George Jotham Hagar.

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Temple at London, returned to his
native country in 1764, was elected to
Congress in 1775, and, along with the
other members, signed the Declaration
on Aug. 2 of the following year. In
1804, he withdrew to private life at
Carrollton, his patrimonial estate. He


survived by six years all the other
signers of the Declaration, and died in
Baltimore, Nov. 14, 1832.

Carroll, Henry King, an Amer-
ican religious editor, born in Dennis-
ville, N. J., Nov. 15, 1848. He super-
vised the compilation of religious sta-
tistics for the Eleventh Census, and in
1898 was chosen by President MeKin-
ley to prepare a report on the internal
conditions of Porto Rico.

Carroll, John, cousin of Charles
Carroll, and first Roman Catholic
bishop in the United States; born in
Upper Marlboro, Md., Jan. 8, 1735.
In 1775 he engaged in the duties of
a parish priest, and in 1786 he was
appointed vicar-general, and settled at
Baltimore. In 1790 he was conse-
crated, in England, Catholic bishop
of the United States, and returned
with the title of Bishop of Baltimore.
A few years before his death he was
created archbishop. He died in
Georgetown, D. C., Dec. 3, 1815.

Carrot, a biennial umbelliferous
plant, cultivated for the table and as a
food for cattle.

Carson, Christopher, commonly'
called Kit, an American trapper and
scout, born in Kentucky, Dec. 4, 1809.
He served under General Fremont in
his Rocky Mountain expeditions, and
fought in the Mexican and Civil
Wars, attaining the rank of brevet
Brigadier-General. He died at Fort
Lynn, Col., May 23, 1868.

Carson, Hampton Lawrence, an
American publicist, born in Philadek
phia, Pa., Feb. 21, 1852. He was
graduated at the University of Penn
sylvania (1871), and is now a Lec>
turer on Law at that University.

Carson City, the capital of tha
State of Nevada. The city is the seat
of a United States mint. Pop. (1910)

Carty, John J., an American elec>
trician, born in Cambridge, Mass.,
April 14, 1861 ; entered the telephone
business in 1879 ; laid the longest un
derground telephone cable in the
world, connecting Boston with New
York and Washington ; became chief
engineer of the American Telephony
and Telegraph Company in 1907 ; and
in 1915 perfected a transcontinental
line between Washington and Hawaii*
nearly 5,000 miles. .


Cartagena, capital of the State of
Bolivar, Republic of Colombia. The
streets are narrow, with high houses,
but the place is well built, and possess-
es a university, a handsome cathedral,
and several churches. Pop. about 20,-

Cartagena, or Carthagena, a
fortified town and seaport of Spain,
with a harbor which is one of the lar-
gest and safest in the Mediterranean.
Pop. (1910) 102,542.

Cart ago, (1) a river and almost
landlocked bay or lagoon, communi-
cating with the Caribbean Sea, near
the N. extremity of the Mosquito
Coast. (2) A town of Costa Rica,
12 miles E. of the present capital, San
Jose, on a plain to the S. of the con-
stantly smoking volcano of Irazu
;( 11,500 feet). Founded in 1522, the
place had 23,000 inhabitants in 1823,
and was capital of the State till 1841,
when it was all but destroyed by an
earthquake. (3) A town of Cauca,
in_ Colombia, founded in 1540, on the
Rio Viejo, three miles above its junc-
tion with the Cauca, and producing
cocoa, tobacco, and coffee.

Carte-blanche, a blank sheet of
paper to be filled up with such con-
ditions as the person to whom it is
given may think proper; hence abso-
lute freedom of action.

Carte-de-visite, a small likeness
affixed to a card, so called from photo-
graphs of very small size having been
originally used as visiting cards.

Cartel, an agreement for the deliv-
ery of prisoners or deserters ; also, a
written challenge to a duel. Cartel-
ship, a ship commissioned in time of
war to exchange prisoners.

Carter, Franklin, an American
educator, born in Waterbury, Conn.,
Sept. 30, 1837; was president of Wil-
liams College in 1881-1901.

Carter, Samuel Powhatan, an
American naval and military officer,
born in Elizabethtown, Tenn., Aug.
6, 1819. He fought in the Mexican
War in coast attack, and in 1856 took
part in the capture of the Barrier
forts, Canton, China. All through the
Civil War he was of great service to
the government, and for his gallantry
was brevetted Major-General of volun-
teers. In 1882 he was promoted to
Rear-Admiral on the retired list. He


died in Washington, D. C., May 26,

Carter, Sir Frederic Bowker
Terrington, a Canadian jurist, born
in St. John's, Newfoundland, Feb. 12,
1819. He served in the Newfoundland
Assembly from 1855 to 1878, and two
years later became Chief Justice of
Newfoundland. He was knighted in
1878. He died in St John's, Feb.
28, 1900.

Carter, Thomas Henry, nil
American politician, born in Scioto
county, Ohio, Oct. 30, 1854.He re-
moved to Montana in 1882, was Mon-
tana's first representative in Congress
(1891), became United States Senator
from that State in 1892, and was
chairman of the National Republican
Committee in 1892-96. D. in 1911.

Carteret, Sir George, one of the
proprietors of New Jersey, born on
the island of Jersey in 1599. He early
manifested an interest in coloniza-
tion, and became, with Sir John Ber-
keley, one of the proprietors of New
Jersey. He died Jan. 14, 1679.

Carteret, Philip, an English nav-
igator. As commander of the "Swal-
low," he joined an exploring expe-
dition to the Southern seas, discover-
ing Pitcairn, Osnaburg, Queen Char-
lotte, Sandwich and Solomon Islands,
besides correcting several errors of
former surveys. He retired from the
navy in 1794, with the honorary rank
of Rear-Admiral, and died in South-
ampton, July 21, 1796.

Carthage, the most famous city of
Africa in antiquity, capital of a rich
and powerful commercial republic, sit-
uated in the territory now belonging to
Tunis. The policy of Rome in en-
couraging the African enemies of
Cartnage occasioned the third Punic
war, in which Rome was the aggres-
sor. This war, begun B. C. 150, ended
B. C. 1*6, in the total destruction of
Carthage. After the destruction of
Carthage her territory became the
Roman province of Africa. Twenty-
four years after her fall an unsuccess-
ful attempt was made to rebuild Carth-
age by Caius Gracchus. This was
finally accomplished by Augustus, and
Roman Carthage became one of the
most important cities of the empire.
It was ta^en and destroyed by th
Arabs in 638.


Carthage, city and capital of
Jasper county, Mo.; near Spring river
and on the Missouri Pacific and other
railroads; 150 miles S. of Kansas
City; is the center of an extensive
lead region; and has zinc mines,
stone and lime works, flour mills,
canneries, woolen mills, and machine
and furniture plants. It was the
scene of a Civil War battle, July 5.
1861. Pop. (1910) 9,483.

Cartier, Sir George Etienne, a
Canadian statesman, born in St. An-
toine, Quebec, Sept. 6, 1814. He was
active in bringing about the estab-
lishment of the Dominion of Canada
in 1867. He died May 20, 1873.

Cartier, Jacques, a French navi-
gator, born in St. Malo, Dec. 31, 1494.
He commanded an expedition to North
America in 1534, entered the Straits
of Belle Isle, and took possession of
the mainland of Canada in the name
of Francis I. He subsequently went
to found a settlement in Canada, and
built a fort near the site of Quebec.
He died about 1554.

Cartilage, a texture or substance
possessed of elasticity, flexibility, and
considerable cohesive power. Tem-
porary cartilage is present in place of
bone in very early life, afrd as develop-
ment goes on ossifies. Permanent car-
tilage, on the contrary, retains its
character to the last, never ossifying.

Cartilaginous Fishes, a general
designation for those fishes whose
skeleton consists of cartilage instead
of bone, and which comprise the sharks
and skates or rays.

Cartoon, in painting, a drawing
intended to be used as a model for a
large picture in fresco. In modern
times the term is also applied to a pic-
torial sketch relating to some notable
character or events of the day.

Cartoons have become a leading fea-
ture of American journalism and of
political campaigns, and some " car-
toonists " receive large salaries.

Cartouch, a tablet intended to re-
ceive an inscription which resembles
a scroll of paper rolled up at the ends.
It is also applied to the modillion that
supports the corona of a cornice used
in. interior decoration.

In military language it is a canvas
or leather cartridge-box ; a case for
holding musket-balls and powder; a
- E.0.


wooden bomb; a ticket of leave, or
dismissal, given to a soldier.

Cartridge, a case of paper, parch-
ment, metal, or flannel suited to the
bore of firearms, and holding the exact
charge, including, in the case of small
arms, both powder and bullet.

Cartwright, Edmund, an English
inventor, born in Marnham, April 24,
1743. In 1785 he brought his inven-
tion, the first power-loom, into action.
He died in Hastings, Oct. 30, 1823.

Cartwright, Peter, an American
clergyman, born in Virginia, Sept. 1,
1785; ordained in Kentucky in 1806,
and in 1823 removed to Illinois, where
he labored for nearly a century. He
also sat in the State Legislature there,
and in 1846 was defeated by Abraham
Lincoln in an election for Congress-
man. He died near Pleasant Plains,
111., Sept. 25, 1872.

Cartwright, Sir Richard John,
a Canadian statesman, born in King-
ston, Ont., Dec. 4, 1835. He was
Minister of Finance from 1873 until
1878 ; an able speaker and authority
on finance ; in 1897 was a member of
a commercial commission to the Unit-
ed States. He died Sept. 24, 1912.

Carupano, a growing port of the
Venezuelan State of Bermudez, on the
N. coast of the peninsula of Paria,
with a lighthouse and good roadstead.
Pop. 12,389.

Cams, Marcus Aurelius, a Ro-
man emperor, born in 222, succeeded
to the throne in 282 A. D., after the as-
sassination of Probus. He was a good
and able ruler and conquered the Sar-
matians, wrested Mesopotamia, Seleu-
cia, and Ctesiphon from the Persians,
and was about to make an invasion be-
yond the Tigris when he was killed in

Carver, John, a "Pilgrim
Father," the first governor of the Ply-
mouth colony, born in England about
1575. He joined the Leyden colony of
English exiles about 1608, and assisted
in securing a charter from the Virginia
Company and in selecting and equip-
ping the "Mayflower." He was elected
governor after the "Mayflower"
reached Provincetown, and established
by a treaty with the Indians peaceful
relations. He was re-elected in March,
1621, but died a few days afterward.


His chair and sword are still preserved
as Pilgrim relics.

Cary, Alice, an American poetess,
born near Cincinnati, O., April 20,
1820. In 1852 she, with her sister,
Phoebe, removed to New York City.
where they lived during the rest of
their lives. She died in New York
City, Feb. 21, 1871.

Cary, Annie Louise, an Ameri-
can singer; born in Wayne, Me., Oct.
22, 1842; studied in Milan, made her
operatic d6but in Copenhagen in 1868,
and returned in 1870 to the United
States, where she remained until 1882,
when she married Charles M. Ray-
mond, and retired from the stage while
her voice was still unimpaired.

Cary, Edward, an American jour-
nalist ; born in Albany, N. Y., June
5, 1840. He has long been connected
with the "New York Times."

Cary, George Lovell, an Amer-
ican theologian ; born in Medway,
Mass., May 10, 1830. He was grad-
uated at Harvard College in 1852 ; and
from 1862 was Professor of New Tes-
tament Literature in Meadville The-
ological Seminary, of which he also
became president. He died in 1910.

Cary, Phoebe, an American poetess
and prose-writer, sister of Alice ; born
in Cincinnati, O., Sept. 4, 1824. She
died in Newport, R. I., July 31, 1871.
Cary, Samuel Fenton, an Ameri-
can politician ; born in Cincinnati, O.,
Feb. 18, 1814; represented Ohio in
Congress in 1867-1869 ; was the only
Republican representative to vote
against the impeachment of President
Johnson ; and was an unsuccessful can-
didate for vice-president in 1876, on
the "Greenback" ticket, headed by
Peter Cooper. He died in 1900.

Caryatides, or Caryates, a term

used to signify the figures which are
sometimes introduced to support a
cornice instead of columns.

Caryocar, large trees, natives of
the hottest parts of South America,
much esteemed for their timber. The
separated portions of the fruit consti-
tute the Souari or Suwarrow nuts of
commerce, the kernels of which are de-

Caryophyllus, the Clove-tree, a
native of the Moluccas. The cloves of
commerce are the unexpanded flower-


buds dried. They form a well-known

Carysf ort Reef, a coral reef near
the S. extremity of Florida.

Casablanca, Louis, a French
naval officer, born in Bastia about
1755, and in 1798 was captain of the
gship "L'Orient" in the expedition
to Egypt. He was mortally wounded
at the battle of the Nile, Aug. 1, 1798;
the ship caught fire ; his 10-year-old
son would not leave him, and both
were floating on the wreck of the
ship's mast when the final explosion
took place.

Casanare, a river of the Republic
of Colombia, which flows through a re-
gion called by the same name, and
after an easterly course of 180 miles
empties into the Meta.

Casareep, or Cassiripe, a sauce
or condiment made from the juice of
the Bitter Cassava or Manioc root,
which also furnishes tapioca.

Casas Grandes, an old Indian
town of Mexico, in the State of Chi-
huahua, 125 miles S. W. of El Paso.
Casati, Gaetano, an Italian ex-
plorer, born in Monza, in 1838. He
explored Bahr-el-Ghazel, and, after
long captivity among African tribes-
men, was rescued by Stanley. He died
in Rome, Italy, March 7, 1902.

Casca, Publius Servilius, a Ro-
man conspirator, assisting in the as-
sassination of Julius Caesar, 44 B. C.

Cascade Range, a chain of mount-
ains in the States of Oregon and
Washington. It takes its name from
the cascades formed by the Columbia
river breaking through the mountains.
Casco Bay, a bay on the S. W.
coast of Maine ; is about 20 miles wide
and so deep as to constitute one of the
best harbors of the world.

Case, in grammar, a modification
or inflection of a noun, pronoun, or
adjective, by which a different shade
of meaning is communicated to the

Case, Augustus Ludlow, an
American naval officer, born in New-
burg, N. Y., Feb. 3, 1813; entered the
navy as a midshipman in 1828, served
in the Mexican war. He was a light-
house inspector in 1867; chief of bu-
reau of ordnance, 1869 ; and command-
er of the European squadron in 1873.


Ee was retired in 1875, and died in
Washington, D. C., Feb. 17, 1893:

Case-hardening, the process of
converting the surface of malleable-
iron goods into steel, thereby making
them harder, less liable to rust, and
capable of taking on a better polish.

Casein, or Caseine, an albuminoid
substance found in milk, soluble in

Casey, Silas, an American officer,
born in East Greenwich, R. I., July
12, 1807 ; was graduated at the United
States Military Academy in 1826;
served in the Mexican and Civil Wars.
Was given charge of organizing the
volunteers near Washington ; brevetted
Major-General U. S. A., 1865; and
retired in 1868. He died in Brooklyn,
N. Y., Jan. 22, 1882.

Casey, Thomas Lincoln, an
American military engineer, born in
Madison Barracks, Sackett's Harbor,
N. Y., May 10, 1831; the oldest son
of Gen. Silas Casey. He graduated
from West Point in 1852, and entered
the Engineer Corps of the army. Was
placed in charge of the construction
of various National buildings; was
president of the Board of Engineers
for fortifications at New York. He
died in Washington, D. C., March 25,

Casgrain, Abbe Henry Ray-
mond, a Canadian historical writer ;
born in Riviere Quelle, Quebec, Dec.
16, 1831 ; ordained a priest Oct. 5,
1856 ; was professor at St. Anne's
College till 1859, and vicar at Quebec
Cathedral in 1860-73.

Cashel, a town in Tipperary
county, Ireland, about 49 miles N. E.
of Cork ; containing the most interest-
ing ruins in Ireland. These consist of
a cathedral, founded in 1169 ; a stone-
roofed chapel, built in 1127 ; Hore
Abbey, founded in 1260 ; the palace of
the Munster Kings ; and a round tower
56 feet in circumference. Pop. (1911)

Casignran Bay, a considerable in-
let on the E. coast of Luzon, Philip-
pine Islands, reached through Casig-
uran Sound.

Casimir-Perier,Jean Paul Pierre,
a President of the French Republic,
born in Paris, Nov. 8, 1847; was
chosen successor of President Carnot
on the first ballot (June, 1894). He


resigned the office of President, Jan.
16, 1895, and was succeeded by Felix
Faure. He died March 11, 1907.

Caspian Gates, a name given to
the Russian fortress Dariel, situated in
a narrow defile of the Caucasus, on the
Terek, 80 miles N. of Tiflis.

Caspian Sea, a great salt lake of
Western Asia, wholly enclosed, hav-
ing no outlet whatever to the ocean,
and surrounded by Tartary, Persia,
the Caucasian countries, and the Rus-
sian governments of Orenburg and
Astrakhan. Its greatest length from,
N. to S. is 760 miles ; average breadth,
200 ; area, about 120,000 square miles.

Cass, Lewis, an American states-
man, diplomatist, and soldier, born in
Exeter, N. H., Oct. 9, 1782 ; served in
the War of 1812; was governor of
Michigan Territory (1813-1831) ; Sec-
retary of War (1831-1836) ; minister
to France (1836-1842) ; United States
Senator (1845-1848) ; Presidential
candidate (1848) ; United States Sen-
ator (1849-1857) ; Secretary of State
(1857-1860). He died in Detroit,
Mich., June 17, 1866.

Cassation, Court of, a French
institution which gives the national
jurisdiction coherency and uniformity
without endangering the independence
of the courts.

Cassatt, Alexander Johnston,
railroad president ; b. Pittsburg, Dec.
8, 1839. He was educated at Heidel-
berg Univ. and the Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute ; became a railroad
rodman in 1861, and rose through suc-
cessive positions to president of the
Pennsylvania Railroad Co. in 1899.
He died Dec. 28, 1906.

Cassatt, Mary, an American figure-
painter, born in Pittsburg, Pa. ; stud-
ied art in Europe ; and lived some
time in Spain and France. As an
etcher she ranks among the best. Her
studio is at Paris.

Cassava, a South American shrub,
about 8 feet in height, with broad,
shining, and somewhat hand-shaped
leaves, and beautiful white and rose-
colored flowers. From Cassava the
tapioca of commerce is prepared.

Cassel, or Kassel, formerly the
residence of the Elector of Hesse-Cas-
sel, is now the chief town in the prov-
ince of Hesse-Nassau, Prussia, on the
Fulda, 91 miles N. N. E. of Frank-


fort-on-the-Main. There are many
fine walks and public gardens in the
vicnity ; among the latter are the
gardens of Wilhelmshohe, in which is
situated the ex-elector's summer pal-
ace, the residence of the late Emper-
or Napoleon III., after his being taken
prisoner at Sedan, from Sept. 5, 1870,
to March 19, 1871. Pop. (1910),

Cassia, a genus of plants. Be-
tween 200 and 300 species are known.
They are trees, shrubs, or herbs. They
are found in India, Africa and the
warmer parts of this country. Sev-
eral furnish Senna.

Cassianus, Joannes Eremita, or
Joannes Massiliensis, an early
monk and theologian, born about 360.
He died about 448, and was afterward

Cassicus, an American genus of
insessorial birds, the Cassicans. The
crested oriole, a South American bird,
constructs a pouch-shaped nest of the
length of 30 inches.

Cassini, Count, a Russian diplo-
matist, born in St. Petersburg. He
was the first Russian ambassador to
the United States.

Cassiquiari, or Cassiquiare, a
large river of South America, in Ven-
ezuela, which branches off from the
Orinoco and joins the Rio Negro, a
tributary of the Amazon.

Cassius, full name, Cains Cassius
Longimis, one of the assassins of
Julius Csesar ; killed himself 42 B. C.

Cassock, a close garment resem-
bling a long frock coat, worn by
clergymen under the surplice or gown.
In the Church of Rome they vary in
color with the dignity of the wearer ;
those of priests being black, bishops
puple, cardinals scarlet, and Popes

Cassowary, a family of birds. The
shortness of their wings totally unfits
them for flying, and it would seem
impossible for nature to have furnished
muscular power sufficient to move
wings large enough to sustain their
great weight in the air. The wings
of the ostrich are of some assistance
to it in running, but those of the cas-
sowary are too short even to be of
service in this way. Its whole plum-
age IB so poorly supplied with feathers


as to resemble, at a little distance, a
coat of coarse or hanging hair. The
cassowaries have three toes, all pro-
vided with nails.

Cast, in the fine arts, an impres-
sion taken by means of wax or plaster
of Paris from a statue, bust, bas-relief
or any other model, animate or inani-

Castanet, a small, slightly concave,
spoon-shaped instrument of ivory or
hard wood, of which a pair are fas-
tened to the thumb and beaten to-
gether with the middle finger.

Caste, an hereditary class of society
in India, the members of which are
theoretically equal in rank, and, as a
rule, follow the same profession or
occupation. Through the long ages
during which Indian caste has existed,
the original four castes have split into
an immense multitude. Different
castes refuse to eat together or inter-

Castellon, Francisco, a Nicara-
guan revolutionist, born about 1815.
He was the leader in a revolt at Leon
in 1853, which was unsuccessful, and
fled to Honduras, whence he returned
in June of the next year. It was by
his invitation that the filibustering ex-
pedition under William Walker went
from the United States in 1854. He
died Sept. 2, 1855.

Castile, Spain an ancient kingdom
comprising Old Castile and v New Cas-
tile, the former extending from the
Bay of Biscay southward to New Cas-
tile, divided into 8 provinces ; area
25,405 square miles; pop. (1910) 2,-
150,518. New Castile occupied the
centre of the peninsula, and is now di-
vided into 5 provinces ; area, 28.010
square miles; pop. (1910) 1,851,286.
The Kingdom of Castile was united
to that of Leon in 1230.

Castilla, Ramon, a Peruvian
statesman ; born in Tarapaca, Aug.
30, 1796. Early in life he served in
the Spanish army, but in 1821 he
joined the insurrectionists in Peru and
distinguished himself in the successful
struggle of that country for independ-
ence. In 1845 he was elected Presi-
dent of Peru. On the expiration of
his term he retired to private life;
but as the new President proved tyran-
nical, Castilla led a revolt against him,
drove him into exile, and in 1855 was


Castle Garden

himself re-elected President. He
served till 1862. He died in Tarapaca,
May 30, 1867.

Castillon, a town in the French
department of Gironde, on the right
bank of the Dordogne, 33 miles E. of
Bordeaux by rail. Beneath its walls,
on June 13, 1453, the English met
with a signal defeat, their leader, Earl
Talbot of Shrewsbury, and his son,
being slain. Part of the battle is de-
scribed in the fourth act of Shake-
speare's " King Henry VI.," Part I.

Casting, the running of melted
metal into a mold prepared for the

them in being designed for military
purposes only, and not as places of
permanent residence.

Castlebar, the capital town of
County Mayo, Ireland. It is on the
Castlebar river, 10 miles N. E. of
Westport. In 1641 occurred here the
massacre of the English Parliamentary
army in the Irish rebellion ; in 1789
Castlebar was held for a fortnight by
the French general, Humbert; and in
1846-1847 it suffered greatly from

Castle Garden, the former immi-
grant depot in New York, at the point



purpose, so as to produce an article
of a certain shape.

Cast-iron, the name given to the
iron obtained from the blast-furnace
by running the fused metal into molds
prepared for the purpose.

Castle, a building constructed for
the purpose of repelling attack. The
castella left by the Romans were con-
structed on the general model of their
stationary encampments, and though
they may have suggested the castles
of the Middle Ages, they differed from

of Manhattan Island, in Battery Park.
In the early days of the city the place

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