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Orne. Area, 2,197 square miles;


Sop. (1911) 396,318; chief town,
aen, pop. (1911) 46,934.

Calvary, the English designation
of the spot upon which the crucifixion
of Jesus Christ is recorded as having
taken place. It lay beyond the city,
and by Captain Conder is identified
with the old House of Stoning, or
place of public execution, according
to the law of Moses, on the top of
the remarkable knoll outside the Da-
mascus gate, on the N. si^e of Jeru-
salem. It is now generally believed to
have been the knoll on the north-east
of the city, formerly known as the
Grotto of Jeremiah near the Damascus

Calve, Emma, a French opera
singer; born in 1866. She made her
debut at Brussels in Gounod's
" Faust." She has made successful
tours of the United States in leading

Calverley, Charles, an American
sculptor ; born in Albany, N. Y., Nov.
1, 1833. He won note with groups
and figures and portrait busts of
Greeley, Cooper, Howe, etc. He was
elected to the National Academy of
Design in 1875. He died Feb. 26, 1914.

Calvi, a seaport on the island of
Corsica, on a peninsula in the Bay of
Calvi. It was founded in the 13th
century. It was so strongly fortified
as to withstand several sieges, but in
1794, after a siege of 51 days, was
taken by the English from the Corsi-
cans. The following year it was re-
taken. Pop. about 2,500.

Calvin, John, (so called from
Calvinus, the Latinized form of his
family name, CAXJVIN, or CHAUVIN),
the second great reformer of the 16th
century; born in Noyon, Picardy,
July 10, 1509. Calvin died May 27,
1564, in the 55th year of his age. He
was of a weak constitution, and suf-
fered from frequent sickness. In
Strasburg he had married a widow,
Idelette de Burie, in 1539 ; a son, the
fruit of their union, died early. In
1549 he lost his wife, after which he
never married again. He was tem-
perate and austere, gloomy and in-
flexible. His disinterestedness was
rare. He had a yearly stipend of 150
frances, 15 measures of corn, and 2
casks of wine; and never received a
larger one.


The chief doctrines of Calvin's sys-
tem are : Predestination, particular
redemption, total depravity, irresisti-
ble grace, and the certain perseverance
of the saints, denominated the five
points. The followers of Calvin in
Germany are called the Reformed.
In France most Protestants are Cal-
vinists. Calvinism is the professed
belief of the greatest part of the Pres-
byterians ; the Particular Baptists in
England and India, and the Associated
Baptists in America ; the Independ-
ents of every class in England and
Scotland, and the Congregationalists
of New England.

Calvin, Samuel, a Scotch-Ameri-
can scientist; born in Wigtonshire,
Scotland, Feb. 2, 1840. He came to
the United States when a youth and
served in the Civil War. He studied
geology as a life pursuit, and after
1874 was Professor of Geology at the
University of Iowa, and State Geolo-
gist of Iowa after 1892. Died in 1911.

Calvinistic Methodists, a sec-
tion of the Methodists, distinguished
by their Calvinistic sentiments from
the ordinary Wesleyans, who are Ar-
minian. Wesley and Whitfield, the
colleagues in the great evangelistic
movement which did so much spirit-
ually and morally to regenerate Eng-
land in the 18th century, differed
with regard to the doctrines of grace,
Wesley being Arminian, and Whit-
field Calvinistic ; the latter revival
preacher may be looked on as the
father and founder of Calvinistic
Methodism. In distinctive form it
dates from 1725, but did not complete-
ly sever its connection with the Eng-
lish Church till 1810. In government
it is now Presbyterian.

Calvo Doctrine. 'See DRAQO.

Calx, properly lime or chalk, but
the term is more generally applied to
the residuum of a metal or mineral
which has been subjected to violent
heat, and which is, or may be, re-
duced to a fine powder.

Calycanttns, a genus of hardy
American shrubs, of which one spe-
cies, Florida allspice, has yellow flow-
ers, and is sweet-scented.

Calydonian Boar. According to
a Greek myth, CEneus, King of Caly-
don. the ancient capital of JEtolia,
omitted a sacrifice to Artemis, where-


upon the goddess, when he was absent,
sent a frightful boar to lay waste his
fields. No one dared to face the
monster, until Meleager, son of
CEneus, with a band of heroes, pur-
sued and slew him. The Curetes laid
claim to the head and hide, but were
driven off by Meleager. Later ac-
counts make Meleager summon to the
hunt heroes from all parts of Greece,
among them the maiden Atalanta, who
gave the monster the first wound.

Calyx, in botany, the name given
to the exterior covering of a flower.

Cain, Diogo, a Portuguese ex-
plorer of the 15th century, who in
1484 discovered the mouth of tho

Caniagney, a province and its
capital city in Cuba; both formerly
province extends across the island
between the provinces of Santa Clara
and Oriente ; has an area of 10.076
square miles; pop. (1914) 154,867;
chief products, cattle, sugar cane, wax,
honey, timber, and hemp. The city
is in the heart of one of the wildest
parts of the island, in the center of
the province, and manufactures and
exports cigars, sugar, tobacco, wax,
and honey; pop. (1914) 79,166.

Camayeu, or Camaien, a term
used in painting where there is only
one color, and where the lights and
shadows are of gold, wrought on a
golden or azure ground.

Cambaceres, Jean Jacques de,
a French Senator ; born in Montpel-
lier, Oct. 18, 1753. During the raign
of terror which followed the condem-
nation of Louis XVI. Cambaceres en-
deavored to check the arbitrary
measures of the Assembly. He was a
member of the Council of Five Hun-
dred, and in 1796 drew up a " Plan of
a Civil Code," which became the basis
of the " Napoleonic Code." On the
abdication of Napoleon, in 1814, Cam-
baceres withdrew into private life, but
on the return of the emperor from
Elba, he was promoted to the office of
Minister of Justice. After the over-
throw of Napoleon, he was banished
from France on the ground of his hay-
ing voted for the death of Louis
XVI. ; but in 1818 was reinstated in
all his civil and political rights ; be
died, in Paris, March 8, 1824.


Cambert, Robert, a French musi-
cian; born in Paris about 1628. He
founded the Royal Academy of Music,
now the Paris Grand Opera. He died
in London about 1677.

Cambodia, or Camboja, a State
in Indo-China under a French pro-
tectorate, on the lower course of the
Mekong, 220 miles from N. E. to
S. W., and 150 miles broad, compris-
ing an area of 45,000 square miles ;
and pop. (1911) 1,634,252. France,
on Aug. 11, 1863, concluded a treaty
with the King of Cambodia, Noro-
dom, whom, from being a viceroy, the
French had helped to elevate to the
throne, placing Cambodia under a
French protectorate. This treaty was
superseded by that of June 17, 1884.
Capital Pnom-Penh (pop. 62,255).

Cambon, Jules Martin, a French
diplomatist ; born in Paris, April 5,
1845. He studied for the law and
fought in the Franco-Prussian War ;
was Ambassador to the United States
in 1897, retiring in 1903, and repre-
sented Spain in drawing up the Span-
ish-American protocol in 1898.

Cambrai, a town in N. France,
about 23 miles from the Belgian fron-
tier and 100 miles from Paris ; on the
Scheldt river. Former strong forti-
fications have been mostly dismantled.
The town contains many beautiful
churches. Here the famous " Ladies'
Peace " of 1529 was concluded. Cam-
brai was in one of the early fighting
zones of the great war. See AP-
PENDIX: World War.

Cambric, originally the name of a
fine kind of linen which was manufac-
tured principally at Cambrai in
French Flanders, but is now applied
to a cotton fabric, which is manufac-
tured in imitation of the true cambric.

Cambridge, a city, and one of the
county seats of Middlesex county,
Mass., on the Charles river and the
Fitcbburg railroad ; opposite to and
connected with Boston by four
bridges. It was founded in 1630-
1631, under the name of " Newe-
Towne," or Newtown." In 1636 the
General Court appropriated $2,000 to
locate a school in Old Cambridge,
which later became Harvard College.
The first printing office in the United
States was located in Cambridge.
Cambridge has now extensive printing


establishments. For historical and
literary associations, Cambridge is one
of the most famous cities in the
United States. The venerable Wash-
ington elm, under which Washington
took command of the American Army,
July 3, 1775, still stands. " Craigie
House," built by Col. John Vassall in
1759, was Washington's headquarters
in 1775-1776, and afterward became
the home of the poet Henry W. Long-
fellow. On Elm avenue is " Elm-
wood," the birthplace and home of
James R. Lowell. Pop. (1915) 108,822.

Cambridge, city and capital of
Guernsey county, O.; on Wills creek
and several railroads; 26 miles E. of
Zanesville; is in a coal, natural gas,
and petroleum region; is a trade
center of parts of three counties; and
manufactures iron, steel, glass, pot-
tery, tin, plate, and iron roofing.
Pop. (110) 17,327.

Cambridge University, a cele-
brated seat of learning and education,
dating from English public schools es-
tablished in Cambridge in the 7th cen-
tury. The first college was founded
under royal charter in 1237.

Cambyses, (1) a Persian of noble
blood, to whom King Astyages gave
his daughter Mandane in marriage.
(2) The son of Cyrus the Great, be-
came, after the death of his father,
King of the Persians and Medes, B. c.
529. In the fifth year of his reign he
invaded Egypt, conquering the whole
kingdom within six months. He died
in 521 B. c.

Camden, city, port of entry, and
county seat of Camden county, N. J. ;
on the Delaware river, opposite Phila-
delphia, with which it is connected by
several ferries. It is noted for its
immense market gardens and manu-
factures. Pop. (1910) 94,538.

Camden, county-seat of Kershaw
county, S. C.; 32 miles N. E. of Co-
lumbia. It has extensive cotton and
grain interests and is a health resort
for sufferers from throat and lung
troubles. Camden was the site of
three noted battles. On Aug. 16,
1780, the American forces under Gen-
eral Gates, 3,600 strong, were de-
feated by Lord Cornwallis. This end-
ed Gates's military career. On April
25, 1781, Greene, who succeeded
Gates, was attacked and worsted by


Lord Rawdon at Hobkirk's Hill, near
Camden. On Feb. 24, 1865, Camden
was taken by General Sherman after
a lively skirmish. Two thousand
bales of cotton and a quantity of
tobacco were burned. Pop. (1900)

Camden, Charles Pratt, Mar-
quis, an English statesman ; born in
1714. After having studied law, he
was called to the bar in 3738. Af-
ter nearly 20 years devoted to close
study he was appointed attorney-gen-
eral, and later lord chief justice. He
distinguished himself by his exertions
in behalf of the American colonies,
and in 1766 rose to the highest legal
dignity, that of lord hieh chancellor.
He died in London. April 18, 1794.

Camel, a genus of ruminant quad-
rupeds, characterized by the absence
of horns ; a fissure in the upper lip ; a
long and arched neck; one or two
humps or protuberances on the back ;
and a broad elastic foot ending in
two small hoofs. The native country
of the camel is said to extend from
Morocco to China, within a zone of


900 or .1,000 miles in breadth. The
comnon camel, having two humps, is
found in the N. part of this region,
and exclusively from the ancient Bac-
tria, now Turkestan, to China. The
dromedary, or single-humped camel is
found throughout the entire length of
this zone. To people residing in the
vicinity of the great deserts the camel
is an invaluable mode of conveyance.
It will travel three days under a load
and five days under a rider without


drinking. The camel's power of en-
during thirst is partly due to the
structure of its stomach, to which are
attached pouches capable of straining
off and storing water for future use.
It can live on little food, and of the
coarsest kind. In this it is helped by
the fact that its humps are mere ac-
cumulations of fat and form a store
upon which the system can draw
when the outside supply is defective.
Camels which carry heavy burdens
will do about 25 miles a day; those
which are used for speed alone, from
60 to 90 miles a day. The camel is
rather passive than docile, but it i
very vindictive when injured. It lives
from 40 to 50 years. The South
American members of the family
Camelidse contain the llama and al-
paca; they have no humps.

Camelopard, a name given to the
giraffe, originally from the notion that
it was a hybrid between a camel and

Cainelopardalis, one of the N.
circumpolar constellations added by
Hevelius in 1690. It is a large irreg-
ularly shaped constellation, something
like the animal, with its head close to
the Pole. It contains no stars bright-
er than the fourth magnitude.

Camelot, a name applied in the
mediaeval romances to the " City of
Legions " which grew out of the per-
manent quarters of the Second Augus-
ta Legion at Caerleon-upon-Usk, but
was built earlier by the mythical Be-

Camel's Hump, one of the peaks
of the Green Mountains, in Vermont,
17 miles W. of Montpelier.

Camel's Thorn, a name of several
plants. They are half-shrubby plants
growing in the deserts of the East,
and derive their name from the fact
that they afford a food relished by

Cameo, a term applied to gems of
different colors sculptured in relief.
The art of engraving on gems boasts
of high antiquity, having been prac-
tised and was revived in Italy in the
15th century. The cameos of the an-
cients were confined to the agate,
onyx, and sard, but are occasionally
found executed on opal, beryl, or em-

Camera Lucida


Camera Lucida, an instrument
invented by Wollaston in 1804; de-
signed to produce on a plane surface
a representation of a landscape or
other object, which will enable one to
delineate it with accuracy.

Camera Obscura, an optical in-
strument used to view or sketch ob-
jects at a short distance. It consists
of a box, formed of two parts sliding
in each other, like a telescope, so as
to adjust the focus to bodies more or
less distant. A tube with a lens is
fixed hi one side of it, and is turned
to the object to be represented. The
rays entering fall on a mirror sloped
at an angle of 45, which reflect them
upward. It is convenient that they
may be made to pass through a hori-
zontal plate of glass, on which tracing
paper may be placed so as to enable
one to draw the figure.

Camera, Photographic, a camera
obscura so constructed that sensitized
plates or films may be placed at the
back and receive the image.

Camerarius, Rudolph Jakob, a
German botanist, born in iWurtem-
burg, Feb. 12, 1665. To him is as-
cribed the discovery of the sexual re-
lation in plants. He died in Tubin-
gen, Sept 11, 1721.

Camerlengo, ("a chamberlain"),
one of the highest officers of the Vati-
can court, and who acts as Pope when
there is a vacancy on the papal throne.

Cameron, Arnold Guypt, an
[American educator : born in Princeton,
N. J., March 4, 1864; was graduated
at Princeton College in 1847, and at
department of Greek at Princeton
professor of French and German in
Miami University; in 1891-1897, as-
sistant professor of French in the
Sheffield Scientific School of Tale Uni-
versity; and in 1897 accepted the
chair of French at the John C. Green
School of Science, Princeton.

Cameron, James Donald, ^ an
American capitalist and politician ;
born in Middletown, Pa., May 14,
1833 ; oldest son of Simon Cameron ;
was graduated at Princeton College
in 1852. In 1876 President Grant an-
pointed him Secretary of War, and in
1877 he succeeded his father as Unit-
ed States Senator from Pennsylvania,
retiring from the Senate in 1897.

Cameron, Simon, an American,
statesman ; born in Maytown, Lancas-
ter co., Pa., March 8, 1799 ; began,
when 9 years of age, to learn the trade
of a printer. In 1820 he was editor
of a paper in Doylestown, Pa., and in
1822 he held a similar post in Harris-
burg. He then interested himself in
banking and the building of railroads.
From 1845 to 1849 he was United
States Senator from Pennsylvania. He
became a member of the Republican
party on its formation, and in 1856
he was again elected United States
Senator. In 1861 he was appointed
Secretary of War by President Lin-
coln. In January, 1862, he resigned
from the Cabinet, and was appointed
minister to Russia. In November of
the same year he resigned, and lived
in retirement till 1866, when he was
again elected to the United States Sen-
ate. In 1877 he retired from the Sen-
ate in favor of his son, James Don-
ald Cameron. He died in Maytown,
Pa., June 26, 1889.

Camisards, the title given to the
Protestant insurgents in the Ceveanes,
after the revocation of the Edict of
Nantes, from having worn their shirts
over their dress by way of disguise,
on the occasion of some nocturnal at-

Camoens, Luis de, a Portuguese
poet; born in Lisbon, probably in
1524 or 1525. Disappointed in love,
he became a soldier, and served in the
fleet which the Portuguese sent against
Morocco, losine his right eye in a
naval engagement before Ceuta. An
affray into which he was drawn wis
the cause of his embarking in 1553
for India. He landed at Goa, but,
being unfavorably impressed with the
life led by the ruling Portuguese there,
wrote a satire which caused his ban-
ishment to Macao (1556). Here he
wrote the earlier cantos of his great
poem, the " Lusiad." Returning to
Goa in 1561, he was shipwrecked and
lost all his property except his pre-
cious manuscript. After much misfor-
tune Camoens in 1570 arrived once
more in his native land, poor and
without influence, as he had left it.
The " Lusiad " was printed nt Lisbon
(1572), and celebrating the plories of
the Portuguese conquests in India, ac-
quired a wide popularity. The king


accepted the dedication of the poem,
but the only reward Camoens obtained
was a pittance insufficient to save him
from poverty. His other works con-
sist of sonnets, songs, etc. He died
June 18, 1579.

Camomile, or Chamomile. The
species are annual and perennial herbs,
all palaearctic, long known for the
medicinal virtues of an infusion of its
flowers as a bitter stomachic and

Camorra, a well-organized secret
society, once spread throughout all
parts of the kingdom of Naples.

Camp, the space occupied by an
army halted with tents pitched.

Campagna di Roma, the coast
region of Middle Italy, in which Rome
is situated, from 30 to 40 miles wide
and 100 long, and forming the undu-
lating mostly uncultivated plain which
extends from near Civita Vecchia or
Viterbo to Terracina, and includes the
Pontine Marshes. The soil is very
fertile in the lower parts, though its
cultivation is much neglected, owing
to the malaria which makes residence
there during midsummer dangerous.
In ancient times the Campagna was
well cultivated and populated. Noth-
ing of its former prosperity being vis-
ible but the ruins of great temples,
circuses, and monuments, and long
rows of crumbling aqueducts over-
grown with ivy and other creeping

Campania, anciently a province on
the W. coast of Italy, having Capua
as its capital, lying between Latium,
Samnium, and Lucania. It was one
of the most productive plains in the
world, yielding in extraordinary abun-
dance corn, wine, and oil ; and by
both Greek and Roman writers is
celebrated for its soft and genial cli-
mate, its landscapes, and its harbors.

Caiiipani-Alimenis, Matteo, an
Italian mechanician. In optics, his
greatest achievement was the manu-
facture of the object-glasses, through
which Cassini discovered two satellites
of Saturn. He invented the illum-
inated dial for clocks.
_ Campanile, a tower for the recep-
tion of bells, principally used for
church purposes, but now sometimes
lor domestic edifices. The most re-


markable of the campaniles is that
at Pisa, commonly called the " Lean-
ing Tower." It is cylindrical in form,
and surrounded by eight stories of
columns, placed over one another,
each having its entablature. The
height is about 150 feet to the plat-
form, whence a plumb-line lowered
falls on the leaning side nearly 13
feet outside the base of the building.

The campanile of St. Mark, dom-
inating all the surrounding buildings
of St. Mark's Square, Venice, was
the most conspicuous landmark of the
city for over 1,000 years. The tower
was 325 feet high and 42 feet square
at the base. On the morning of July
14, 1902, it fell with a great crash
into the square. The church of St.
Mark and the palace of the Doges
were not hurt, but the campanile in
falling carried away the Sansovino
Loggetta and the library of the Royal

Campbell, Alexander, founder of
the sect known as the "Disciples of
Christ " ; born near Ballymena, in
County Antrim, Ireland, Sept. 12,
1788. He emigrated to the United
States in 1807. Though at first a
Presbyterian, in 1812 he formed a
connection with the Baptists, and for
some time he labored as an itinerant
preacher. In 1826 he published a
translation of the New Testament, in
which the words " baptism " and
" baptist " gave place to " immersion "
and " immerser." By his discussions
on public platforms, and his serial
publications, as well as his assiduity
in preaching tours and training young
men for the ministry, Campbell grad-
ually formed a large party of follow-
ers, who began about 1827 to form
themselves into a sect under the des-
ignation of " The DISCIPLES OP
CHRIST." In 1841 Campbell founded
Bethany College in West Virginia,
where he died March 4, 1866.
_ Campbell, Allan, an American
civil engineer; born in Albany, N. Y.,
in 1815. He laid out the route of the
New York and Harlem railroad ; built
a railroad from Callao to Lima, Peru ;
was appointed engineer of the harbor
defenses of New York in the early
part of the Civil War; was chief en-
gineer in the construction of the
Union Pacific railroad; and became


commissioner of public works in New-
York (1876). He died in New York
city, March 18, 1894.

Campbell, Hartley, an American
dramatist ; born in Allegheny City,
Pa., Aug. 12, 1843. He died in Mid-
dletown, N. Y., July 30, 1888.

Campbell, Charles, an American
historian ; born in Petersburg, Va.,
May 1, 1807. He died in Staunton,
Va., July 11, 1876.

Campbell, Sir Colin, Lord
Clyde, a British military officer ; born
in Glasgow, Oct. 20, 1792. He took
part in the expedition to the United
States (1814), and then passed nearly
30 years in garrison duty at various
places. On the outbreak of the Cri-
mean War, in 1854, he was appointed
to the command of the Highland Bri-
gade ; the victory of the Alma was
mainly his ; and his, too, the splendid
repulse of the Russians by the " thin
red line" in the battle of Balaklava.
When, on July 11, 1857, the news
reached England of the sepoy mutiny,
Lord Palmerston offered him the com-
mand of the forces in India. He ef-
fected the final relief of Lucknow, and
on Dec. 20, 1858 announced to the
Viceroy that the rebellion was ended.
He died Aug. 14, 1863.

Campbell, Douglas Hougliton,
an American educator ; born in De-
troit, Mich., Dec. 16, 1859 ; was grad-
uated at the University of Michigan
in 1882 ; then studied in Europe. Re-
turning he was Professor of Botany
in the University of Indiana till 1891,
when he was called to the similar
chair in Stanford University in Palo
Alto, Cal.

Campbell, Helen Stuart, an
American sociological writer; born in
Lockport, N. Y., July 4, 1839. She
has given close attention to the study
of social problems. From 1881 till
1884 she was literary editor of " Our
Continent," Philadelphia.

Campbell, Henry Donald, an
American scientist ; born in Lexing-
troit, Mich., Dec. 16, 1859; was grad-
uated at Washington and Lee Uni-
versity in 1882; later studied at Ber-
lin and Heidelberg, and in 1887 be-
came Professor of Geology and Biol-
ogy at Washington and Lee Univer-

E. 28.


Campbell, John, -a British his-
torian; born in Edinburgh, March 8,
1708. From 1755 to the close of his
life, he was agent of the British gov-
ernment for the province of Georgia.
He died Dec. 28, 1775.

Campbell, John Pendleton, an
American scientist ; born in Cumber-
land, Md., Nov. 20, 1863. He be-

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