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of Ostia and senior of the cardinal
bishops. It is he who consecrates the
newly-elected Pope, if not already a
bishop. In the United States the first
cardinal was McCloskey, of New York,
(1875) ; the second, Gibbons, of Bal-
timore (1886) ; the third, Farley, of
New York (1911) ; the fourth, O'Con-
nell, of Boston (1911).

Cardinal Bird, a North American
bird of the finch family, with a fine
red plumage, and a crest on the head.
Its song resembles that of the night-
ingales, hence one of its common

Cardinal Points, the N., S., E.,
and W. points of the horizon; the
four intersections of the horizon with
the meridian and the prime vertical

Cardinal Virtues, or Principal
Virtues, in morals, a name applied
to justice, prudence, temperance, and



Carding, the process wool, cotton,
flax, etc., undergo previous to spinning
to lay the libers all in one direction,
and remove all foreign substances.

Carditis, inflammation of the heart

Cardoon, a perennial plant belong-
ing to the same genus as the artichoke,
and somewhat resembling it. It is a
native of Canada.

Cards, oblong pieces of pasteboard,
inscribed with certain figures and
points, and used in various games of
skill and hazard. The origin of this in-
vention is obscure. An immense va-
riety of games are played with cards,
some involving chance only, some
combining chance and skill, the best of
them furnishing very agreeable and
intellectual amusement.

Carducci, Giosne, an Italian poet
and philologist, born in Valdicastello,
Tuscany, July 27, 1836. He was
Prof, of Literature at Bologna Univ.
from 1860. He died Feb. 15, 1907.

Carew, Thomas, an English poet;
born in 1598. He stood high in favor
with Charles I., and was an intimate
friend of the greatest poets and schol-
ars of his time. He died in 1639.

Carey, Henry Charles, an Amer-
ican economist, born in Philadelphia,
Dec. 15, 1793 ; trained in his father's
publishing house, he accumulated a
competence from the business and re-
tired to devote himself to study. The
"Essay on the Rate of Wages"
(1836) and "The Principles of Po-
litical Economy" (1837-1840) won
him an authoritative international po-
sition. He died in Philadelphia, Oct.
13, 1879.

Carey, Mathew, an American pub-
lisher and prose writer, born in Ire-
land, Jan. 28, 1760. The best known
of his political writings was his "Olive
Branch " (1814). It was an effort to
promote harmony among political par-
ties during the War of 1812. It
passed through ten editions. In 1819
he published his " Irish Vindications,"
and in 1822, "Essays on Political
Economy." He died in Philadelphia,
Pa., Sept. 16, 1839.

Carey, William, an English Ori-
ental scholar and missionary, born in
Northamptonshire, Aug. 17, 1761. He
w&s early apprenticed to a shoemaker,
but having a natural turn for lan-

guages, and zeal for the spread of the
Gospel, he acquired Latin, Greek, and
Hebrew, and likewise studied theology.
In 1786 he became pastor of a Bap-
tist congregation at Moulton, and in
1787 was appointed to a similar sit-
uation in Leicester. In 1793 he sailed
for the East Indies as a Baptist mis-
sionary, and in 1800, in conjunction
with Marshman, Ward, and others,
he founded the missionary college at
Serampore. Here he had a printing
press, and issued various translations
of the Scriptures. His first work was
a " Bengali Grammar," and later, un-
der his direction the whole Bible was
translated into 6, and the New Testa-
ment into 21 Hindustani dialects. He
was long professor of Sanskrit, Mah-
ratta, and Bengali, in Calcutta. He
died in Serampore, India, June 9,

Carhart, Henry Smith, an
American scientist, born in Coeymans,
N. Y., March 27, 1844. He was gradu
ated at Wesleyan University in 1869
and since then has taught physics and
chemistry. Since 1886 he has been
Professor of Physics at the University
of Michigan.

Caria, a country of Asia Minor,
whose boundaries have been dissimilar
in different ages. Its chief town was

Cariacon, the Virginia deer. It is
somewhat smaller than the common

Cariama, a bird, a native of Bra-
zil and Paraguay. The head is crested.

Carib, the name given by the early
European navigators to the inhabi-
tants or aborigines found on the small-
er of the West India Islands, and also
inhabiting some part of the adjacent
American continent. The Spaniards,
finding them always a bold and de-
termined enemy, finally expelled all
but a mere remnant from their native
possessions. Those who escaped the
Spanish sword sought refuge in that
part of Southern America near the
mouth of the Orinoco, except a few
whom the English removed and landed
on the island of Ruatan, in the Bay of
Honduras. The Ca.rib have always
been distinguished from the rest of the
American peoples by their athletic
stature, firmness, courage, and resolu-

Caribbean Sea


Caribbean Sea, the grandest inlet
of the Western hemisphere, separated
from the Gulf of Mexico by Yucatan,
and from the Atlantic Ocean by the
great arch of the Antilles.

Caribbees, or Lesser Antilles,
usually divided into the Windward
and Leeward Islands, a section of the
.West India Islands.

Cariboo, or Caribou, an animal,
the American Woodland Reindeer, the
Attehk of the Cree, and Tantseeah of
the Copper Indians. It is employed by
the Laplanders to draw their sledges.

Carica, a genus of plants which
contains about ten species, all natives
of tropical America.

Caricature, a representation of the
qualities and peculiarities of an ob-
ject, but in such a way that beauties
are concealed and peculiarities or de-
fects exaggerated, so as to make the
person or thing ridiculous, while a
general likeness is retained.

Caries, a disease of bone analogous
to ulceration in soft tissues. The bone
breaks down into unhealthy matter,
which works its way to the surface
and bursts. Caries of the teeth is
decay of the dentine or body of the

Carillon, a species of chime, played
by hand or clockwork on a number
of bells, forming a complete series or
Bcale of tones or semi-tones, like those
of the organ or harpsichord.

Carintbia, a W. duchy or province
of Austria, on the borders of Italy;
area, 3,989 square miles. It is ex-
tremely mounjtainous, generally sterile,
and one of the most thinly populated
provinces of Austria. The iron, lead,
and calamine mines are the main
sources of its wealth, though there are
several manufactories of woolens, cot-
tons, silk stuffs, etc., most of which
are in Klagenfurt, the capital. Pop.
(1912) 402,813.

Carisbrooke, a village near the
center of the Isle of Wight, and over-
looked by the ruins of its ancient cas-
tle, where Charles I. was imprisoned
13 months previous to his trial and

Carlen, Emilia Flygare, a Swed-
ish novelist, born at Stromstad, Aug.
8, 1807. She died in Stockholm, Feb.
6. 1892.

Carlen, Rosa, a Swedish novelist,
born in 1836; died in 1883.

Carleton, Henry Guy, an Ameri-
can journalist and dramatist, born in
Fort Union, New Mexico, June 21,
1855. He pursued journalism in New
Orleans and New York, and wrote sev-
eral plays. He died Dec. 10, 1910.

Carleton, Will, an American
poet, born in Hudson, Mich., Oct. 21,
1840 ; was best known by his ballads
of home life, many of them having
great popularity. He died Dec. 18,

Carleton College, a co-educational
institution in Northfield, Minn. ; or-
ganized in 1866 under the auspices of
the Congregational Church.

Carli, Giovanni Rinaldo, an
Italian economist and archaeologist,
born in Capo d'Istria, April 11, 1720 ;
died Feb. 22, 1795.

Carlisle, Richard, an English
Radical, born in Ashburton, Devon-
shire, Dec. 8, 1790 ; died Feb. 10, 1843.
Carlisle, an ancient city of Eng-
land ; th capital of Cumberlandshire ;
at the confluence of the Caldew and
Eden rivers. Pop. (1911) 46,420.

Carlisle, borough and county-seat
of Cumberland county, Pa. ; on the
Cumberland Valley, and the Gettys-
burg and Harrisburg railroads; 18
miles W. of Harrisburg. It is the
site of Dickinson College, Metzger
Female College, and the United States
Indian Training School. It was the
headquarters of Washington during
the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, and
was bombarded by the Confederates in
1863. Pop. (1910) 10,303.

Carlisle, John Griffin, an Amer-
ican statesman, born in Kenton coun-
ty, Ky., Sept. 5, 1835; received a
common-school education, studied law,
and was admitted to the bar (1858).
He served several terms in the lower
house of the State Legislature. Dur-
ing the Civil War he actively opposed
secession, and in 1866 and 1869 was
a member of the State Senate. He
was lieutenant-governor of Kentucky
(1871-1875), was elected to Congress
(1876), and five times reflected. His
ability soon made him one of the
Democratic leaders. In the 48th,
49th, and 50th Congresses he was
chosen Speaker. In 1890 he was
elected United States Senator, but re-
signed in March, 1893, to accept the



portfolio of Secretary of the Treasury.
At the close of his term he settled in
New York City to practice law. He
died July 31, 1910.

Carlists, a Spanish political fac-
tion which advocates the claims of
Carlos of Bourbon and his descend-
ants to the Spanish throne. In 1833
they revolted and held the advantage
until 1836, when Espartero inflicted
on them a terrific defeat at Luchana.
In August, 1839, their commander,
Maroto, treacherously made peace,
and the remaining Carlists soon fled
to France. In 1873 the grandson of
the first pretender raised another re-
volt, but after several sharp conflicts
was defeated, and in 1876 with his
chief supporters fled into France.

Carll, John Franklin, an Ameri-
can geologist, born in Long Island, N.
Y., May 7, 1828. He became identified
with coal oil development early in
life, and has perfected many oil pump-
ing devices. After 1874 he was con-
nected with the Pennsylvania Geolog-
ical Survey. He died in 1904.

Carlos, Don, Duke of Madrid,
nephew of Don Carlos of Montemolin,
born March 30, 1848. On the death
of his uncle (1861) he became head
of the Carlist party. In 1872 he is-
sued a manifesto to the Carlist party
at Madrid and appeared in the Basque
provinces, but was badly defeated at
Oroquieta and fled back to France.
In 1873 he reappeared in the N. prov-
inces of Spain ; captured the strong-
hold Estella, and had soon overrun
Navarre, Catalonia, Aragon, and Va-
lencia, with the exception of the great
cities. By February, 1876, the rebels
were hemmed in along the N. coast,
and the majority surrendered at Pam-
plona. He himself fled over the French
border, and has since lived in exile
and comparative poverty. During the
Spanish-American War he came into
notice again, and on April 13, 1898,
from his retreat in Switzerland, is-
sued a manifesto to his supporters:
but he accomplished nothing and
again went into retirement. He died
July 8, 1909.

Carlos I., King of Portugal; born
in 1863, formerly known as Duke of
Braganza, son of Louis I. He mar-
ried, in 1886, Marie Amelie de Bour-
bon, daughter of the Count of Paris.

On Feb. 1, 1908, b9th the King and
Crown Prince Luiz were assassi-
nated in Lisbon. He was succeeded
by his second son, Manuel II., who
was dethroned in 1910.

Carlotta, Ex-empress of Mexico,
born in Brussels, June 7, 1840, the
daughter of Leopold I. of Belgium.
She was married to Maximilian, Arch-
duke of Austria (1857). She accom-
panied her husband to Mexico in 1864,
but in 18G6 returned to Europe to so-
licit aid from the French Emperor
and from the Pope. Her failure and
the news of her husband's overthrow
unbalanced her mind. She still lives
near Brussels.

Carlovingians, the second dynasty
of the French or Franklin kings,
which supplanted the Merovingians,
deriving the name from Charles Mar-
tel or his grandson Charlemagne (that
is, Karl or Charles the Great).

Carlsbad, a town in Bohemia, on
the Tepl, near its influx to the Eger,
116 miles W. by N. of Prague. It is
widely celebrated for its hot mineral
springs, and is frequented in summer
by visitors from all parts of Europe.
Pop., summer, 25,OCK>-30,000.

Carlskrona, the capital of the
Swedish province, built on five rocky
islets in the Baltic, 240 miles S. S. W.
of Stockholm. It has a magnificent
harbor, with a sufficient depth of
water to float the largest vessels. The
only practicable entrance is strongly
defended. Pop. (1915) 28,127.

Carlsruhe, or Karlsruhe, the
capital of the grand-duchy of Baden,
founded in 1715, and built in the form
of a fan, with 32 streets radiating
from the palace. Before the palace
stands a bronze statue of the city's
founder, the Margrave Charles Wil-
liam ; and in the market-place is a
stone pyramid inclosing his remains.
Pop. (1910) 134,313.

Carlstadt, a fortified town of
Croatia, Austro-Hungary, on the Kul-
pa, 32 miles S. W. of Agram by raiL
It is the seat of a Greek bishopric,
and has a large transit trade. Carl-
stadt, in Bavaria, on the Maine, is 15
miles N. N. W. of Wurzburg.

Carlstadt, Andreas Rudolf Bo-
denstein, a German reformer, born in
Carlstadt in 1480. He \vas appointed
professor of theology at Wittenberg


in 1513. About 1517 he became one of
Luther's warmest supporters. He was
excommunicated by the bull against
Luther, and was the first to appeal
from the Pope to a general council.
In 1524 he declared himself publicly
the opponent of Luther, and com-
menced the controversy respecting the
sacrament, denying the bodily pres-
ence of Christ in the sacramental ele-
ments. This controversy ended in
the separation of the Calvinists and
Lutherans. After many misfortunes
he settled as vicar and professor of
theology at Basel, where he died, Dec.
25, 1541.

Carlyle, Jane 'Welsh, wife of
Thomas Carlyle; born in Haddington,
Scotland, July 14, 1801. She claimed
descent from William Wallace and
John Knox and was from youth re-
markable for beauty, wit and intellect.
Her " Letters," edited by her husband,
were published in 1883, the work being

fiven to the world by J. A. Froude.
he died in London, April 21, 1866.
Carlyle, Thomas, author, born in
Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland,
Dec. 4, 1795. lie was the eldest son
of James Carlyle, a mason, afterward
a farmer, and was intended for the
Church, with which object he was
carefully educated. His first literary
productions were short biographies and
other articles for the " Edinburgh En-
cyclopaedia." His career as an author
may be said to have begun with the
issue in monthly portions of his " Life
of Schiller " in the London Magazine,
in 1823, this work being enlarged and
published separately in 1825. The
largest and most laborious work of
his life was " The History of Fried-
rich II. of Prussia, called Frederick
the Great," the last two volumes of
which appeared in 1865, and after
this time little came from his pen.
While still in Scotland the sad news
reached him that his wife had died
suddenly in London. Toward the end
of his life he was offered a government
pension and a baronetcy, but declined
both. Carlyle died in Chelsea, Feb.
5, 1881.

Carman, Elbert S., an American
editor, born in Hempstead, N. Y., in
1836. He became owner and editor
of the " Rural New Yorker " in 1876,
in connection with which publication


he established a farm at River Edge,
N. J., where he gave much of his time
to testing new plants, vines and seeds.
He died in New York City, Feb. 28,

Carman, Ezra Ayers, an Ameri-
can military officer ; born in Metuchen,
N. J., Feb. 27, 1834. He served
through the Civil War in the Army of
the Potomac and the Army of the
Cumberland ; became a Brigadier-Gen-
tral, U. S. V. He died Dec. 25, 1909.

Carmagnole a dance accompanied
by singing. Many of the wildest ex-
cesses of the French revolution of
1792 were associated with this dance.
It was afterward applied to the bom-
bastic reports of the French successes
in battle. The name was also given
to a sort of jacket worn as a symbol
of patriotism.

Carmel, a range of hills in Pales-
tine. It has a length of about 16
miles, and its highest point is 1,850
feet above the sea.

Carmelite, an order of mendicant
friars. They claim to be in direct
succession from Elijah, but their real
founder was Berthold, a Calabrian,
who, with a few companions, migrated
to Mount Carmel about the middle of
the 12th century, and built a humble
cottage with a chapel, where he and
his associates led a laborious and soli-
tary life. The order is divided into
two branches, viz., the Carmelites of
the ancient observance, called mod-
erate or mitigated, and those of the
strict observance, who are known as
the barefooted Carmelites.

Carmen Sylva, the pen-name of
Elizabeth, Queen of Rumania, born
Dec. 29, 1843 ; the daughter of Prince
Hermann of Wied Neuwied, and
Maria of Nassau ; married King (then
Prince) Charles of Rumania in 1869.
Her only child, a daughter, died in
1874, and out of this great sorrow of
her life arose her literary activity.
In the war of 1877-1878 she endeared
herself to her people by her devotion
to the wounded soldiers, and afterward
diligently fostered the national wom-
en's industries. She died March 2, 1916.

Carminative, a substance which
acts as a stimulant to the stomach,
causing expulsion of flatulence, also
allaying pain and spasm of the in-
testines. Most of the ordinary condi-


ments, as pepper, mustard, ginger,
cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, oil of pep-
permint, etc., are carminative.

Carmine, the fine red coloring mat-
ter or principle of cochineal. It is
used in dyeing.

Carnac, a village of Brittany,
Prance, remarkable for the so-caned
Druidical monuments in this vicinity.
These consist of 11 rows of unhewn
stones, which differ greatly both in
size and height, the largest being 22
feet above ground, while some are
quite small. These avenues originally
extended for several miles, but many
of the stones have been cleared away
for agricultural improvements. They
are evidently of very ancient date, but
their origin is unknown.

Carnatic, a region on the E. or
Coromandel coast of India, now in-
cluded in the province of Madras. The
Carnatic is no longer an administra-
tive division, but is memorable as the
theater of the struggle betwen France
and England for supremacy in India.

Carnation, in the fine arts, flesh
color; the parts of a picture which
are naked or without drapery, exhibit-
ing the natural color of the flesh.

Carnation, the popular name of
the clove-pink. Carnations are much
prized for the beautiful colors of their
sweet-scented double flowers., a Greek philosopher,
born in Gyrene, in Africa, about 213
B. c. He studied logic at Athens un-
der Diogenes, but became a partisan
of the Academy, and an enemy of the
Stoics. In 155 B. c., along with Dio-
genes and Critolaus, he was sent as
ambassador to Rome, but his philoso-
phy made him enemies and caused his
return. He died at Athens, 129 B. c.

Carnegie, Andrew, an American
manufacturer and philanthropist, born
in Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov. 25, 1835.

The elder Carnegie was a master
weaver of Dunfermline, Scotland. But
the newly invented steam machinery
drove him and his four hand looms out
of business, and in 1848 he and his
wife with their two boys decided to
follow some relatives across the ocean
to America. Here Andrew began work
in a steam cotton factory, tending
bobbins. In less than a year he had
been taken from the factory by one
who had noticed the boy, and, in the


new works, he learned how to run the
engine and was promoted to this work,
his salary of 20 cents a day not being
increased, until be did clerical work
for his employer as well for he had
some knowledge of arithmetic and
wrote a good hand. He next became a
messenger boy in the Ohio Telegraph
Company, shortly after which his
father died, and at the age of 14 he
became the sole support of his mother
and younger brother. But the weight
on his shoulders was merely a spur to
his ambition. He had not been in the
office a month when he began to learn
telegraphy, and a little friendly in-
struction soon had him spending all
his spare minutes at the key. Char-
acteristically, he was not content with
the general custom of receiving by the
tape, but doggedly mastered the click-
ing tongue of the instrument, until
the supposed insecurity of taking mes-
sages by sound was found not to ap-
ply to him. He became an operator
presently at a salary which seemed
to him princely, though he augmented
even this $25 a month by copying tele-
graphic news for the daily papers.

When the Pennsylvania railroad
needed an operator he was chosen to
fill the vacancy. A little later Colonel
Scott selected him for his secretary;
and before long, when Colonel Scott
advanced to the vice-presidency of the
road, the young man found himself
superintendent of the Pennsylvania's
Western Division.

One day as the young superinten-
dent was examining the line from a
rear car, a tall, thin man stepped up
to him, introduced himself as T. T.
Woodruff, an inventor, and asked if
he might show him an idea he had for
a car to accommodate passengers at
night. Out came a model from a green
baize bag.

" He had not spoken a minute be-
fore, like a flash, the whole range of
the discovery burst upon me. ' Yes,'
I said, ' this is something which this
continent must have.'

' Upon my return I laid it before
Mr. Scott, declaring that it was one
of the inventions of the age. He re-
marked : ' You are enthusiastic, young
man, but you may tell the inventor to
come and let me see it.' I did so, and
arrangements were made to build two
trial cars, and run them on the Penn-

Carnegie Institution

Carnegie Institution

$ylvania railroad. I was offered an
interest in the venture, which, of
course, I gladly accepted.

" The notice came that my share of
the first payment was $217.50 as
far beyond my means as if it had been
millions. I was earning $50 per
month, however, and had prospects, or
at least I always felt that I had. I
decided to call on the local banker,
and boldly ask him to advance the
sum upon my interest in the affair.
He put his hand on my shoulder and
Baid : ' Why, of course, Andie, you are
all right. Go ahead ! Here is the
money.' . . . The cars paid the
subsequent payments from their earn-
ings. I paid my first note from my
savings, so much per month, and thus
did I get my foot upon fortune's lad-
der. It is easy to climb after that.
And thus came sleeping-cars into the

But the man had not yet struck his
true vocation. That came presently,
when his attention was drawn to the
wooden bridges universally used at
that time. The Pennsylvania road
was experimenting with a cast-iron
bridge. Andrew Carnegie went out
and formed a company to build iron
bridges. He had to raise $1,250, but
he had behind him the confidence of a
Pittsburg banker, and this proved

From this time on the name of An-
drew Carnegie is inseparably associat-
ed with that astonishing development
of American iron and steel, which is
among the modern wonders of the
world. The Keystone Company built
the first great bridge over the Ohio
river ; and the Union Iron Mills ap-
peared in a few years as the natural
outgrowth of this ramifying industry.
Then, in 1868, Carnegie went to Eng-
land. The Bessemer process of mak-
ing steel rails had lately been perfect-
ed. The English railways were re-
placing their iron rails with steel ones
as rapidly as possible. The English
manufacturers were beginning to whis-
per to each other that they had a
firm grip of a gigantic revolutionizing
idea. The young Scotchman went
back to Pittsburg, and before the Eng-
lishmen were well aware of his ex-
istence he laid the foundation of the
steel works which have now finally
beaten them at their own game.

The iron-master was now fairly
launched on his life work. He bought
up the Homestead works, his most
formidable rival, and by 1888 he con-
trolled seven huge plants, all within
five miles of Pittsburg, which he pro-
ceeded to forge and amalgamate into
a steel-armored giant, called the Car-
negie Steel Company.

Next to his fame as the "Steel King,"
Carnegie is undoubtedly most wide-
ly known through his remarkable list
of public benefactions in the shape of
libraries, museums, and other worthy
public objects, the total amount of
which was estimated in 1910 at over
$150,000,000. His most noteworthy

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