George Jotham Hagar.

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Cape Ortegal, a rugged promon-
tory forming the N. extremity of
Spain, extending into the Bay of Bis-

Caper, the unopened flower-bud of
a low trailing shrub which grows in
the countries bordering the Mediter-
ranean. Pickled in vinegar and salt
they are much used as a condiment.

Capercailzie, a species of grouse,
of large size, formerly indigenous in
the highlands of Scotland, but which
became extinct, and had to be re intro-
duced from the Scandinavian Penin-

Cape River, or Rio de Segovia,
a river of Nicaragua, which after a
generally N. E. course of nearly 300
miles enters the Caribbean Sea, after
forming part of the boundary between
Honduras and Nicaragua.

Capernaum, a city of Galilee hi
Palestine, about 70 miles N. by E. of
Jerusalem, situated on the N. W.
shore of the Sea of Tiberias. It was
here that Jesus Christ began his pub-
lic ministry ; and in its neighborhood
he delivered the Sermon on the Mount.

Capers, Ellison, an American cler-
gyman ; born in Charleston, S. C.,
Oct 14, 1837. He entered the Prot-
estant Episcopal ministry in 1867,
and was chosen bishop of South Caro-
lina in 1893. He died April 22, 1908.

Caperton, 'William Banks, an
American naval officer; born in
Spring Hill, Tenn., June 30, 1855;
was graduated at the U. S. Naval
Academy in 1875 ; became captain in
1908, and rear-admiral in 1913 ; com-
manded the Atlantic Reserve Fleet in
1913-14; was sent to Haiti to sup-
press disorders in 1914-15 ; and in
1917 was given command of the Pa-
cific fleet.

Cape St. Vincent, the S. W. point
of Portugal.

Cape Town, capital of the Cape of
Good Hope Colony, South Africa ; be-
came the seat of the Parliament of the
I new Union of South Africa in 1910.
| Pop. (1911) 67,159.

Cape Verde, the most westerly
headland of Africa, jutting out into
the Atlantic Ocean, between the rivers
; Gambia and Senegal.

Cape Verde Islands, a group in
, the North Atlantic Ocean, belonging
j to Portugal, about 370 miles W. of

Cape Wrath

Cape Verde, which, as well as the is-
lands, derives its name from the green-
ish tinge given to the adjoining sea by
the abundance of sea-weed. The group
consists of 14 islands, besides islets
and rocks, having a united area of
about 1,480 square miles. They are
in general, mountainous, rocky, and
very ill supplied with water; all are
evidently of volcanic origin. The cli-
mate is exceedingly unhealthy, and
droughts are of frequent occurrence.
The pop. (1913) 147,794 is a mixed
race of Portuguese and negroes. These
islands were discovered in 1450. Dur-
ing the early part of the war between
the United States and Spain (189S),
the islands were made the rendezvous
of the Spanish fleet under Cervera.

Cape Wrath, a pyramidal promon-
tory of unrivaled wildness and gran-
deur, the N. W. extremity of Scotland
and running out into the Atlantic.

Capillaries. The tubes which con-
yey the blood from the left side of the
heart to the various parts of the body
are called arteries, while those which
return it to the right side of the heart
are known as veins. The name capil-
laries is given to the minute vessels
which form the connection between
the terminal branches of the arteries
and the commencement of the trunks
of the veins.

Capita, an expression of frequent
occurrence in laws regulating the dis-
tribution of the estates of persons dy-
ing intestate. When all the persons
entitled to shares in the distribution
are of the same degree of kindred to
the deceased person, and claim di-
rectly from him in their own right,
and not through an intermediate rela-
tion, they take per capita, that is,
in equal shares, or share and share

Capital, the surplus of individual
or national wealth which remains af-
ter current necessities have been met.
It consists of what are popularly
called savings. It is available for the
employment of new labor, and if this
be done judiciously it will produce a
further surplus ; or, in other words,
the capital will increase. In every
well ordered community it tends to do
BO indefinitely. Capital and labor mu-
tually require each other, and are not
natural foes, but natural friends.


Capital Punishment, the pun-
ishment of crime by death. In the
United States the method is usually
by hanging, but in recent years a
number of States have adopted elec-
trocution. The punishment for mur-
der in the first and second degrees
varies in the different States and in-
cludes hanging, electrocution, shooting
(by choice), life imprisonment, limit-
ed imprisonment, death or life impris-
onment at the discretion of the sen-
tencing judge. An insane person and
a pregnant woman are immune from
capital punishment while the condi-
tion lasts.

Capitation-grant, a grant of so
much per head ; specifically applied to
grants from government or governing
bodies to schools according to the
number of scholars in attendance, or
to the number of those passing a cer-
tain test examination, and to volun-
teer companies on account of such
members as reach the stage of "effi-

Capitation-tax, a tax or impost
upon each head or person. Generally
called a poll-tax in the United States.

Capito, or Kopfel, Wolfgang
Fabricns, an Alsatian reformer ; born
in Haguenau in 1478, entered the
Benedictine order, and became Profes-
sor of Theology at Basel, He approved
of Luther's action, but nevertheless in
1519 entered the service of Albert of
Mainz ; and it was not till some years
later that he finally declared for the
Reformation. He died in Strasburg
in November, 1541.

Capitol. A Roman height on
which was erected a famous temple of
Jupiter. The word is also applied to
the building in which the Congress of
the United States holds its sessions.

The S. E. corner-stone of the Capi-
tol was laid Sept 18, 1793, "by
Brother George Washington, assisted
by the Worshipful Masters and Free
Masons of the surrounding cities, the
military, and a large number of peo-
ple." The N. wing was ready for oc-
cupancy in 1800, the S. wing in 1808;
but both were partially destroyed by
the British in 1814. The foundation
of the main building was laid in 181
(March 24), the restoration of the
wings having been commenced thre
years earlier; and the whole was com-

Capitoline Game!


pleted in 1827. July 4, 1851, the cor-
ner-stone of the S. extension was laid
by President Fillmore, and this was
finished in 1857. The N. extension
was occupied by the Senate in 1859.
The present dome, commenced in 1855,
was completed eight years later, and
Dec. 12, 1863, the American flag float-
ed from its summit. The cost of the
entire building was $13,000,000 : main
building, $3,000,000; dome, $1,000,-
000; extensions, $8,000,000; miscel-
laneous items, $1,000,000. The length
of the entire building is 751 feet 4
inches; its greatest breadth, 324 feet,
and it covers a little over 3% acres.
The distance from the ground to the
top of the dome is 307^ feet; the
diameter of the dome, 135^ feet The
buildings in which state legislatures
meet are also called capitols, but in
New England usually " State Houses."

Capitoline Games, annual public
sports, instituted at Rome 387 B. C.,
in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus, and
to commemorate the preservation of
the city from the Gauls.

Capiz, a province of Panay (Vi-
sayas), Philippine Islands; on the N.
coast; area, 1,661 square miles; pop.
(1903) 230,721; capital, Capiz; pop.

Capo d'Istrias, loannes An-
tonios, Count, was born in Corfu,
Feb. 11, 1770; president of the Greek
republic from 1828 to 1831. He de-
voted himself to political life, and in
1809 entered the diplomatic service of
Russia. Here his policy tended to the
separation of Greece from Turkey. In
1828 he entered on a seven years'
presidency of Greece ; but imbued as
he was with Russian ideas, he aroused
discontent by his autocratic measures ;
and on Oct. 9, 1831, he was assassin-
ated in a church at Nauplia.

Capote, Domingo Mendez, a
Cuban statesman ; born in Cardenas
in 1863; spent his youth there; was
graduated at the University of Ha-
vana, and became one of the best
known lawyers in Cuba. Subsequent-
ly he was a professor in the Univer-
sity of Havana for many years. In
December, 1895, 'he joined the insur-
gents under Gen. Maximo Gomez ; be-
came a Brigadier-General ; and was
appointed civil governor of Matanzas
and of Las Villas. In November, 1897,

he was elected Vice-President of the
Cuban Republic. When the Cuban
Constitutional Convention appointed a
commission of five members to confer
with President McKinley and Secre-
tary Root concerning the future rela-
tions of the United Stales and Cuba,
he became its leader. The conference
was held in Washington, D. C., in
April, IDOL

Cappadocia, in antiquity, one of
the most important provinces in Asia
Minor, the greater part of which is in-
cluded in the modern province of Ka-
raman. It was conquered by Cyrus,
and was ruled by independent kings
from the time of Alexander the Great
until 17 A. D., when it became a Ro-
man province.

Capri, an island in the beautiful
Gulf of Naples, remarkable for sev-
eral remarkable caverns or grottoes in
its steep rocky coast.

Capricornna " the Goat," one of
the 12 signs of the Zojdiac, between
Sagittarius and Aquarius ; also the
corresponding zodiacal constellation,
one of Ptolemy's original 48.

Caprimnlgidae, the goat-suckers, a
family of birds, nearly allied to the
swallow tribe.

Caprivi, Georg Leo, Graf Ton
sometimes called CAPBIVI DE CAPRARA
DE MONTECUCUTJ, a German soldier
and statesman; born in Berlin, Feb.
24, 1831; entered the army in 1849;
and in 1883 he became commander of
his old army corps. Hence he was
removed, on the fall of Bismarck, in
1890, to become Imperial Chancellor
and Prussian Prime Minister. His
principal measures were the army
bills of 1892 and 1893, and the com-
mercial treaty with Russia in 1894, in
which year he resigned. He died at
Skyren, Feb. 6, 1899.

Capron, Allen Kissam, an Amer-
ican military officer (son of Allyn
Capron) ; born in Brooklyn, N. Y.,
June 24, 1871. He enlisted as a pri-
vate (1890), and rose to a sec-
ond lieutenancy (1893), joining the
" Rough Riders " on the outbreak of
the war with Spain. He was made a
captain for bravery, and was killed at
Las Guasimas, Cuba, June 24, 1898.

Capron, Allyn, an American mili-
tary officer; born in Tampa, Fla.,
Aug. 27, 1846. He was a son of Capt.


Erastus A. Capron, killed in the Mex-
ican war, and was graduated at West
Point in 1867. He rose to the rank of
captain (1888), and in the war with
Spain led an advance at the battle of
Santiago. He further distinguished
himself at El Caney. He contracted
typhoid in Cuba and died at Fort
Myer, Va., Sept. 18, 1898.

Capsicum, a genus of plants bear-
ing membranous pods containing sev-
eral seeds, noted for their hot, pungent

Capstan, a strong, massive appara-
tus of wood or iron made to revolve,
and thus raise a heavy weight by
winding a rope round it. It is espe-
cially used on shipboard for weighing
the anchor.


amphitheatre, said to have been capa-
ble of containing 100,000 spectators,
and of some of its tombs, attest its
former splendor and magnificence. It
was destroyed by the Saracens, A. D.

Capuchin Monkey, a name given
to various species of South American
monkeys of the genus Cebus. The hair
of their heads is so arranged that it
has the appearance of a capuchin's
cowl, hence the name.

Capuchins, a branch of the Fran-
ciscan order of monks, founded by
Matthew de Baschi, an Italian. So
called from their peculiar capuche or
cowl a pointed hood attached to the
ordinary Franciscan coat, and said to
have been worn by St. Francis himself.


Captain, one who is at the head or
has authority over others, especially :
(1) The military officer who com-
mands a company, whether of infan-
try, cavalry, or artillery. (2) An of-
ficer in the navy commanding a ship
of war. (3) The master of a mer-
chant vessel.

Capua (ancient Capoa or Capua),
a strongly fortified city of Southern
Italy, on the left bank of the Voltur-
no, in a fine plain 18 miles N. of Na-
ples. The city has a citadel, the work
of Vauban, and is reckoned one of the
keys of the kingdom. The ancient Ca-
pua was situated about 2 1 /& miles from
the modern city. The remains of its

Capulets and Montagues, the

English spelling of the names of the
Cappelletti and Montecchi, two noble
families of Northern Italy, according
to tradition of Verona, chiefly mem-
orable from their connection with the
legend on which Shakespeare has
founded his tragedy of " Romeo and

Carabobo, a State of Venezuela,
between the Caribbean Sea and the
State of Zamora ; area, 2,974 square
miles; population, 198,021, mostly in-
habiting the fertile depression of Lake
Valencia, where large crops of coffee,
sugar, and excellent cacao are grown.
Capital, Valencia.



Caracal, a species of lynx, of a
reddish-brown color, with black ears,
tipped with long black hair. It is a
native of Africa, India, Persia, and

Carac alia, Marcus Anrelins An-
toninus, eldest son of the Emperor
Severus, was born in Lyons, A. D. 188.
On the death of his father he succeed-
ed to the throne with his brother, An-
toninus Geta, whom he speedily mur-
dered. To effect his own security up-
wards of 20,000 other victims were
butchered. He was himself assassin-
ated by Macrinus, the pretorian pre-
fect, near Eaessa, in 217. Among the
buildings of Caracalla in Rome, the
baths Thermae Caracallae near Por-
ta Capena, were most celebrated, and
their ruins are still magnificent.

Caracas, the capital of the Repub-
lic of Venezuela and of the Federal
District, 6 miles (24 by rail) S. of La
Guaira, its port. Built on the S. slope
of the Avila (8,635 feet), it is 3,025
feet above the tide-level. The streets,
built at right angles, are broad and
well paved. There are a handsome
promenade and numerous public parks
and gardens; excellent water and gas
plants; street railways; and the ter-
mini of several steam railways. Pop-
ulation 72,429.

Caracci, Ludovico, Agostino,
and Annibale, born about the mid-
dle of the 16th century, were three of
the first painters of Italy, kinsmen,
fellow-students, and co-laborers, na-
tives of Bologna, and founders of the
Bolognese School.

Caraccioli, Francesco, an Ital-
ian admiral, born in Naples about
1748. When Ruffo took Naples in
1799 Caraccioli was arrested, and,
contrary to the terms of capitulation,
was condemned to death, and hanged
at the yard-arm of a Neapolitan fri-
gate, Lord Nelson consenting to his
execution, June 29, 1799.

Caractacns, a king of the Britons,
for nine years (43-50 A. D.) warred
gallantly against the Roman invaders,
but at length was completely over-
thrown by Ostorius in a battle near
the border of South Wales. His wife
and daughters fell into the hands of
the victors, and his brothers surren-
dered. Caractacus himself fled to
Cartismandua, queen of the Brigan-

tes, who delivered him up. He was
carried to Rome, 51 A. D., and exhib-
ited in a triumphal procession by the
Emperor Claudius, who was greatly
impressed by his dauntless bearing and
language. According to tradition he
died in Rome about A. D. 54.

Caramel, the name of a certain
preparation of candy.

Carat, a weight of 3^ grains; the
tweny-fourth part of an ounce. It is
used by jewelers to express the fine-
ness of gold, the whole mass being
supposed to be divided into 24 parts,
and said to be so many carats fine,
according to the number of twenty-
fourth parts of pure gold contained in
it. Twenty-four carat means all
gold, 18 carat three-quarters gold.
_ Caransins, a Roman general, a na-
tive of Batavia. He was sent by the
Emperor Maximilian to defend the At-
lantic coasts against the Franks and
Saxons ; but foreseeing impending dis-
grace, he landed in Britain and had
himself proclaimed emperor by his le-
gions (287 A. D.). In this province
he was able to maintain himself six
years, when he was assassinated at
York by one of his officers named Al-
lectus (293 A. D.).

Caravaggio, Michel Angelo
Amerighi, or Merighi da, a cele-
brated painter, born in Caravaggio in
1569. He died near Rome in 1609.

Caravan, a Persian word used to
denote large companies which travel
together in Asia and Africa for the
sake of security from robbers, having
in view, principally, trade or pilgrim-
ages. Camels are used as a means of
conveyance on account of their re-
markable powers of endurance.

Caravansary, or Caravansera, a
large public building, or inn, for the
reception and lodgment of caravans in
the desert. Though serving instead
of inns, there is this essential differ-
ence between them, that the traveler
finds nothing in the caravansary for
the use either of himself or his cattle,
but must carry all his provisions and
necessaries with him. Caravansaries
are also numerous in cities, where
they serve not only as inns, but as
shops, warehouses, and even ex-

Caravel, the name of different
kinds of vessels, particularly a small


ship used by the Spaniards and Portu-
guese in the 15th and 16th centuries
for long voyages. It was in com-
mand of three caravels that Columbus
crossed the Atlantic and discovered

Caraway, a plant valued and culti-
vated for the sake of the well-known
aromatic " caraway seeds " which it
bears ; these being, however, in strict-
ness not seeds, but the pericarps, into
which the fruit in this order splits
when ripening. Caraways are chiefly
used entire as a spice by bakers and

Carbide, a compound formed by
the union of carbon with an element,
as iron or hydrogen.

Carbine, a fire-arm used by cav-
alry and artillery, shorter in the bar-
rel than the ordinary musket or rifle.
It was used by light cavalry as early
as the 16th century.

Carbineers, or Carabineers, for-
merly light horsemen, used chiefly to ;
watch and harass the enemy, defend j
narrow passes, and act as skirmish-

Carbolic Acid, obtained by the dry
distillation of salicylic acid. It is
also formed by the dry distillation of
coal, in the coal-tar oil. It is used as
a disinfectant, and to preserve meat,
etc. Taken internally it soon proves
fatal, and its use should therefore b
carefully guarded.

Carbon, the name of the element
which exists, more or less pure, in
charcoal, coke, coal and such bodies.

Carbonari, the name given to a
secret political association in Italy, its
professed aim being the reorganiza-
tion and reform of the government of
that country.

Carbondale, a city in Lackawan-
na county, Pa.; on the Lacka wanna
river and the Delaware & Hudson
and other railroads; 16 miles N. E.
of Scranton; is noted for its^ great
deposits of anthracite coal, its ex-
tensive mining interests, and its man-
ufactures of silk goods, chemicals,
and machinery. Pop. (1910) 17,040.

Carboniferous, a term applied to
the extensive and thick series of strata
with which seams of paleozoic coal are
more or less immediately associated. It
is applied as well to that great sys-


tern of formations which yield our
main supply of coal, or to some di-
visions of that system, such as the
Carboniferous limestone and the Car-
boniferous slates. It is also applied
to the fossils found in any stratum
belonging to the system.

Carborundum, an artificial abra-
sive, composed of carbon and clay
fused together at a high temperature.

Carboy, a large and somewhat
globular bottle of green glass pro-
tected by an outside covering of wick-
erwork or other material, for carry-
ing vitriol or other corrosive liquid.

Carbuncle, a beautiful gem of a
deep-red color with a mixture of scar-
let, found in the East Indies. When
held up to the sun it loses its deep
tinge, and becomes exactly the color
of a burning coal. The carbuncle of
the ancients is supposed to have been
a garnet.

Carbuncle, in surgery, an inflam-
mation of the true skin and tissue be-
neath it akin to that occurring in
boils. It is more extensive than the
latter, and instead of one has several
cores. It is associated with a bad
state of general health, from which
condition its danger arises, for it may
threaten life by exhaustion or blood

Carbnretted Hydrogen, the name
given to two compounds of carbon and
hydrogen, one known as light car-
buretted hydrogen, and the other aa
olefiant gas.

Carcajou, a species of badger
found in North America.

Carcanet, a necklace or collar of

Carcass, in military language, an
iron case, with several apertures,
filled with combustible materials,
which is discharged from a mortar,
howitzer, or gun, and intended to set
fire to buildings, ships, and wooden de-

Card, an instrument for combing,
opening, and breaking wool, flax, etc.,
and freeing it from the coarser parts
and from extraneous matter. It is
made by inserting bent teeth of wire
in a thick piece of oblong board to
which a handle is attached.

Cardamine, a pretty meadow
plant, with large pale lilac flowers.


Cardinal Virtue*

Cardamoms, the aromatic capsules
of different species of plants of the
natural order gingers employed in
medicine as well as an ingredient in
auces and curries.

Cardboard, pasteboard paper
stiffened by several layers being joined

Cardenas, a seaport of Cuba, on
the N. coast, 75 miles E. of Havana,
with which it is connected by rail. It
has a good harbor, and exports sugar.
Pop. (1907) 24,280, mostly whites.
During the blockade of the Cuban
coast in the war between the United
States and Spain a severe engagement :
took place here on May 11, 1898.

Cardia, the heart ; also the upper j
orifice of the stomach, called, on ac- <
count of its vicinity to the heart, by
the same Greek name.

Cardiff, ("the city on the Taff"),
a municipal and parliamentary bor- ;
ough and seaport, the county town of
Glamorganshire, Wales, situated at
the mouth of the Taff on the estuary
of the Severn. It is a rapidly increas-
ing town, and the principal outlet for
the mineral produce and manufactures
of South Wales. Iron shipbuilding is
carried on, and there are iron and
other works on a large scale. Pop.
(1911) 182.259.

Cardiff Giant, the name given to
a rude statue 10% feet high, dug up,
in 1869, at Cardiff, N. Y., and exhibit-
ed for months as a petrifaction. The
persons who thus deluded the public
at last confessed that the " Giant "
had been cut from a block of gypsum
quarried at Fort Dodge, la., sculp-
tured at Chicago, conveyed to Cardiff,
and there buried and " accidentally

Cardigan, James Thomas Brn-
denell, seventh Earl of, born in
Hampshire, Oct 16, 1797; sat in the
House of Commons from 1818 to 1837,
when he succeeded his father. He en-
tered the army in 1824, am rapidly
bought himself into the command of
the 15th Hussars, which he resigned
in 1833, on the acquittal of an officer
whom he had illegally put under ar-
rest. He commanded a cavalry bri-
gade under Lord Lucan in the Crimea,
and led the famous charge of the Six
Hundred at Balaklava He was in-
spector-general of cavalry. 1855-1860,

and died in Deene Park, March 28,

Cardigan Bay, a semicircular
bend at St. George's Channel, on the
W. coast of Wales, 54 miles wide from
N. to S., and 35 miles deep, with a
sweep of coast of 130 miles.

Cardinal, one of the body of coun-
sellors of the Pope who, next to him,
hold the highest dignity in the church.
According to the present law the
appointment of cardinals rests with
the Pope, who generally consults the
existing cardinals, and often receives
proposals from secular governments.
The cardinals in Conclave elect the
new Pope, have constant access to
him, and form his chief council. They
have a vote at general councils, and
since the 13th century, precedence
over all other members. They have
had since Urban VIII. the title of
" Eminence." The body of cardinals
is called the Sacred College. Their
insignia are the red cardinal's hat,
which is given them by the Pope, and
not worn, but suspended in the church
of their title, and finally buried with
them; the red biretta, the sapphire
ring, the mitre of white silk, etc. If
a cardinal holds an episcopal see, he
must reside there ; otherwise he must
not leave Rome without permission.
At the head of the college of cardinals
stands the dean, who is usually Bishop

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