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gifts were $30,000,000 for public li-
braries in the United States; $16,-
000,000 for the Carnegie Institute in
Pittsburg, Pa.; $15,000,000 for col-
lege professors' pensions; $10,000,000
for the Carnegie Institute in Wash,
ington, D. C.; $10,000,000 for li-
braries in foreign countries; $10,000,-
000 for Scotch universities; $5,000,-
000 for a Hero Fund in the United
States, $1,250,000 for one in Scot-
land, and $1,000,000 for one in
France; $5,000,000 for Carnegie Steel
Company's employes; $5,000,000 for
Dunfermline (Scotland) endowment;
$7,500,000 for Carnegie Technical In-
stitute at Pittsburg; $1,750,000 for
Temple of Peace at The Hague;
$1,500,000 for the Allied Engineers*
Societies in New York; $750,000 for
a building for the Bureau of Ameri-
can Republics in Washington, D. C.;
$18,000,000 to colleges in the United
States. In 1911 the Carnegie Corpo-
ration of New York was incorporated
to take over all of his benefactions,
and received from him $125,000,000
for its work.

Carnegie Institution, an educa-
tional body incorporated Jan. 4, 1902,
in Washington, D. C., by John Hay,
Secretary of State; Edwin D. White,
Justice of the Supreme Court; Daniel
C. Oilman, ex-president of Johns Hop-
kins University; Charles D. Walcott,
superintendent of the United States
Geological Survey; Dr. John S. Bill-
ings, Director of the New York Pub-
lic Library; and Carroll D. Wright,
United States Commissioner of Labor.
The aims of the university, as ex-
pressed by the founder, are: (1) To
increase the efficiency of the universi-

Carnif ex Ferry

ties and other institutions of learn-
ing throughput the country by utiliz-
ing and adding to their existing facili-
ties, and by aiding teachers in the
various institutions for the experi-
mental and other work in these insti-
tutions as far as may be advisable.
(2) To discover the exceptional man
in every department of study, when-
ever and wherever found to enable
him by financial aid to make the work
for which he seems especially designed
his life work. (3) To promote origi-
nal research, paying great attention
thereto as being one of the chief pur-
poses of this institution. (4) To in-
crease the facilities for higher educa-
tion. (5) To enable such students as
may find Washington the best point
for their special studies to avail them-
selves of such advantages as may be
open to them in the museums, librar-
ies, laboratories, observatory, meteoro-
logical, piscicultural, and forestry
schools and kindred institutions of the
several departments of the govern-
ment. (6) To insure the prompt pub-
lication and distribution of the results
of scientific investigation, a field con-
sidered to be highly important.

The board of trustees elected by the
corporators of the institution was as
follows: The President of the United
States (ex-officio), the President of
the United States Senate, the Speak-
er of the House of Representatives,
the Secretary of the Smithsonian In-
stitution, the President of the Nation-
al Academy of Sciences, and Grover
Cleveland (New Jersey), John S. Bill-
ings (New York), William N. Frew
(Pennsylvania), Lyman J. Gage (Illi-
nois), Daniel C. Gilman (Maryland),
John Hay (District of Columbia),
Abram S. Hewitt (New Jersey), Hen-
ry L. Higginson (Massachusetts),
Henry Hitchcock (Missouri), Charles
L. Hutchinson (Illinois), William
Lindsay (Kentucky), Seth Low (New
York), Wayne MacVeagh (Pennsyl-
vania), D. O. Mills (California), S.
Weir Mitchell (Pennsylvania), W.
W. Morrow (California), Elihu Root
(New York), John C. Spoon er (Wis-
consin), Andrew D. White (New
York), Edward D. White (Louis-
iana), Charles D. Walcott (District
of Columbia), and Carroll D. Wright
(District of Columbia).

The trustees assembled in Washing-


ton on Jan. 29, 1902, received from
Mr. Carnegie the deed of gift of $10,-
000,000, and elected Daniel C. Gilman,
LL. D., president of the Institution.

Carnifex Ferry, a place on the
Gauley river, in Nicholas Co., Va. A
sharp battle occurred here Sept. 10,
1861, between Federal troops under
General Rosecrans and Confederates
under General Floyd. After nightfall
Floyd retreated across the river.

Carnival, the festival celebrated in
Roman Catholic countries, and espe-
cially in Rome and Naples, with great
mirth and freedom during the week
before the beginning of Lent. In the
United States carnivals are annually
celebrated in New Orleans, in St.
Louis and in Memphis. That at New
Orleans is especially spectacular, the
festivities being prolonged three days
and attracting thousands of visitors.

Carnivora. All animals which
prey upon other animals are carniv-
orous, but the term Carnivora, as the
designation of a group, is now restrict-
ed to that order of mammals to which
the cat, dog, bear, and seal belong.

Carnivorous Plants, plants which
derive nourishment directly from the
bodies of insects or other small crea-
tures entrapped by them in various
ways. In all these the apparatus for
catching insects consists of a modified
leaf or portion of a leaf, and in some
the modifications are so curious and
the adaptations so perfect that the
plant seems almost endowed with in-

Carnochan, John Murray, an
American surgeon, famous for his bold
and skillful operations ; born in Sa-
vannah, Ga., July 4, 1817; studied
at Edinburgh and at various European
universities; and began his practice
in New York city in 1847. In 1851
he became professor of surgery at the
New York Medical College, and sur-
geon-in-chief to the State Immigrant
Hospital. He died in New York, Oct.
28, 1887.

Carnot, Lazare Hippolyte a
French Democrat, born in St. Omer,
April 6, 1801. After the February
Revolution (1848) he was appointed
Minister of Public Instruction, but
soon resigned. He was elected a sen-
ator for life hi 1875, and died March
16, 1888.


Caroline Island*

Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Mar-

guerite, a French statesman, general,
and strategist; born in Burgundy,
May 13, 1753. In 1791 he was ap-
pointed deputy to the constituent as-
sembly. In the following March he
was sent to the Army of the North,
where he took command and success-
fully repulsed the enemy. On his re-
turn he was made member of the Com-
mittee of Public Safety, and directed
and organized the French armies with
great ability and success. In 1797
Carnot was appointed Minister of
War by Napoton (1800). But he
remained in principle an inflexible
Republican, voted against the consul-
ship for life, and protected against
Napoleon's assumption of the imperial
dignity. For seven years after this
Carnot remained in retirement, pub-
lishing several valuable military
works. In 1814 Napoleon gave him
the chief command at Antwerp, and
in 1815 the post of Minister of the
Interior. After the Emperor's sec-
ond fall he retired from France. He
died in Magdeburg, Prussia, Aug. 3,

Carnot, Marie Francois Sadi,
President of the French Republic;
born in Limoges, Aug. 11, 1837 ; a
grandson of the famous war minister
of the Revolution. During the siege
of Paris in 1871 he was made prefect
of the Seine-Inferieure and showed
great ability as commissary-general.
In politics he was an earnest Repub-
lican. Elected to the National As-
sembly in 1871 by the Cote d'Or, he
soon rose to prominence. In 1876 he
was chosen secretary of the Chamber
of Deputies ; in 1878 Secretary of
Public Works. He was Minister of
Public Works in 1881-1882 and 1886.
In December, 1887, on the resignation
of M. Grevy he was chosen President.
His policy was one of peace with for-
eign nations, careful development of
the army and navy, and economy in
all departments. While attending an
exposition at Lyons, June 24, 1894,
he was stabbed by a fanatical Italian
Anarchist, from the effect of which
he died the next day.

Caro, Miguel Antonio, a Colom-
bian prose-writer and poet; born in
Bogota, Colombia, Nov. 10. 1843. He
became an editor and contributor to
periodicals. He died Aug. 5, 1909.

Carob, a tree, native of the Levant.
It is an evergreen, and produces long
horn-like pods filled with a mealy, suc-
culent pulp of sweetish taste, used for
food for horses, and sometimes even
for human beings, and called St.
John's bread.

Carol, a song of praise sung at
Christmastide. It originally meant a
song accompanied with dancing, in
which sense it is frequently 'used by
the old poets.

Caroline, Queen of England;
daughter of the Duke of Brunswick-
Wolfenbuttel ; born May 17, 1768. In
1795 she was married to the Prince of
Wales, afterward George IV. The
marriage was not to his liking, and
after the birth of the Princess Char-
lotte he separated from her. Many
reports were circulated against her
honor, and a ministerial committee
was formed to inquiie into her con-
duct. But the people in general sym-
pathized with her, regarding her as an
ill-treated wife. When the Prince of
Wales ascended the throne in 1820
he offered her an income of 50,000 on
condition that she would never return
to England. She refused, and in
June of the same year entered Lon-
don amid public demonstrations of
welcome. The government now insti-
tuted proceedings against her for adul-
tery, but the public feeling and the
splendid defense of Brougham obliged
the ministry to give up the divorce
bill after it had passed the lords.
Though banished from the court, the
queen then assumed a style suitable
to her rank. She died Aug. 7, 1821.

Caroline Islands, a group in the
Western Pacific, lying between the
Marshall and Pelew islands, with an
area of about 390 square miles, and a
population (1911) of 58,000; but the
Pelew group Is now generally in-
cluded in the Caroline Archipelago
(area, 560 square miles; population
36,000), which thus stretches across
32 of Ion. and 9 of lat There are
some 500 small atolls in the archi-
pelago, but three-fourths of both' area
and population are included In the
five volcanic islands of Babeltnouap,
Yap, Rouk, Ponape (Ascension), and
Kusari (Strong Island) ; these are all
fertile and well watered, and many
of the low-lying lagoons, though less
so, are well wooded and to some ex-


tent inhabited. The climate is moist,
but not unhealthy, and is tempered
by cooling breezes. The people belong
to the brown Polynesian stock. The
islands were discovered in 1527 by the
Portuguese, and called Sequeira; in
1686 they were annexed and rechrist-
ened in honor of Charles II. by the
Spaniards, who, however, shortly
changed the name to New Philippines.
After the failure of several missionary
attempts in the 18th century, Spain
took little active interest in the group
until August, 1885, when the German
flag was hoisted on Yap. The sharp
dispute which followed was submitted
to the Pope as arbitrator, who decided
in favor of Spain, but reserved to
Germany special trade privileges. In
1887 disturbances broke out at Po-
nape, in which the governor, who had
arrested one of the American Protes-
tant missionaries, was killed by the
natives; but the rising was shortly
put down. In February, 1899, Ger-
many purchased from Spain the Caro-
line and Pelew islands, and all of the
Ladrones excepting Guam, which had
been ceded to the United States in the
treaty of peace.

Carolinium, an element possess-
ing radio-active powers of great inten-
sity. With another named Berzelium,
it was discovered in 1904, by Prof. C.
Baskerville of North Carolina.

Carotid, the great arteries of the

Carp, a fresh-water fish. It is a
native of Asia, but has been extensive-
ly introduced into the United States.

Carpathian Mountains, (Ger-
man, Karpathen), a range of moun-
tains in Southern Europe, chiefly in
Austria, nearly 800 miles in length.
The Carpathians form the water-part-
ing between the basins of the Baltic
and Black Seas, and a mountain bul-
wark from Pressburg on the Danube
to Orsova on the Rumanian frontier,
a sweep of nearly 800 miles. Early in
the great war this entire region be-
came a section of strategic impor-
tance, and on Aug. 30, 1916, the Ru-
manians seized the five principal
passes, forcing the Austro-Hungarians
to retire. See APPENDIX : World War.

Carpeauz, Jean Baptirte, a
French sculptor, born in Valenciennes,
May 14, 1827 ; died Oct. 11, 1875.


Carpel, the leaf forming the pistiL
Several carpels may enter into the
composition of one pistil.

Carpentaria, Gulf of, a large
gulf on the N. coast of Australia.

Carpenter, Charles Carroll, an
American naval officer, born in Green-
field, Mass., Feb. 27, 1834. He was
promoted rear-admiral Nov. 11, 1894;
was commander-in-chief of the United
States Asiatic squadron from Aug. 27,
1894, till Nov. 9, 1895; and was re-
tired on reaching the age-limit, Feb.
28, 1896. During the summer of 1895
he rendered invaluable service in
China in protecting American mission-
aries and in cooperating with United
States Minister Charles Denby and the
British and Chinese authorities to
preserve peace, particularly after the
Kucheng massacre. He died April 1,


Carpenter, Esther Bernon, an

American prose writer, born in Wake-
field, R. I., 1848; died in 1893.

Carpenter, Francis Bicknell,
an American painter, born in Homer,
N. Y., Aug. 6, 1830. In 1852 he be-
came an associate of the National
Academy. Among his works are a
portrait of President Lincoln, in the
capitol at Albany, N. Y., and the
"Emancipation Proclamation" (1864),
in the capitol at Washington. He
died in New York city, May 23, 1900.

Carpenter, Gilbert Saltonstall,
an American military officer, born in
Medina, O., April 17, 1836; was ad-
mitted to the bar in 1861, and imme-
diately afterward entered the Union
army. He served through the Civil
War, in which he received the brevet
of captain for gallantry in the battle
at Stone river. Subsequently he ren-
dered service in various Indian cam-
paigns ; was commissioned a brig-
adier-general of volunteers in the war
with Spain in 1898; and became col-
onel of the 18th United States In-
fantry, June 20, 1899. His volunteer
appointment was for his gallantry at
El Caney, Cuba. Died Aug. 12, 1904.

Carpenter, Louis G., an Ameri-
can engineer; born in Orion, Mich.,
March 28, 1861. In 1888 he became
Professor of Engineering at the Colo-
rado Agricultural College, where he
organized the first course in irriga-
tion engineering given in any Amer-


ican college. He founded the Amer-
ican Society of Irrigation Engineers
to 1891.

Carpenter, Louis H., an Ameri-
can military officer, born in Glass-
boro, N. J., Feb. 11, 1829. He served
in the Army of the Potomac through
numerous engagements, was an aide-
de-camp to General Sheridan, was
commissioned colonel of volunteers
in 1865, subsequently served in var-
ious Indian campaigns, became col-
onel of the Fifth United States Cav-
alry in 1897, and brigadier-general of
volunteers in 1898, and brigadier-gen-
eral, U. S. A., Oct. 18, 1899, for ser-
vices in the Spanish-American war,
and particularly as commander of the
Department of Porto Principe, Cuba.
He died Jan. 21, 1916.

Carpenter, Mary, an English
philanthropist, born in Exeter, April
3, 1807. Trained as a teacher, and
afterwards a governess, she took an
active part in the movement for the
reformation of neglected children, and
besides advocating their cause in her
writings, she founded a ragged school
and several reformatories for girls.
She founded in 1835 a "working and
visiting society," of which she was sec-
retary for more than 20 years. She
promoted the Industrial Schools Act
of 1857, and some of her proposals
were adopted in the amended Acts of
1861 and 1866. In the prosecution
of her philanthropic labors she vis-
ited India four times, and in 1870 in-
stituted the National Indian Associa-
tion, whose journal she edited. She
attended a congress on women's work
at Darmstadt as a guest of the Prin-
cess Alice, and visited the United
States in 1873. She died June 14,
1877. She was the author of a num-
ber of popular books.

Carpenter, Matthew Hale, an
American legislator, born in More-
town, Vt., Dec. 22, 1824. He studied
at West Point, and was admitted to
the bar in 1845. He removed in 1848
to Wisconsin and was sent to the
United States Senate from that State
in 1869 and in 1879. He died in
Washington, D. C., Feb. 24, 1881.

Carpenter, Stephen Cutter, an
American journalist, born in England.
He came to the United States in 1803,
and settled in Oharleston, S. C., where


he founded and published with John
Bristed the "Monthly Register Maga-
zine and Review of the United States."
His works included: "Memoirs of
Jefferson, Containing a Concise His-
tory of the United States from the
Acknowledgment of Their Indepen-
dence, with a View of the Rise and
Progress of French Influence and
French Principles in that Country."
He died about 1820.

Carpenter, William Benjamin,
an American physiologist, born in Ex-
eter, Oct. 29, 1813; died Nov. 13,

Carpenter, William Henry, an
American philologist, born in Utica,
New York, July 15, 1853. He re-
ceived a university education in the
United States and Europe. Became
professor of Germanic Philology in
Columbia University. He has pub-
lished numerous works in the line of
his specialty.

Carpentry, the art of combining
pieces of timber to support a weight
or sustain pressure.

Carpet, a thick fabric, generally
composed wholly or principally of
wool, for covering floors. They were
originally introduced from the East,
where they were fabricated in pieces,
like the modern rugs.

Carpet-bagger, a political ad-
venturer, who goes about the country
pandering to the prejudices of the ig-
norant with the view of getting into
place or power, so called because re-
garded as having no more property
than might fill a carpet-bag. Orig-
inally applied to needy adventurers
of the Northern States, who tried in
this way to gain the votes of the
negroes of the Southern States after
the close of the Civil War.

Carr, Engene Asa, an American
army officer, born in Concord, N. Y.,
March 20, 1830; graduated at the
United States Military Academy in
1850. He was in active service
throughout the Civil War, command-
ing the 4th Division of the Army of
the Southwest, and subsequently act-
ing as commander of the same army.
In December, 1863, he was assigned to
the Army of Arkansas. At the close
of the war he was promoted to Brig-
adier-General, U. S. A., and brevetted
Major-General of volunteers. In 1868-



1869 he was engaged against the Sioux
and Cheyenne Indians, and afterward
took part in other expeditions against
hostile Indians. He fought in 13 en-
gagements with Indians, was four
times wounded in action, and received
a Congressional Medal of Honor and
the thanks of the Legislatures of Ne-
braska, Colorado, and New Mexico.
He died Dec. 2, 1910.

Carr, Joseph Bradford, an
American military officer, born in Al-
bany, N. Y., Aug. 16, 1828. He joined
the militia in 1849. Was later ap-
pointed colonel of the 28th New
York Volunteers, and led them at
the battle of Big Bethel and in
McClellan's Peninsular campaign. He
took part in the battles of Chancellors-
ville and Gettysburg, and for his brav-
ery throughout the war he was bre-
vetted a Major-General of volunteers.
After the war he became prominent in
Republican politics in New York State
and was elected Secretary of State in
1879, 1881, and 1883. In 1885 he
was defeated for lieutenant-governor.
He died Feb. 24, 1895.

Carr, Laden, an American arch-
aeologist, born in Missouri in 1829 ;
died Jan. 27, 1915.

Carr, Sir Robert, a British com-
missioner in New England. In 1664
he was appointed commissioner by
Charles II., with Nicolls, Cartwright, i
and Maverick. On Aug. 27, Carr and
Nicolls captured New Amsterdam and
named it New York. They took Fort
Orange Sept. 24, and named it Albany.
He died June 1, 1667.

Carranza, Venustiano, a Mex-
ican military officer, born in Cuatro
Cienegas, Coahuila, about 1858; re-
ceived a liberal education ; studied
law ; and acquired large wealth in
the wheat, cattle, and rubber indus-
tries. After serving several years in
the Mexican Senate and as governor
of Coahuila, he became an active op-
ponent of President Diaz; later af-
filiated with the Madero party ; took
the field against Victoriana Huerta ;
became chief of the Constitutionalist
party, and Provisional President, Aug.
14, 1914. See APPENDIX: Mexican

Carrara, a town of Central Italy,
in the province of Massa-Carrara. It
is celebrated for the famous Carrara
marble, a white saccharine limestone,

which derives its value from its tex-
ture and purity. The quarries have
been wrought from the age of Augus-
tus, and seem to be now as inexhaus-
tible as ever. Pop. (1911) 49,492.

Carreno, Teresa, a Venezuelan
pianist, born in Caracas, Dec. 22,
1853. After successful tours in Eng-
land, the United States and Germany,
she was appointed, in 1893, court
pianist to the King of Saxony.

Carriage, a general name for any
vehicle intended for the conveyance of
passengers either on roads or rail-
ways. Mounted on wheels.

Carrier, a person, corporation, or
vehicle regularly employed in carrying
goods, messages, or other articles.

Carrier, Jean Baptiste, an infa-
mous character of the first French
revolution, born in 1746. Though an
obscure attorney at the beginning of
the revolution, he was chosen, in 1792,
member of the National Convention.
In October, 1793, he was sent to Nan-
tes to suppress the civil war, and to
finally put down the Vendeans. The
prisons were full ; there was dearth of
provisions, and Carrier determined to
lessen the "useless mouths" by sum-
mary measures. He first caused
priests to be conveyed to a boat with
a perforated bottom, under pretense of
transporting them, but instead they
were drowned by night. Carrier also
caused multitudes of prisoners to be
shot without any pretense of trial.
Some months before the fall of Robes-

5erre, Carrier was recalled. On the
th Thermidor (July 27), 1794, he
was apprehended and brought before
the revolutionary tribunal, which con-
demned him to the guillotine.

Carriere, Eugene, a French genre
painter, born in 1849; was awarded
several medals, and the Legion of
Honor. 1889. Died March 27, 1906.

Carriere, Moriz, a German phi-
losopher, born in Griedel, Hesse,
March 5, 1817; died in Munich, Jan.
19, 1895.

Carrier Pigeon, a variety of the
common domestic pigeon used for the
purpose of carrying messages.

Carrillo, Branlio, a statesman of
Costa Rica, born in Cartago in 1800.
He was twice president of the repub-
lic (1835-1837 and 1838-1842), and
greatly promoted its material prosper-


ity. Carrillo's government was over-
turned by Morazan in 1842. He was
assassinated in Salvador in 1845.

Carrington, Edward, an Ameri-
can military officer, born in Virginia,
Feb. 11, 1749; was lieutenant-colonel
of General Harrison's artillery re-i-
inent, quartermaster-general under
General Greene, a delegate to the Con-
tinental Congress, and foreman of the
jury in Aaron Burr's trial for trea-
son. He died Oct 28, 1810.

Carrington, Henry Beebe, an
American military officer, born in
Wallingford, Conn., March 2, 1824.
He began the practice of law in Co-
lumbus, O., in 1848, and took an ac-
tive part in the anti-slavery movement.
In the convention which met in 1854
to organize the Republican Party,
Carrington was on the committee ap-
pointed to correspond with the dif-
ferent States and make the movement
National. In 1861 he was appointed
colonel of the 18th United States in-
fantry, served through the war, and
afterward was in service on the plains
till 1869; Professor of Military Sci-
ence and Tactics in Wabash College,
Ind., after 1870. He died Oct. 26, 1912.

Carrington, Paul, an American
statesman, born in Charlotte county,
Va., Feb. 24, 1733; was graduated at
William and Mary College. He was
a member of various conventions dur-
ing the Revolution, and became a mem-
ber of the Court of Appeals, and in
the Virginia convention voted for the
adoption of the Federal Constitution.
He died June 22, 1818.

Carrington, Richard Christo-
pher, an English astronomer, born in
Chelsea, May 26, 1826. Died in Sur-
rey, Nov. 26, 1876.

Carrion Crow, a name given to
a small species of vulture called the
Black Vulture.

Carroll, Charles, the last surviv-
ing signer of the Declaration of Amer-
ican Independence, born in Annapolis,
Md.. Sept. 20, 1737. He studied at
Paris, became a member of the Inner

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