
of Guayama, Porto Rico; on the
mai'i road between Ponce and San
Juan; 18 miles S. E. of the latter;
is in a section containing hot springs
and valuable quarries of marble and
limestone. Pop. (1910) 10,354.

Caiaphas, a Jew, was the high-
priest at the time when the crucifix-
ion took place. He was deposed A. D.
35, and Jonathan, the son of Annas,
appointed in his stead.

Caicos, a group of islands belong-
ing geographically to the Bahamas,
but annexed in 1874 to Jamaica. The
North, West, East, Grand, and other
Caicos, have, together with Turk's
Islands, an area of 223 square miles.
Pop. (1911) 5,615. Salt and sponges
are their chief products.

Caillie, Rene or Anguste, a
French traveler; born in Poitou,
France, Sept. 19, 1799. Having gone
to Senegal, he learned about 1826 that
the Geographical Society of Paris had
offered a premium of 10,000 francs to
the first traveler who should reach
Timbuctoo. He started from Kakon-
dy in Sierra Leone, April 18, 1827,
and after some delay caused by ill-
ness, reached the mysterious city,
April 20, 1828. Caillie died near
Paris, May 7, 1839.

Cain, the first-born of the human
race, and the first murderer. He be-
came an outcast, traveling to the E.
of Eden, where he built a city and had
a son, named Enoch. The Jewish tra-
dition is, that he was slain by Enoch.

Caine, Thomas Henry Hall, an
English novelist and dramatist; born
in Runcorn, Cheshire, Eng., May 14,
1853. His novels, which are striking
In their pictures of human motives
and passions, are read throughout the
world.

Cairn, a round or conical heap of
stones erected as a sepulchral monu-
ment. They are found on the hills
of England, Wales, and Scotland, and



Cajabamha

some have assigned to them a peculiar
character, as receptacles for the bodies
of criminals burnt in the wicker im
ages of the Druids, etc.

Cairngorm Stone, a mineral ; a
variety of quartz of a smoky yellow
to smoky brown, and often transpar-
ent, but varying to brownish-black,
then nearly opaque in thick crystals.

Cairo, (Arab. Musr el Kaherah
"the victorious capital"), the capital
of modern Egypt, situated in a sandy
plain between the right bank of the
Nile and the ridge of Mokattam, near
the point of the delta of the Nile.

The remarkable edifices of Cairo
comprise many of the finest remains
of Arabian architecture, all dating
from the time of the ancient sultana
of Egypt. Among these, besides
mosques, chapels, and Coptic churches,
are several of the ancient gates, an
aqueduct for conveying water from the
Nile to the citadel, the works of the
citadel, and the palace and well of
Joseph. At Old Cairo are the seven
towers, still called the " Granary of
Joseph," and serving their ancient
purpose. In the island of Rhoda is
the celebrated Nilometer. On the S.,
outside the walls, are the tombs of the
Mamelukes, and on the N. E. the obe-
lisk of Heliopolis. There are also a
magnetic observatory, and the College
of El Ahzar, the principal university
of the Mohammedan world. Pop.
(1914) 726,075.

Cairo, city, port of delivery, and
capital of Alexander county, 111. ; at
junction of the Mississippi and Ohio
rivers; on the Illinois Central and
other railroads ; 150 miles S. E. of St.
Louis. It is the trade center of a
large farming section ; has passenger
and freight steamer connections with
all important river ports ; and has a
$3,000,000 steel railroad bridge across
the Ohio. Pop. (1910) 14,548.

Caisson, a military term, denoting
a wooden chest to hold ammunition ;
formerly applied to the ammunition-
wagon itself. In engineering a cais-
son is a wooden case or frame sunk
in the beds of rivers, etc., during the
laying of the foundations of a bridge.

Cajabamba, former name of Rio-
bamba, the capital of the province
of Chimborazo, in Ecuador, 102
miles S. of Quito, on the arid plateau



Cajamarca

of Topi, at an elevation of 9,480 feet.
Pop. 16,000. The original town of j
RIOBAMBA, founded in 1533, was in
1797 overwhelmed by an earthquake in
which 30,000 lives were lost. Pop.
(1910) 18,000.

Cajamarca, a department in the
N. W. of Peru, between the W. chain
of the Andes and the Amazon. A
railway connects it with the Pacific,
and there is a large farming and cat-
tle-raising industry. Area, 12,538
square miles; pop. (1896) 442,412.
Capital, Cajamarca ; pop. 12,000.

Calabar, a maritime district of
West Africa on the Bight of Biafra,
intersected by two rivers, called re-
spectively Old and New Calabar, un-
der British protection. Duke Town
and Creek Town, the chief towns on
Old Calabar river, are stations of
British missionaries.

Calabash, a tree about 30 feet
high, found in some places wild, in
others cultivated, in the West Indies
and other tropical parts of America.
The fruit of the tree is inclosed in a
shell used by the natives of the Carib-
bee Islands for drinking cups, pots,
musical instruments, and other do-
mestic utensils.

Calabash Nutmeg, a tree of the
order Anonaceae, introduced into Ja-
maica probably from Western Africa.
The fruit resembles small calabashes ;
hence the name. It is called also
American nutmeg, or Jamaica nutmeg.

Calabria, a compartmento of Italy
(the " toe " of the boot "), between
the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas; di-
vided into the provinces of Cosenza.
Reggio, and Catanzaro: area 5,819
square miles; pop. 1,471,780. On
Dec. 28, 1908, Calabria and Sicily
were visited by an earthquake and
tidal wave, causing an appalling loss.

Caladinm, a genus of endogenous
plants, the typical one of the family
caladieae. They are cultivated in
greenhouses here, and flourish in
warmer parts of tae world. The
leaves of the caladium are boiled and
eaten in the West Indies.

Calais, a fortified seaport town of
(France, in the department of Pas-de-
Calais, on the Strait of, and 25 miles
S. E. of Dover, and distant 184 miles
by rail from Paris. The Old Town
lor Calais proper has a citadel, and



Calamus

was formerly surrounded by fortifica
tions; but the modern suburb of Sfc
Pierre les Calais having been amaN
gamated with Calais proper, both are
now surrounded with forts and other
works, to which morasses lend addi-
tional strength. In 1347 Calais was
taken by Edward III. of England,
after a siege of 11 months. In 1558
it was retaken by the Duke of Guise,
being the last relic of the French do-
minions of the Plantagenets, which
at one time comprehended the half of
France. Pop. (1911) 72,322.

Calamianes, an island group of
the Philippine Archipelago. Their
surface is mountainous, and richly
wooded, producing rice, wool, cacao,
and the bird's nests used for food.
Busuanga, Calamian and Linacapan
are the largest of the islands. Area
about 340 square miles; pop. over
20,000.




CAL4.DIUK.

Calamus, the reed pen which the
ancients used in writing, made of the
stem of a reed growing in marshy
places, of which the best were ob-
tained from Egypt. The stem was
first softened, then dried, and cut and
split with a knife, as quill pens are
made. To this day the Orientals gen
erally write with a reed.



Calamus



Calcium Light



Calamus, the traditional name of
the sweet flag, which is no doubt the
" calamus aromaticus " of Roman au-
thors, and probably the sweet calamus
and sweet cane of Scripture.

Galas, Jean, a French victim of
fanaticism ; born in 1698. He was a
Protestant, and was engaged as a
merchant in Toulouse, when his eld-
est son committed suicide ; and as he
was known to be attached to the Ro-
man Catholic faith, a cry arose that
he had on that account been murdered
by his father. Jean Calas and his
whole family were arrested, and a
prosecution instituted against him, in
support of which numerous witnesses
came forward. The parliament of
Toulouse condemned him, by eight
voices against five, to be tortured and
then broken on the wheel, which sen-
tence was carried out in 1762, his
property being also confiscated. Vol-
taire became acquainted with his fam-
ily, and procured a revision of the
trial, when _ Galas was declared inno-
cent, and his widow pensioned.

Calatafimi, a town of Sicily near
its W. end, with a ruined Saracenic
castle. Near it is the scene of Gari-
baldi's first victory over the Neapoli-
tans in 1860.

Calatrava la Viega, a ruined
city of Spain, on the Guadiana, 12
miles N. E. of Ciudad Real. Its de-
fence against the Moors, undertaken
by Raymond, abbot of Fitero, and Die-
go Velasquez in 1158, after it had
been abandoned by the Templars, is
famous on account of its having orig-
inated the Order of the Knights of
Calatrava, which was instituted at
Calatrava in 1158, by King Sancho
III. of Castile, and was at several
periods associated with the Cistercian
monks. Their almost uniform success
against the Moors gave rise to rash-
ness, and in 1197 they were defeated
and nearly exterminated, the survivors
transferring the seat to the castle of
Salvatierra.

Calaveras Grove, Cal., one of the
famous groves of big trees, and the
nearest to San Francisco, measures
1,100 yards by 70 yards, and con-
tains about 100 trees. It is State
property.

Calcareous, a term applied to sub-
stances partaking of the nature of



lime, or containing quantities of lime.
Thus we speak of calcareous waters,
calcareous rocks, calcareous soils. Cal-
careous spar (crystallized carbonate of
lime) is found crystallized in more
than 700 different forms, all having
for their primitive form an obtuse
rhomboid. The rarest and most beau-
tiful crystals are found in Derbyshire,
England.

Calceolaria, a well known and
beautiful genus of plants. The spe-
cies, which are numerous, come from
South America, chiefly from the west-
ern slope or side of the Andes. The
greater number have yellow flowers,
others are purple, while in a few the
two colors are intermingled. Various
calceolarias are cultivated in the
United States.

Calciferols Epoch, one of the
subordinate divisions of the Lower Si-
lurian System of North America. The
division is characterized by the pres-
ence of calcareous sandstones and
limestones.

Calcination, the operation of ex-
pelling from a substance by heat, eith-
er water or volatile water combined
with it. Thus, the process of burning
lime, to expel the carbonic acid, is
one of calculation.

Calcite, Calcareous Spar, or
Calc-spar, the name usually given
by mineralogists to carbonate of lime,
rhombohedral in its crystallization.
It differs from aragonite only in crys-
tallization. Calcite is one of the com-
monest minerals.

Calcium, a dyad metallic element.
Calcium is a yellowish white, ductile,
malleable metal, which oxidizes in
damp air; it decomposes water, and
dissolves easily in dilute acids.

Calcium Carbide, a chemical
compound of calcium and carbon. It
is a hard, bluish-black, clear crystal-
line body, and is impervious to light,
and insoluble in all known solvents.
It is used generally for the produc-
tion of acetylene and the reduction of
iron. See ACETYLENE.

Calcinm Light, a brilliant light
produced by directing the flame of an
oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe against a
block of compressed quicklime. It
has been used on the stage for many
years, and by the aid of colored glasses
very charming effects are produced.



C ale-sinter



Caledonia



More recently it has been employed in
lanterns for projecting photographic
and biographic pictures on a screen.

Calc-sinter, a carbonate of lime,
the substance which forms the stalac-
tites and stalagmites that beautify
many caves.

Calculating Machine, a piece _of
mechanism for assisting the human in-
tellect hi the performance of arithme-
tical operations. Among modern cal-
culating machines are the slide-rule
and bank and cash registers.

Calculus, the medical term for
what is popularly known as stone.
Calculi vary in size from a pin's head
to a pigeon's egg, and even larger, and
weigh from a few grains to several
ounces. They derive their special
name and character as well from the
organs of the body in which they are
found as from the constituents of
which they are composed.

Calculus, The Infinitesimal, or
Transcendental Analysis, a branch
of mathematical science.

Calcutta, (literally, the ghaut or
landing place of Kali, from a famous
shrine of this goddess), capital of
British India, and of the presidency
and province of Bengal ; situated on
the left bank of the Hooghly, a branch
of the Ganges, about 80 miles from
the Bay of Bengal. The Hooghly is
navigable up to the city for vessels
of 4,000 tons or drawing 26 feet. The
port of Calcutta extends for about 10
miles along the river, and is under the
management of a body of commission-
ers. Opposite the city it is crossed
by a great pontoon bridge, which
gives communication with Howrah
for vehicles and foot-passengers, and
can be opened at one point to let
vessels pass up or down. Beside the
accommodation for shipping furnished
by the river, there are also several
docks. The trade is very large, Cal-
cutta being the commercial center of
India. There is a very extensive in-
land trade by the Ganges and its con-
nections, as also by railways (the
chief of which start from Howrah),
while almost the whole foreign trade
of this part of India is monopolized
by Calcutta. In 1773 Calcutta be-
came the seat of British government
for the whole of India. Since then
the history of Calcutta has been an



almost unbroken record of progress
and prosperity. Pop. in 1911, with
suburbs, 1,222,313; excluding How-
rah, 1,043,307.

Caldecott, Randolph, an Eng-
lish artist ; born in Chester, England,
March 22, 1846. He will chiefly be
remembered by the admirable " Calde-
cott's Picture-books," which began in
1878, with " John Gilpin " and " The
House that Jack Built." After vain
attempts to restore his health by trips
abroad he died in St. Augustine, Fla.,
Feb. 12, 1886.

Calderon, Francisco Garcia, a
Peruvian jurist and statesman; born
in Arequipa in 1834. He became a
member of Congress in 1867 ; 'accept-



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