George Jotham Hagar.

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the crown he was continued in office

Cecropia Moth


under the new sovereira and raised to
the peerage. In 1008 he was made
Lord High-Treasurer, an office which
he held till his death, in 1612.

Cecropia Moth, the largest moth
of the United States. It belongs to the
silk worm family, and its caterpillar
spins a large cocoon from which a
coarse silk may be prepared.

Cedar, a tree which forms large
forests on the mountains of Syria and
Asia Minor. It is an evergreen, grows
to a great size, and is remarkable for
its durability. Of the famous cedars
of Lebanon comparatively few now re-
main, and the tree does not grow in
any other part of Palestine. Cedar
timber was formerly much prized, but
in modern times is not regarded as of
much value, perhaps from the trees
not being of sufficient age. The name
is also applied to many trees which
have no relation to the true cedar, as
the Bermuda cedar, used for making
pencils, the red or Virginian cedar, the
Honduras cedar, and the red cedar of

Cedar Bird, a name given to the
American wax-wing, from its fondness
for the berries of the red cedar.

Cedar Creek, scene of a memorable
battle between Union and Confederate
armies in the American Civil War, at
Alacken, Shenandoah Co., Va. On
Oct. 19, 1864, at daylight, during Gen.
Sheridan's absence, his army was sur-
prised by the Confederates under
Early, who turned the left flank and
took the camps of the 8th and 19th
corps, with 20 guns and some prison-
ers. Gen. Wright, in command of the
Federals, retreated and reformed their
line. Gen. Sheridan arriving 10 A. M.,
after a famous "ride," celebrated in
T. B. Read's poem, repelled an assault,
routing the Confederates, retaking
what had been lost, capturing 30 guns
and 2,000 prisoners. The cavalry pur-
sued next day, and in the night Early

Cedar Lake, a lake of Canada, in
the Saskatchewan district, a sort of
expansion of the Saskatchewan river,
receiving the waters of this large
stream to pour them over the Grand
Rapids into Lake Winnipeg. Between
Grand Rapids and Cedar lake is an-
other expansion, known as Cross lake.
Cedar lake is nearly 30 miles long, and

where widest 25 broad ; area about 312
square miles.

Cedar Mountain, an elevation in
Culpepper Co., Va., where, in the
American Civil War, on Aug. 9, 1862,
Gen. Banks was defeated by a superior
Confederate force under General Jack-
son, and retired for reenforcement*
from General Pope, with a loss of
1,400 killed and wounded, 400 prison-
ers, and many missing. The Confed-
erates, who held the field two days and
then fell back to meet Lee at Gordons-
ville, lost 1,314.

Cedar Rapids, a city in Lynii
county, la.; on the Cedar river, here
spanned by a handsome bridge, and
on the Burlington, Cedar Rapids &
Northern and other railroads; 89
miles S. W. of Dubuque; has an ex-
tensive trade in corn, oats, hay,
dairy products, poultry, horses, cat-
tle, and swine; manufactures cereal
foods, farming implements, wind-
mills, cutlery, and furniture; and
contains the shops of the Burlington,
Cedar Rapids & Northern railroad,
large pork-packing plants, Coe Col-
lege (Presb.), and College of the
Sacred Heart (R. C.). Pop. (1910)

Celandine, a name given to two
plants, the greater celandine and the
lesser celandine.

Celaya, a town in the Mexican
State of Guanajuato, on the Rio Laja,
about 150 miles N. W. of the City of
Mexico. The burning of its bull-ring,
on Easter Sunday, 1888, caused con-
siderable loss of life. Population,
(1912) 23,062.

Celebes, one of the larger islands
of the Indian Archipelago, between
Borneo on the W. and the Moluccas on
the E. It consists mainly of four
large peninsulas separated by three
deep gulfs; total area, 72,070 square
miles. No part of it is more than 70
miles from the sea. Celebes is moun-
tainous and has several active vol-
canoes. It has also broad grassy
plains and extensive forests. Gold is
found in all the valleys of the N.
peninsula. Copper occurs at various
points, and tin also. Diamonds and
other precious stones are found. The
island is entirely desitute of feline or
canine animals, insectivora, the ele-
phant, rhinoceros, and tapir, etc. The


inhabitants may be classed into two
groups: the Mohammedan semi-civil-
ized tribes, and the pagans, who are
more or less savages. The capital is
Macassar, in the S. W. of the island.
Pop. (1912, official est.) 2,677,691.

Celery, the common English name
of a species of parsley. The blanched
leaf-stalk of the cultivated varieties is
used extensively for salads, etc.

Celeste, Madame, a French dancer,
born in Paris, Aug. 6, 1814, early
showed remarkable talent. She made
her d6but in 1827 at New York, and
during her residence in the United
States married a Mr. Elliott. She re-
tired from the stage in 1874, and died
at Paris, Feb. 12, 1882.

Celestial Empire, The, a popular
name for the Chinese Empire, taken
from the Chinese words " Tien Chao "
(Heavenly Dynasty). Hence 'the
name "Celestials," applied to natives
of China.

Celestial Sphere, the background
of sky on which we see all celestial ob-
jects projected. It is supposed to be
f indefinite radius with the observer
at the center.

Celestine V., (Pope Pietro di Mon-
rone), a Benedictine monk, who
founded the order of the Celestines,
which was suppressed by Pope Pius
VI., 1776-78. He was elected Pope in
1294, after an interregnum of six
years. A few months after, he re-
signed his office and was succeeded by
Boniface VIII., who confined him in
the castle of Fumone, where he died.
Celestine was canonized in the year
1313 by Clement V.

Celibacy, the state of being celi-
bate or unmarried ; specially applied to
the voluntary life of abstinence from
marriage followed by many religious
devotees and by some orders of clergy,
as those of the Roman Catholic

Cell, a term of various applications :
'(1) the compartments of a honey-
comb, (2) one of the small structures
composing the substance of plants,
generally indistinguishable by the
naked eye, and each at least, for a
time, being a whole complete in itself.
(3) A term often applied to any small
cavity bat properly restricted to a
microscopical anatomical element with
a nucleus cell-wall and cell-contents


when typically formed. (4) The space
between the two ribs of a vault, or the
space inclosed within the walls of an.
ancient temple. (5) A structure in a
wrought-iron beam or girder; a tube
consisting of four wrought-iron plates
riveted to angle-iron at the corners.
(6) In electricity, a single jar, con-
taining a couple of plates, generally
copper and zinc, united to their oppo-
site or to each other usually by a wire.

Cellini, Benvenuto, Italian
sculptor, born in Florence, 1500; died
there 1571. His chief works are : the
" Perseus " at Florence ; the colossal
" Mars " at Fontainebleau ; and a
" Christus " in the Escurial Palace.

Cellular Tissue, a kind of tissue
made of a number of separate cells of
minute bags adherent together. It is
found filling interstices between the
various organs in man and the verte-
brated animals.

Celluloid, an ivory-like compound,
which can be molded, turned, or other-
wise manufactured for various pur-
poses t for which, before its introduc-
tion, ivory and bone were emnloyed.

Cellulose, a substance of general
occurrence, and constituting the basis
of vegetable tissues. Corn pith cellu-
lose is an American preparation used
as a packing in warships to protect
them from sinking when pierced by
shot or shell. This packing is placed
like a belt three feet in thickness, in-
side the steel hull along the water line.

Celsius, the name of a Swedish
family, several members of which at-
tained celebrity in science and liter-
ature. The best known is Anders Cel-
sius, born in 1701, died in 1744. After
being appointed Professor of Astron-
omy at the University of Upsal he
traveled in Germany, England, France,
and Italy, and in 1736 he took part in
the expedition of Maupertuis and
others for the purpose of measuring a
degree of the meridian in Lapland. He
is best known as the constructor of the
Centigrade thermometer.

Celt, the longitudinal and grooved
instrument of mixed metal often found
in Scotland, also a stone instrument of
a wedgelike form found in barrows and
other repositories of Celtic antiquar-
ian remains. Though the primary ap-
plication of the word celt was to the
metallic implement, yet the stone celt


is believed by archaeologists and geolo-
gists to be the older of the two.

Celtiberi, a people of ancient
Spain supposed to have arisen from a
union of the aborigines, the Iberians,
and their Celtic invaders. Various
limits have been assigned to their
country, which included probably all
the N. of Spain as far S. as the
sources of the Guadalquivir. After
72 B. c. they do not appear in history.

Celts, the earliest Aryan settlers in
Europe according to common theory.
They appear to have been driven west-
ward by succeeding waves of Teutons,
Slavonians, and others. Herodotus
mentions them as mixing with the
Iberians who dwelt round tne river
Ebro in Spain. At the beginning of
the historic period they were the pre-
dominant race in Great Britain, Ire-
land, France, and elsewhere. The
Romans called them generally Galli.
They appear to have reached the zenith
of their power in the 2d and 3d cen-
turies B. c. Some tribes of them set-
tled in a part of Asia Minor to which
the name of Galatia was given. They
finally went down before the power of
Rome. At an early date the Celts di-
vided into two great branches, speak-
ing dialects widely differing from each
other, but belonging to the same stock.
One of these branches is the Gadhelic
or Gaelic, represented by the High-
landers of Scotland, the Celtic, Irish,
and the Manx; the other is the Cym-
ric, represented by the Welsh, the in-
habitants of Cornwall, and those of
Brittany. The sun seems to have been
the principal object of worship among
the Celts, and groves of oak and the
remarkable circles of stone commonly
called "Druidical Circles," their tem-
ples of worship.

Cements, substances capable of
uniting bodies closely. They are va-
riously composed according to the na-
ture of the surfaces to unite, and their
exposure to heat or moisture. Build-
ing cement is a strong mortar con-
sisting of hydraulic limes which con-
tain silica, and set quickly.

Cenci, Beatrice, called the beau-
tiful parricide, the daughter of Fran-
cesco Cenci, a noble Roman, who, after
his second marriage, behaved toward
the children of his first marriage in the
most shocking manner, procured the


assassination of two of his sons, on
their return from Spain, and abused
his youngest daughter Beatrice. She
planned and executed the murder of
her father and was beheaded in 1599.
She is the alleged subject of a painting
by Guido, and is the heroine of one of
Shelley's most powerful plays. Recent
researches have deprived the story of
its romantic elements, and have shown
Beatrice to be a very commonplace
criminal. Her stepmother and brother,
who were equally guilty with her, were
also executed.

Cenis, a mountain belonging to the
Graian Alps, between Savoy and Pied-
mont, 11,755 feet high. It is famous
for the winding road constructed by
Napoleon I., which leads over it from
France to Italy, and for an immense
railway tunnel, which, after nearly
fourteen years' labor, was finished in
1871. The Mount Cenis Pass is 6,765
feet above the level of the sea, where-
as the elevation of the entrance to the
tunnel on the side of Savoy is only
3,801 feet, and that on the side of
Piedmont 4,246 feet. The total length
of the tunnel is nearly 8 miles. The
total cost amounted to about $12,000,-

Cenotaph, an empty monument,
that is, one raised to a person buried

Censer, a vase or pan in which in-
cense is burned, or a bottle with a per-
forated cap, used for sprinkling odors.
Censers were much used in the
Hebrew service, but their form is not
accurately ascertained. Josephus tells
us that King Solomon made 20,000
gold censers for the temple of Jeru-
salem to offer perfumes in, and 50,000
others to carry fire in. The censer
used in the Roman Catholic Church
at mass, vespers, and other offices, is
suspended by chains, which are held in
the hand, and is tossed in the air, so as
to throw the smoke of the incense in
all directions.

Censor, the title of two Roman
magistrates originally appointed for
the purpose of taking the census. But
their powers were much increased
when they had the inspection of pub-
lic morals, and authority to remove
citizens from their tribes, depriving
them of all their privileges except lib-
erty. The Censors had also the power
of making contracts for public build-


ings, and the supply of victims for sac-
rifices. There is in some countries a
censor whose duty it is to inspect and
examine books, plays, etc., before they
are published, to insure that they shall
contain nothing to offend against pub-
lic morality or decency. In Russia
the office is one of unlimited authority
over all publications. An official ap-
pointed in time of war, at military
headquarters, to supervise and endorse
all press dispatches.

In China there is a Board of Cen-
sors whose members are theoretically
superior to the central administration,
and have a right to present any remon-
strance to the sovereign. It is under-
stood that experience with the present
empress dowager has made them

Census, a periodical enumeration
of the people of any State or country,
with such information on other sub-
jects as may be desired. The United
States census of 1910 was authorized
June 29, 1909, by Congress, which
limited the inquiries to population,
agriculture, manufactures, mines and
mining, and directed that it should be
taken as of April 15, and that all re-
ports be completed within three years
from July 1, 1909. This census had
at its head E. Dana Durand, Director
of the Permanent Census Bureau, who
was assisted by 330 district super-
visors, 1,600 special agents, 70,000
enumerators, and 3,500 clerks for
combining and tabulating the enumer-
ators' returns. The total cost, in-
cluding publications, was estimated at
$13,000,000. The compilation and
tabulation were done by means of
cards, one for each of the approxi-
mately 90,000,000 persons enumerated,
which were punched in spaces to show
inquiry answers by machines resem-
bling typewriters or adding machines,
and run through automatic electrical
tabulating machines to record the
facts. The Bureau of the Census is-
sued elaborate reports (1917) on
Manufactures in 1914.

Cent, or Centime, the name of e,
small coin in various countries, so
called as being equal to a 100th part
of some other coin. In the United
States and in Canada the cent is the
100th part of a dollar. In France the
centime is the 100th part of a franc.


Similar coins are the centavo of Chili,
and the centesimo of Italy, Peru, etc.

Centaur, a mythical creature, half
man, half horse, said to have sprung
from the union of Ixion and a Cloud ;
the most celebrated was Chiron. They
inhabited Thessaly, and were also
called Hippocentaurs. The myth prob-
ably arose from some herdsman on
horseback, who, being seen by indi-
viduals unacquainted with the uses of
the horse, was supposed to form, to-
gether with his steed, one integral
body. It is also the name of a con-
stellation in the Southern Hemisphere.

Centennial Exhibition, an inter-
national exposition held in Philadel-
phia from May 10 to Nov. 10, 1876,
to celebrate the 100th anniversary of
the Declaration of Independence. The
various contributions of money amount-
ed to $6,800,000. The total attend-
ance was 9,910,966, of which 8,004,-
274 were paid. The largest attendance
was on Pennsylvania Day (Sept. 28,),
when 274,919 persons were on the

Centennial State, Colorado; it
was admitted to the Union in 1876,
the 100th year of American indepen-

Center-Board, a contrivance used
in yachts or shallow keelless vessels to
counteract the tendency to drift to lee-
ward, caused by the absence of a keel.
It is lowered through a prepared slit,
in the bottom of the craft.

Center of Population, the center
of gravity of the population of a coun-
try, each individual being assumed to
have the same weight. The center of
population in the United States has
clung to the parellel of 39 lat. and
86 long, for many years. In 1910 it
was at Bloomington, Ind.

Centigrade Thermometer, a
thermometer scaled to represent the
interval between the freezing and the
boiling point of water, divided into
100 equal parts, the freezing-point
being taken as zero.

Centipede, a worm having a long
slender, depressed body, protected by
coriaceous plates, 21 pairs of legs, dis-
tinct eyes, 4 on each side, and antennae
with 17 joints. The name is, how-
ever, popularly extended to species of
nearly allied genera. Centipedes run

Central America

Central America

nimbly, feed on insects, and pursue
them into their lurking-places.


Central America, the narrow tor-
tuous strip of land which unites the
continents of North and South Amer-
ica, extending from about lat. 7 to
18 N. The limits assigned to it in-
clude the six republics of Panama,
Guatemala, Honduras, San Salva-
dor, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, with
British Honduras. It thus has Mex-
ico on the N. W., Colombia or New
Granada on the S. E., and the Pacific
Ocean and Caribbean Sea on either
side. Its entire length is about 800
miles, with a breadth varying from be-
tween 20 and 30 miles to 350 miles.
The area was estimated (1916) 212,-
968 square miles ; the pop. at 5,284,864.

Guatemala is remarkable for con-
taining, with exception of the island
of Java, the greatest number of active
volcanoes known to exist within simi-
lar limits. The highest in Central
America, is Agua, which is said to
attain an elevation of 15,000
feet This volcano has obtained
its name from its emitting tor-
rents of water and stone instead of
fire. The mountains of Central Amer-
ica do not generally attain an eleva-
tion equal to those of the two adjoin-
ing continents, with exception of the
volcanoes. The coast lands are gen-
erally narrow, and in some places the
mountains and high lands come close
down to the water's edge. The rivers
of this territory are small, and have
short courses, the longest not exceed-
ing from 200 to 300 miles, while many
of them are not more than 50. The
principal lake is that of Nicaragua,
which is upward of 100 miles in

length, and about 50 miles in breadth.
The other considerable lakes are those
of Managua or Leon, Golfo Dolce,
Golfete, Peten, Atitlan, Amatitlan,
Guija, and Cojutepeque.

The climate is exceedingly various,
owing to the inequality of the surface.
The low grounds on the coast of the
Caribbean Sea are exposed to violent
tropical heats, and are generally un-
healthy; but on the table-lands any
temperature, according to altitude,
may be obtained all the year round,
with a salubrious climate. The dry
season lasts from about October to
May ; the rest of the year is called the
wet season, although the rain falls
during the night only, the days being
fair and cloudless, and the air pure
and refreshing. The vegetable produc-
tions are as various as the climate.
Various creepers and parasitic plants,
and among them beautiful orchids,
adorn the forests. The zoology of
Central America differs little from
that of other parts of tropical Amer-
ica. Serpents are numerous, some of
them dangerous. Alligators infest
some of the streams and lakes, and
often attack domestic animals. The
rivers, lakes, and seas abound with
fish. Of the geology little is known
with accuracy. Gold, silver, iron,
lead, and mercury are found; but
none are worked to any great extent.
Jasper and marble are worked in
Honduras ; and sulphur is collected
near the volcano of Quezaltenango.
There are also many salt springs ; and
salt is procured in large quantities on
the shores of the Pacific.

The population consists of three
classes whites; mestizoes, or the off-
spring of whites and Indians ; and
pure-blooded Indians or aboriginal na-
tives. The proportions of this popula-
tion have been estimated at one-
twelfth whites, four-twelfths mixed
races, and seven-twelfths Indians. The
Roman Catholic religion is professed
by all. The chief occupation of the
people is agriculture. The chief ex-
port is coffee; others include cocoa,
fruits, hides, indigo, sugar.

The Spaniards in 1524 laid the
foundations of the city of Guatemala.
After the subjugation of the Quiches,
the remaining tribes were subdued
with comparative facility, and the do-
minion of the conquerors was perma-

(Central Falls


nently established. The government of
this country, as constituted by Spain,
was subject to the Mexican ; but the
dependence was far from being close.
It was denominated the kingdom of
Guatemala, and governed by a cap-
tain-general. Its inhabitants re-
mained true to Spain till 1821 when
they declared their independence ; and
although for a time a large part of the
country was joined to Mexico under
the rule of Iturbide, yet on his down-
fall they recurred to their original
purpose of forming a separate repub-
lic. A constituent congress was con-
voked, which on July 1, 1823, pub-
lished a decree declaring the five States
already mentioned a republic under the
title of the United States of Central
America. Civil dissensions were not
long in making themselves felt, how-
ever, and in 1839 the union between
the States was formally dissolved.
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and
San Salvador again formed a union in
1842, but this lasted only till 1845.
Since that time several atempts (one
in 1898) have been made to unite the
States, but without permanent suc-

Central America contains antiqui-
ties of a very interesting nature, which
indicate that the aboriginal inhabi-
tants of Jbhe country had even attained
a very Respectable proficiency in the
knowledge of the arts of life. Ruins
of large cities exist in various places,
with remains of temples, altars, and
ornamental stones, statues of deities,
and other works of sculpture.

Central Falls, a town in Provi-
dence county, R. I.; on the Black- j
stone river and the New York, New|
Haven & Hartford railroad; 5 miles
N. of Providence; is in a farming
section; has a laige trade in dairy
products; and manufactures cotton,
woolen, and hair goods, leather, and
trachinery, having fine power from
the river. Pop. (1910) 22,754.

Central India, the official term for
a group of feudatory States in India.
The total area is about 77,281 square
miles; pop. (1901) 8,628,781.

Centralization, a term in a
specific sense applied to a system of
government where the tendency is to
administer by the central government
matters which had been previously, or

might very well be, under the man-
; agement of local authorities.

Central Park, the most noted park
in New York City, and contains 840
acres. It was laid out under the di-
rection and management of Hon. An-
drew H. Green, who for thirteen years
had absolute control of the work, and
who is known as " The Father of New
York." It contains among other ob-
jects of interest, the Mall, the Croton
Reservoirs, Cleopatra's Needle, the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Mu-
seum of Natural History, and several

Central Powers, a designation as-
sumed by Germany and her allies in
the world war.

Central Provinces, an extensive
British territory in India. They be-
came a separate administration in
1861, and are under the authority of a
chief commissioner. Their total area
is 130,997 square miles, of which 99,-
823 square miles are British territory,
and 31,174 the territory of native pro-
tected states. Pop. (1911) 16,035,043,
including 2,177,406 in native States.
Berar, leased to the Government, is
attached for administration.

Central University, a co-educa-
tional institution in Pella, la., organ-
ized in 1853, under the auspices of
the Baptist Church.

Central University, an educa-
tional institution in Richmond, Ky.,
organized in 1873, under the auspices
of the Presbyterian Church.

Central Wesleyan College, a co-
educational institution in Warrenton,
Mo., organized in 1864, under the
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal

Centre College, an educational in-

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