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Charcot, Jean Martin, a French
physician, born in Paris, Nov. 29,
1825. His specialty was nervous and
mental diseases, and he performed
many curious and successful experi-
ments in hypnotism and mental sug-
gestion. He died Aug. 16, 1893.
His son, JEAN MABTIN, became an
eminent scientist: led an expedition
to discover the South Pole in 1908;
and while he failed he reached lat.
70 S., and mapped 120 miles of
hitherto unknown coast.



Chares



Charles



Chares, a Rhodian sculptor, born
in Lindus, Rhodes; lived about 290-
280 B. c. He was a pupil of Lysippus
and the sculptor of the Colossus of
Rhodes, one of the " seven wonders of
the world."

Charge d'affaires, a representa-
tive of a country at a less important
foreign court, inferior to an ambassa-
dor, or a minister, to whom is intrust-
ed all matters of diplomacy.

Charge of the Light Brigade,
The, or " Death charge of the 600 at
Balaclava," Oct. 25, 1854, a remark-
able military movement made by the
13th Light Dragoons, the 17th Lan-
cers, the llth Hussars, commanded by
Lord Cardigan, the 8th Hussars, and
the 4th Light Dragoons. The Rus-
sians were advancing in great strength
to cut off the Turkish force from the
British. Lord Raglan sent an order
to Lord Lucan to advance, and Lord
Lucan, not understanding what was
intended, applied to Captain Nolan,
who brought the message, and Nolan
replied : " There, my lord, is your
enemy." Lucan then gave orders to
Lord Cardigan to attack, and the 600
men rode forward into the jaws of
death. In 20 minutes 12 officers were
killed and 11 wounded; 147 men were
killed and 110 wounded, and 325 hors-
es were slain.

Charing-Cross, the titular center
of London, so named from a cross
which stood until 1647 at the village
of Charing in memory of Eleanor, wife
of Edward I. It is now a triangular
piece of roadway at Trafalgar Square.

Chariot, in ancient times a kind of
carriage used either for pleasure or in
war.

Charivari, an imitative word, hav-
ing its origin in slang, describing a
mock serenade of discordant music
with such accompaniments as tin ket-
tles, shouting, whistling, groaning,
hissing, and screaming, and the like.

Charlemagne, Charles the Great,
King of the Franks, and subsequently
Emperor of the West, was born in
742, probably at Aix-la-Chapelle. His
father was Pepin the Short, King of
the Franks. On the decease of his
father, in 768, he was crowned king,
and divided the kingdom of the Franks
with his younger brother Carloman, at
whose dath in 771 Charlemagne made



himself master of the whole empire.
He attracted by his liberality the most
distinguished scholars to his court at
Aix-la-Chapelle where he died and was
buried in 814.

Charleroi, a fortified and impor-
tant manufacturing town of Belgium,
in the province of Hainault, on the
navigable river Sambre, 33 miles S. of
Brussels. The town is the center of
the large coal-basin of Charleroi. It
was one of the first places in Belgium
to suffer from the German invasion,
and sturdily but ineffectually met the
attack of Aug. 21-3, 1914. See AP-
PENDIX: World War.

Charles VII., King of France;
born in Paris, Feb. 22, 1403, and
though only the fifth son of Charles

VI. and Isabella of Bavaria, became,
by the successive deaths of his elder
brothers, heir-presumptive to the
crown. That he should ever succeed
to it was then extremely problemati-
cal, as Henry V. of England was pur-
suing his career of conquest, and short-
ly afterward, by the treaty of Troyes,
secured to himself the hand of Charles'
sister Catharine, and the succession to
the French throne after her father's
death. On the King of England's
death in 1422 his son Henry VI. was
proclaimed King of France at Paris,
The war with the national party, rep-
resented by the Orleanist faction, with
the dauphin at their head, was main-
tained for several years by the Eng-
lish, under the command of the Duke
of Bedford. So successfully did the
latter conduct operations that Charles
was nearly ready to abandon the
struggle when his fortunes were re-
trieved by one of the most singular in-
cidents recorded in history. This was
the arrival in his camp of the Maid
of Orleans 2 who by the enthusiasm
which she inspired turned the tide of
success against the English. Through
the intervention of the Earl of Suf-
folk a marriage was concluded be-
tween the young King Henry VI. and
Margaret of Anjou, niece of Charles

VII. s queen. In the treaty entered
into on this occasion the territory of
Maine was secretly surrendered to
France, and subsequently, on hostili-
ties being resumed between the two
countries, the troops of Charles con-
quered the whole of Guienne, and final-
ly expelled the English from all their



Charles



Charles



possessions in France except Calais.
The last years of Charles' reign were
embittered by domestic broils, in which
his son and successor Louis XI. took
a prominent part against his father.
He died at the castle of Mehun, near
Bourges, on July 22, 1401. His share
in the treacherous murder of the Duke j
of Burgundy, and base abandonment \
to her fate of Joan of Arc, are stains j
on his memory which can never be
effaced.

Charles IX., King of France, born
in 1550, ascended the throne at the
age of 10 years, after the death of his
brother Francis II. During his reign
occurred the Massacre of St. Bartholo-
mew's Day. Charles died, childless, in I
1574. He was succeeded by his broth- '
er Henry III.

Charles X., Comtc d'Artpis,
King of France ; born in Versailles
in 1757 ; grandson of Louis XV., the
youngest son of the dauphin, and
brother of Louis XVI. After the
downfall of Napoleon he entered
France with the title of lieutenant-
general of the kingdom, and issued a
judicious proclamation, promising the
reign of law and an entire oblivion
of the past. In 1824 he succeeded his
brother, Louis XVIII., under the title
of Charles X., and gained a momen-
tary popularity by the abolition of the
censorship of the press. He was ig-
nominiously driven from the throne in
1830. After formally abdicating in
favor of his grandson, the Duke de
Bordeaux, he revisited England, re-
sumed his residence for a short time
at Holyrood, and finally settled at Go-
ritz in Styria, where he died of chol-
era in 1836.

Charles V., Emperor of Germany
and King of Spain (in the latter ca-
pacity he is called Charles I.) ; the
eldest son of Philip, Archduke of Aus-
tria, and of Joanna, the daughter of
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain ; born
in Ghent, Feb. 24, 1500. Philip was
the son of the Emperor Maximilian
and Mary, daughter of Charles the
Bo'd, last Duke of Burgundy. Charles
birth gave him claim to the fairest
countries of Europe. In 1519 Charles,
on the death of Maximilian, was elect*
ed emperor.

The progress of the Reformation in
Germany demanded the care of the
new emperor, who held a Diet at



Worms. Luther, who appeared at this
Diet with a safe conduct from Charles,
defended his cause with energy and
boldness. The emperor kept silent;
but after Luther's departure a severe
edict appeared against him in the
name of Charles, who thought it his
interest to declare himself the defend-
er of the Roman Church.

After the defeat and capture of
Francis I. of France the power of
Charles became a source of uneasiness
to most other princes of Europe. Pope
Clement VII. placed himself at the
head of a league of the principal
States of Italy against the emperor,
but their in-directed efforts were pro-
ductive of new misfortunes. Rome
was taken by storm by the troops of
the Constable of Bourbon, sacked, and
the Pope himself made prisoner.
Charles V. publicly disavowed the
proceedings of the Constable, went
into mourning with his court, and car-
ried his hypocrisy so far as to order
prayers for the deliverance of the
Pope. On restoring the holy father to
liberty he demanded a ransom of 400,-
000 crowns of gold, but was satisfied
with a quarter of that sum. He also
released, for 2,000,000, the French
princes who had been given to him as
hostages. Henry VIII. of England
now allied himself with the French
monarch against Charles, who accused
Francis of haying broken his word.
The war terminated in 1529 by the
treaty of Cambray, of which the con-
ditions were favorable to the emperor.
Charles soon after left Spain, and was
crowned in Bologna as King of Lom-
bardy and Roman Emperor. In 1530
he seemed desirous, at the Diet of
Augsburg, to reconcile the Reformers
to the Roman Church ; but not suc-
ceeding, he issued a decree against the
Protestants, which they met by the
Schmalkaldic League. He also pub-
lished, in 1532, a law of criminal pro-
ceedure. Having compelled Solyman to
retreat, he undertook, in 1535, an ex-
pedition against Tunis, reinstated the
dey, and released 20.000 Christian
slaves.

The disturbances caused in Ger-
many by the Reformation induced the
emperor to accede to the peace of
Crespy with France in 1545. The pol-
icy of Charles was to reconcile the
two parties, and with this view he al-



Charles



Charles



ternately threatened and courted the
Protestants. After some show of ne-
gotiation the Protestant princes raised
the standard of war. The emperor
declared in 1546 the heads of the
league under the ban of the empire,
excited divisions among the confed-
erates, collected an army in haste, and
obtained several advantages over his
enemies. John Frederick, the Elector
of Saxony, was taken prisoner in the
battle of Muhlberg in 1547. Charles
received him sternly, and gave him
over to a court-martial consisting of
Italians and Spaniards, under the
presidency of Alva, which condemned
him to death. The elector saved his
life only by renouncing his electorate
and his hereditary estates, but he re-
mained a prisoner. Meanwhile the
emperor appeared somewhat more mod-
erately inclined toward the vanquished
party. On coming to Wittenberg he
expressed surprise that the exercise of
the Lutheran worship had been dis-
continued. The Landgrave of Hesse-
Cassel, one of the heads of the Prot-
estants, was compelled to sue for
mercy. Notwithstanding his promise
Charles deprived him of his freedom.
After having dissolved the League of
Schmalkalden the emperor again occu-
pied himself with the plan of uniting
all religious parties, and for this pur-
pose issued the " Interim," which was
as fruitless as the measures proposed
by him at the Diet of Augsburg. The
fortunes of war changed, and the
Protestants dictated the conditions of
the treaty of Passau in 1552.

Charles saw all his plans frustrated
and the number of his enemies increas-
ing. He abdicated the imperial throne,
and selected for his residence the mon-
astery of St. Justus, near Plasencia
in Estremadura, and here he ex-
changed sovereignty, dominion, and
pomp for the quiet and solitude of a
cloister. His death took place Sept.
21, 1558.

Charles I., King of England and
Scotland ; born in Scotland in 1600 ;
was the third son of James VI. and
Anne of Denmark. Soon after the
birth of his son James succeeded to
the crown of England, and on the
death of Prince Henry in 1612, Rob-
ert, the second son, having died in in-
fancy, Charles became heir-apparent,
but was not created Prince of Wales



till 1616. His youth appears to have
passed respectably, little being record-
ed of him previous to his journey into
Spain in company with Buckingham,
in order to pay his court in person to
the Spanish Infanta. Through the
arrogance of Buckingham this match
was prevented, and the prince was
soon after contracted to Henrietta
Maria, daughter of Henry IV. of
France. In 1625 he succeeded to the
throne on the death of his father.
Charles began to employ his threat-
ened mode of raising funds by loans,
benevolences, and similar unpopular
proceedings ; which were wholly op-
posed to the rising notions of civil
liberty throughout the nation, and to
the constitutional doctrine which ren-
dered the Commons the guardian and
dispenser of the public treasure. Civil
war followed, and Charles was defeat-
ed and captured. He was tried before
a special tribunal on the charge that
he had appeared in arms against the
Parliamentary forces, and sentence of
death was pronounced against him,
and only three days were allowed him
to prepare for his fate. The interpo-
sition of foreign powers was vain.
After passing the three days in re-
ligious exercises, and in tender inter-
views with his friends and family, he
was led to the scaffold. His execution
took place before the Banqueting
House, Whitehall, on Jan. 30, 1649,
where the ill-fated king submitted to
the fatal stroke, in the 49th year of
his age.

Charles II., King of England, Ire-
land, and Scotland ; son of Charles I.
and Henrietta Maria of France ; born
in London, May 29, 1630. He was a
refugee at The Hague on the death of
his father, on which he immediately
assumed the royal title. He first in-
tended to proceed to Ireland, but was
prevented by the progress of Crom-
well. He therefore listened to an in-
vitation from the Scots, who had pro-
claimed him their king on Feb. 5,
1649, and arrived in the Cromarty
Firth, June 16, 1650. In 1651 he
was crowned at Scone ; but the ap-
proach of Cromwell with his conquer-
ing army soon rendered his abode in
Scotland unsafe. Hoping to be joined
by the English royalists, he took the
spirited resolution of passing Crom-
well and entering England, Carlisle



Charles



Charles



readily throwing open its gates to re-
ceive him. He was immediately pur-
sued by that active commander, who
gained the battle of Worcester, and
Charles, after a variety of imminent
hazards, being on one occasion shel-
tered for 24 hours in the branches of
the famous Boscobel oak, reached
Shoreham, in Sussex, and effected a
passage to France.

It is the province of history to state
the circumstances that produced the
Restoration, which General Monk so
conducted that Charles, without a
struggle, succeeded at once to all those
dangerous prerogatives which it had
cost the nation so much blood and
treasure, first to abridge and then to
abolish. This unrestrictive return
was not more injurious to the nation
than fatal to the family of the Stu-
arts, which, had a more rational pol-
icy prevailed, might have occupied the
throne at the present time. On May 29,
1660, Charles entered his capital amid
universal and almost frantic acclama-
tions ; and the different civil and re-
ligious parties vred with each other in
loyalty and submission. In 1662 he
married the Infanta of Portugal, a
prudent and virtuous princess, but in
no way calculated to acquire the af-
fection of a man like Charles. The
indolence of his temper and the ex-
penses of his licentious way of life
soon involved him in pecuniary diffi-
culties ; and the unpopular sale of
Dunkirk to the French was one of his
most early expedients to relieve him-
self. After a troubled reign he died
from the consequences of an apoplectic
fit, in February, 1685, in the 55th
year of his age.

Charles XII., King of Sweden;
born in Stockholm, June 27, 1682;
was instructed in the languages, his-
tory, geography, and mathematics. On
the death of his father in 1697 when
he was but 15 years old, he was de-
clared of age by the estates. Fred-
erick IV. of Denmark, Augustus II. of
Poland, and the Czar Peter I. of Rus-
sia concluded an alliance which re-
sulted in the Northern War. The
Danish troops first invaded the terri-
tory of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.
Charles proposed in the Council of
State the most energetic measures
against Denmark. After making some
arrangements respecting the internal



administration he embarked at Carls-
crona in May, 1700. Thirty ships of
the line and a great number of small
transports, strengthened by an English
and Dutch squadron, appeared before
Copenhagen. Arrangements were being
made for the disembarkation when
Charles, full of impatience, plunged
from his boat into the water, and was
the first who reached land. The Danes
retired before the superior power of
the enemy. Copenhagen was on the
point of being besieged when the
peace negotiated at Travendal was
signed (Aug. 8, 1700), by which the
Duke of Holstein was confirmed in all
the rights of which it had been at-
tempted to deprive him. Thus ended
the first enterprise of Charles XII.,
in which he exhibited as much intelli-
gence and courage as disinterested-
ness.

After thus checking Denmark thft
attacks of Augustus and Peter were
to be repelled. The former was be-
sieging Riga, the latter menaced Nar-
va and the country situated about the
Gulf of Finland. Without returning
to his capital, which he never revisit-
ed, Charles caused 20,000 men to be
transported to Livonia, and went to
meet the Russians, whom he found
80,000 strong in a fortified camp un-
der the walls of Narva. On Nov. 30,
1700, between 8,000 and 10,000 Swedes
placed themselves in order of battle,
under the fire of the Russians, and
the engagement began. In less than
a quarter of an hour the Russian
camp was taken by storm. Thirty
thousand Russians perished on the
field or threw themselves into the
Narva ; the rest were taken prisoners
or dispersed. After this victory Charles
crossed the Dwina, attacked the in-
trenchments of the Saxons, and gained
a decisive victory. Charles might now
have concluded a peace which would
have made him the arbiter of the
North ; but instead of so doing he pur-
sued Augustus to Poland. Augustus
attempted in vain to enter into nego-
tiations with Charles, who refused to
negotiate with him.

The war continued ; the Swedes
gained a brilliant victory at Clissau ;
in 1703 all Poland was in the posses-
sion of the conquerors; the cardinal
primate declared the throne vacant;
and by the influence of Charles the



Charles

new choice fell on Stanislaus Leczin-
sky. Augustus hoped to be secure in
Saxony, as Peter had meanwhile oc-
cupied Ingria, and founded St. Peters-
burg, at the mouth of the Neva. Bat
the victor of Narva despised an enemy
on whom he hoped, sooner or later,
to take an easy revenge, and invaded
Saxony. At Altranstadt he dictated
the conditions of peace in 1706. The
Livonian Patkul, who was the prime
mover of the alliance against Sweden,
was delivered up to him on his de-
mand, and was broken on the wheel.
The King of Sweden, however, before
he left Germany, required the em-
peror to grant to the Lutherans in Si-
lesia perfect freedom of conscience ;
and the requisition was complied with.

In September, 1707, the Swedes left
Saxony. They were 43,000 strong,
well clothed, well disciplined, and en-
riched by the contributions imposed
on the conquered. Six thousand men
remained for the protection of the
King of Poland; with the rest of the
army Charles took the shortest route
to Moscow. But having reached the
region of Smolensk he altered his plan,
at the suggestion of the Cossack bet-
man Mazeppa, and proceeded to the
Ukraine, in the hope that the Cossacks
would join him. But Peter laid waste
their country, and the proscribed Ma-
zeppa could not procure the promised
aid. General Lewenhaupt, who was
to bring reinforcements and provisions
from Livonia, arrived with only a few
troops. Pultawa, abundantly fur-
nished with stores, was about to be
invested when Peter appeared with
70,000 men. Charles, in reconnoiter-
ing, was dangerously wounded in the
thigh ; consequently, in the battle of
July 8, 1709, he was obliged to issue
his commands from a litter, without
being able to encourage his soldters by
his presence. They were obliged to
yield to superior force, and the enemy
obtained a complete victory. Charles
saw the flower of his army fall into
the power of those Russians so easily
vanquished at Narva. He himself, to-
gether with Mazeppa, fled with a small
guard, and was obliged to go several
miles on foot. He finally found ref-
nge and an honorable reception at
Bender, in the Turkish territory.

After his romantic return from Tur-
key to Sweden Charles continued to



Charles

fight. He was besieging Frederikshall,
when, on Nov. 30, 1718, as he was in
the trenches, leaning against the para-
pet and examining the workmen, he
was struck on the head by a cannon
ball. He was found dead in the same
position, his hand on his sword, in his
pocket the portrait of Gustavus Adol-
phus and a prayer book. A century
afterwards, Nov. 30, 1818, Charles
XIV. caused a monument to be erect-
ed on the spot where he fell.

Charles XIII., King of Sweden;
born Oct. 7, 1748; second son of King
Adolphus Frederick, and Louisa Ul-
rica, sister of Frederick the Great of
Prussia. His education was directed
chiefly to the learning of naval tactics,
for which purpose he engaged in sev-
eral cruises in the Cattegat. The
death of Adolphus Frederick recalled
him to Sweden, where he took an im-
portant part in the revolution of 1772.
His brother Gustavus III. appointed
him governor-general of Stockholm,
and Duke of Sundermannland. In
1774 he married Hedwig Elizabeth
Charlotte, princess 6f Holstein-Got-
torp. In the war with Russia in 1788
he received the command of the fleet,
defeated the Russians in the Gulf of
Finland, and, in the most dangerous
season of the year, brought back his
fleet in safety to the harbor of Carls-
crona, after which he was appointed
governor-general of Finland. After
the murder of Gustavus III. in 1792,
he was placed at the head of the re-
gency, and happily for Sweden, pre-
served the country at peace with all
other nations. In 1796 he resigned
the government to Gustavus Adolphus
IV., who had become of age, and re-
tired as a private man to his castle
of Rosersberg. A revolution hurled
Gustavus Adolphus IV., in 1809, from
the throne, and placed Charles at the
head of the State, as administrator of
the realm, and some months after-
ward, June 20, 1809, as King of Swe-
den, at a very critical period. He had
already adopted Prince Christian of
Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg as
his successor, and after his death,
Marshal Bernadotte, who was elected
by the Estates, in August, 1810, to
take the place of the prince. On him
he bestowed his entire confidence. May
27, 1811, he founded the Order of
Charles XIII., which is conferred



Charles



Charles Eniannel



solely on Freemasons of high degree.
June 21, 1816, he acceded to the holy
alliance. His prudent conduct in the
war between France and Russia in
1812 procured Sweden an indemnifica-
tion for Finland by the acquisition of
Norway, Nov. 4, 1814. He died Feb.
5, 1818.

Charles, Archduke of Austria;
third son of the Emperor Leopold II. ;
born in Florence, Sept. 5, 1771. In
his 20th year he distinguished himself
in the battles of Jemappes and Neer-
winden, in both of which the French
republican armies were beaten, and
was appointed governor-general of
Belgium in 1793. In the campaign the
following year victory favored the
French under Pichegru, and the Neth-
erlands were lost. He was appointed
in 1796 field-marshal of the empire
and commander-in-chief of the Aus-
trian army on the Rhine, and after
notable victories in the winter of 1797
he captured Kehl, the only position
the French occupied in Germany.
Meanwhile Bonaparte had finished his
conquest of Italy, and was rapidly
pushing his way into the heart of Aus-
tria. Charles was sent against him ;
but it was too late. He was com-
pelled to conclude the treaty of Leo-
ben (1797), which was followed by
the peace of Campo Formio. After
the fruitless congress at Rastadt he
again put himself at the head of the
Rhine army. In the protracted strug-
gle in the heart of Germany Napo-
leon's genius was on every occasion
triumphant, once only, at Aspern, did
Charles snatch a victory from him
(May 21, 22, 1809), but the bloody
battle of Wagram (July 5, 6) laid
Austria at the feet of the French em-
peror. The military career of Charles
closes here. His literary work is com-
prised in " Principles of Strategy "
(1814). He died April 30, 1847.

Charles Edward Stuart, called
THE PRETENDER, grandson of James
II., King of England, son of James
Edward and Clementina, daughter of
Prince Sobieski ; born in Rome in
1720. The last scion of the royal
house of Stuart, xrom the very cradle
he was inspired with an impulse that
induced him, at the early age of 22,
to attempt the recovery of the throne
of his ancestors. Supported by the
court of Rome, he went to Paris in



1742, and succeeding in gaining over
to his views Louis XV., and an army
was on the point of sailing from
Dunkirk for England when the Eng-



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