George Jotham Hagar.

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didates yearly resort for the public
examinations. Hang-Chow is also the
capital of the province, which is ruled
by a viceroy. Marco Polo visited the
province in the 14th century, when it
contained beautiful temples, now in
ruins. The Italians in 1900 laid
claim to part of Cheh-Chiang as a
sphere of influence, but failed in their
demands. Area 36,670 square miles ;
pop. (1910 est.) 17,000,000.

Cheironectes, the Frog-fish, a
genus, comprising some of those fishes
popularly known under the name of
anglers. They are most grotesquely
and hideously shaped, having the pec-


toral fins supported like short feet
on peduncles, by means of which they
can creep over mud or sand when
left dry by the receding tide.

Cheirotherimn, a name given to
a great unknown animal that formed
the larger footsteps upon the slabs of
the Trias, or upper New Red Sand-
stone, and which bears a resemblance
to the human hand.

Chel-ab-kn-kil, or Ab-kn-kil-
chel, an Indian priest who lived in,
Yucatan and flourished in the 15th
century. His name is mentioned in
almost every Yucatanie legend, and
fragments of history composed by him
are found in documents of Yucatan,
and Central American missions.

Chelmsf ord, Frederic Augustus
Thesiger, Lord, born May 21, 1827,
an English soldier; served in the Cri-
mea and through the Indian mutiny,
and in 1877 was appointed command-
er of the forces and lieutenant-gov-
ernor of Cape Colony. He restored
Kaffraria to tranquillity, and was
given the chief command in the Zulu
war of 1879. On his return to Eng-
land he was made G. C. B. He
died April 9, 1905.

Chelsea, a city in Suffolk county,
Mass., practically a suburb of Bos-
ton; on Chelsea harbor, the Mystic
river, and the Boston & Maine rail-
road; 3 miles from the State house
in Boston; is the seat of a United
States Naval Hospital, Marine Hos-
pital, and Soldiers' Home; and is
chiefly engaged in manufacturing.
Pop. (1910) 32,452.

Chelsea, a borough of London, Eng-
land, on the Thames, opposite Bat-
tersea, and chiefly distinguished for
containing a royal military hospital,
originally commenced by James I. as
a theological college, but converted by
Charles II. for the reception of sick,
maimed, and superannuated soldiers.

Chelyuskin, Cape, (formerly
Northeast Cape, and sometimes called
Cape Severe), the extreme N. point of
Asia, on a peninsula of the same
name, which forms the W. arm of the
B. half of the Taimyr peninsula. It
is named after a Russian officer who
led an expedition thus far in 1742,
and here succumbed, with his wife,
to the fatigues of the journey.

Chemistry, the science treating
of the relations and combinations of


atoms, or, that branch of natural
science which considers the combina-
tion of two or more substances to
form a third body with properties un-
like either of the components; and
the separation from a compound sub-
stance of the more simple bodies pres-
ent in it, each possessing distinct
properties. Considering that the steps
of the combination and decomposition
of substances can never be correctly
understood without an ultimate knowl-
edge of the properties of substances,
it follows that the science of chem-
istry must take into notice likewise
the description of all the simplest as
well as of the most complex bodies.
Chemistry ranks as one of the arts
as well as one of the sciences, and
the division of Practical Chemistry
comprehends the rules and processes
which must be followed and the me-
chanical means for the prosecution of
the art.

Chemnitz, a town of Saxony, at
the base of the Erzgebirge, and at the
confluence of the Chemnitz river, with
three other streams, 51 miles S. S. E.
of Leipsic. It is the principal manu-
facturing town of the kingdom, its
industry consisting in weaving cot-
tons, woolens, and silks, and in print-
ing calicoes, chiefly for German con-
sumption. It supplies the world with
cheap hosiery, and makes mixed fab-
rics of wool, cotton, and jute for the
markets of Europe and the United
States. It has several extensive ma-
chine-factories, producing locomotives
and other steam-engines, with ma-
chinery for flax and wool spinning,
weaving, and mining industry.
Created a free imperial city as early
as 1125, Chemnitz, suffered much
during the Thirty Years' War. Pop.
(19iO) 287,807.

Chemnitz, Martin, a German
Protestant theologian ; born in the
mark of Brandenburg in 1522. Died
at Brunswick in 1586.

Chemulpo, Chosen, seaport town
(since 1883 a treaty-port), on the W.
coast, 25 miles by rail W. S. W. of
Seoul, the capital. It was a landing-

g)int for the Japanese occupation of
orea, during the Russo-Japanese
war of 1904, and witnessed the first
fight, in the sinking of the Russian
warships, the Variag and Korietz.
The imports attain a value of $3,-


500,000 in some years; the exports
$1,COO,000. Pop. 41,000; the bulk of
the 3,000 foreigners are Japanese.

Cheney, Charles Edward, an
American clergyman ; born in Can-
andaigua, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1836. He
was ordained a clergyman of the
Protestant Episcopal Church in 1858.
Becoming rector of Christ Church,
Chicago, he incurred censure for het-
erodoxy and was tried on that charge
and deposed from the priesthood. He
at once became a leader in the Re-
formed Episcopal movement, and was
consecrated bishop of the new denomi-
nation in 1873, a post he has since

Cheney, Ednah Dow (Little-
hale), an American writer ; born in
Boston in 1824. She became presi-
dent of the New England Woman's
Club and the Massachusetts Suffrage
Association. She died in 1904.

Cheney, John Vance, an Ameri-
can writer, born in Groveland, N. Y.,
Dec. 29, 1848.

Cheney, Theseus Apoleon, an
American historian ; born in Leon, N.
Y., March 16, 1830. He died in
Starkey, N. Y., Aug. 1878.

Chenile, a round fabric or trim-
ming made by uniting with two or
more sets of warps, a fine filling or
weft. The fabric is then twisted, as-
suming a cylindrical shape with weft
projecting radially from the central
line of warps.

Cheops, the name given by Herodo-
tus to the Egyptian despot whom the
Egyptians themselves called Khufu.
He belonged to the rulers who had
for their capital Memphis ; lived about
2800-2700 B. C., and built the largest
of the pyramids. According to He-
rodotus he employed 100,000 men on
this work constantly for 20 years.

Cherbourg, a strongly fortified
arsenal and seaport of France, in the
department of La. Manche (The Chan-
nel), 196 miles W. N. W. of Paris.
It is the works by which it- has been
converted into a great naval fortress
that give it its special importance.
These altogether have cost $40,000,-
000, and were chiefly carried out
under Napoleon I., Louis Philippe,
and Napoleon III. A United States
consul is resident at Cherbourg. Pon
(1911) 43,731.


Cherbuliez, Victor, a French ro-
mancist ; born in Geneva, of a noted
family of litterateurs, July 19, 1829.
He died in Paris, July 1, 1899.

Cherokee Indians, a tribe of the
Appalachian family of North _ Amer-
ican aborigines, which occupied for
centuries the country E. and S. of
the Alleghanies. After the coloniza-
tion of North America by the whites,
a series of wars broke out at periods
ranging from 1759 to 1793 ; when, by
a treaty entered into with the United
States, they ceded their territory in
the Southeastern States, in consid-
eration of a certain cash payment,
and an annual subsidy being continued
to them. In 1805 they made further
concessions of their lands, and, in
1812, fought bravely on the American
side. In 1817-1819 new treaties were
made, which resulted in the Cherokees
being forced to a reservation of ter-
ritory afforded them W. of the Missis-
sippi. A remnant of the tribe re-
mained, hqwever,Jn the original reser-
vation in 'North Carolina. In Okla-
homa they occupy at present an area
of 7,861 square miles in the N. E. The
Cherokee:? have a chief, an assistant,
and a legislature, all chosen by vote.
They live in dwellings, not in wig-
wams. They have an asylum for or-
phans, seminaries, and 100 private
schools. Their capital is Tahlequah.
In the original North Carolina reser-
vation the Cherokees number 1,351.
They occupy an area of 98,211 acres.

Cherry, a fruit-tree of the prune or
plum tribe, very ornamental and there-
fore much cultivated in shrubberies.
The American wild cherry is a fine
large tree, the timber of which is much
used by cabinet-makers and others.
The fruit is somewhat astringent.

Cherubini, Luigi Zenobio Sal-
vatore, founder of the French Con-
servatory and instructor of hundreds
of eminent musicians ; born in Flor-
ence, Sept. 1, 1760. In the interval
from 1780 to 1788, he composed eleven
Italian operas, including "Ifigenia in
Aulide," the most successful of the
series. He died in Paris, March 15,

Chesapeake Bay, in Maryland
and Virginia, and dividing the former
State into two parts, is the largest
inlet on the Atlantic coast of the

E. 33.


United States, being 200 miles long,
and from 4 to 40 broad. Its entrance,
12 miles wide, has on the N. Cape
Charles, and on the S. Cape Henry,
both promontories being in Virginia.
Chess, the most purely intellec-
tual of all games of skill, the origin
of which has been much disputed, but
probably arose Sp India 5,000 years
ago, and thence spread through Persia
and Arabia, to Europe and America.
The game has undergone many modi-
fications during its diffusion through-
out the world, but retains marked
traces of its Oriental origin. The
game 'is played by two persons on a
board which consists of 64 squares,
arranged in 8 rows of 8 squares each,
alternately black and white. Each


player has two sets of pieces of op-
posite colors of 16 men each, and of
various powers, according to their
rank. These sets of men are arrayed
opposite each other, and attack, de-
fend, and capture like hostile armies.
The superior officers occupying the
first row on each side are called pieces,
the inferior men, all alike, standing
on the row immediately in front of the
pieces, are called pawns.

The chessmen being placed, the play-
ers begin the engagement by moving
alternately ; each aiming to gain a nu-
merical superiority by capturing his
opponent's men, as well as such ad-
vantages of position as may conduce to


Chest, in man and the higher
vertebrates, the cavity formed by the
breast-bone in front and the ribs and
backbone at the sides and behind,
shut off from the abdomen below by
the diaphragm. It contains the heart,
lungs, etc., and the gullet passes
through it.

Chester, as an independent word,
the name given to a circular forti-
fication in some parts of Scotland ;
as a suffix, it forms part of the names
of many towns among English-speak-
ing people, as Manchester, and indi-
cates that such places were once the
sites of Roman encampments.

Chester, a city and port of entry
in Delaware county, Pa. ; on the
Delaware river and several railroads ;
15 miles S. of Philadelphia. It is the
oldest city in the State, having been
settled by Swedes in 1643 under the
name of Upland. It is noted as the
site of the famous Roach ship-build-
ing yards, where many vessels of the
navy were constructed, as the seat
of the Crozer Theological Seminary
(Bapt.) and the Pennsylvania Mili-
tary Academy, and for its diversified
manufactures. The Federal census
of 1910 credited the city with having
128 factory-system plants, employing
$23,928,262 capital, and yielding prod-
ucts valued at $19,373,314. Pop.
(1910) 38,537.

Chester, one of the cathedral cities
of England ; 16 miles S. E. of Liver-
pool ; has St. John's Church, founded
in 698. Pop. (1911) 39.028.

Chesterfield, Philip Dormer
Stanhope, fourth Earl of, an English
statesman and litterateur ; born in
London, Sept. 22, 1694. He entered
public life in 1715, and took an active
part in the petty intrigues and party
squabbles which made up the parlia-
mentary and court history of the reign
of George II. The only writings of
this accomplished person that are at
all remembered are his " Letters " to
his son, remarkable for their ease of
style and their knowledge of society,
but notoriously reprehensible for the
principles of conduct which they in-
culcate. He died March 24. 1773.

Chesterton, Gilbert Keith, an
English journalist and author ; born
at Campden Hill, Kensington, in
1874 ; essayed poetry in boyhood ; be-
came an artist, more for recreation
than profit ; engaged in book-reviewing

Chevy Chase

for several London magazines ; then
launched into authorship. In 1917 he
was considered the most conspicuous
figure in British journalism, a master
of paradox, epigram, and anti-climax,
always entertaining, brilliant, and

Chetah, the hunting leopard of
India, a native of Arabia and Asia
Minor. It has its specific name (ju-
tata, crested or maned) from a short
mane-like crest at the back of the head.
When used for hunting it is hooded
and placed in a car. When a herd of
deer is seen, its keeper places its head
in the proper direction and removes
its hood. It slips from the car, and,
approaching its prey in a stealthy man-
ner, springs on it with several bounds.
It is about the size of a large grey-
hound, has a cat-like head, but a body
more like a dog's. A slightly different
species inhabits Africa.

Chevalier, Michel, a French
economist ; born in Limoges, Jan. 13,,
1806. He became a councillor of state
(1838), professor of political economy
in the College de France (1840),
member of the chamber of deputies
(1846), and a member of the Insti-
tute (1851). He died in Montpellier,
Nov. 28, 1879.

Cheviot, (from the name of a bor-
der mountain range in Scotland the
Cheviot hills), (1) a variety of moun-
tain sheep, named from the Cheviot
hills, where they abound ; (2) a kind
of coarse woolen cloth used principal-
ly for men's clothing.

Chevrenl, Michel Eugene, a
French chemist ; born in 1786. He
wrote various works on chemistrv,
dyeing, etc. Died 1889, 103 years

Chevy Chase, the name of a cele-
brated British Border ballad, which
is probably founded on some actual
encounter which took place between
its heroes, Percy and Douglas. There
are two versions of the ballad, the old-
est, originally called " The Hunting
of the Cheviot," being mentioned in
the " Complaynt of Scotland," written
in 1548, and the later one. believed
to date from the reign of Charles
II. (1660-1685), which forms the
subject of the critique by Addison
in Nos. 70 and 74 of the " Spec-
tator." The ballad is not historically











Cheyenne, city, capital of the
State of Wyoming, is situated on a
plateau 6,075 feet above the sea and
contains Fort Russell, a United States
military post, and the main repair
shops of the Union Pacific railroad.
Pop. (1910) 11,320.

Cheyenne s, a tribe of American
Indians, originally of Algonquin or
Dakota stock, at one time settled in
Wyoming. To the number of 2,069
(1899), they were settled in Okla-
homa on a reservation of 529,682
acres. They are in a backward state
of civilization and possess a primitive
form of tribal government.

Cliiang-lisi, or Kiang-si, one of
the 18 provinces into which China
proper is divided. The area is 69,480
square miles. Pop. (according to 1910
census published by the Government
in 1911), 16,255,000. The province
contains the treaty port of Kin-Kiang
or Chin Chiang, on the Yang-tze-
Kiang, a town of 53,000 inhabitants.
Here are established famous manu-
factories of porcelain. The province
produces tea and silk, besides porce-

Chiang-Su, or Kiang-Su, an im-
portant maritime province of China
proper. It has an area of 38,600
square miles (about that of Pennsyl-
vania), and a pop. estimated in 1910
at 15,380,000, according to the census
published by the Government in 1911.
The great commercial importance of
this province is denoted by its posses-
sion of four treaty ports, Shanghai,
Nanking, Su-Chow, and Chin-Kiang.
Half the foreign population of China
(14,000 in 1900) is established in this
province. The capital is Nanking.
Commercially the province is con-
trolled by the English, who have in-
vested largely in railways, mills and
government concessions.

Chiapas, a State of the Republic
of Mexico, on the Pacific slope, having
an area of 27,222 square miles and a
.)op. (1910) of 438,843. The capital,
fuxtla Gutierrez, is also the chief
town. The State is in many parts
mountainous, and is also in many
parts traversed by noble streams, in-
cluding the Rio Chiapas. It forms
part of the Central American table-
land, and has a fine climate, although
the whole region is largely clothed in
primeval forests.


Chiaro-oscnro, that branch of
painting which has for its object the
combination and arrangement of the
light and shadow of a picture to the
best advantage.

Cnibcnas, or Muyscas, a tribe of
South American Indians who formerly
lived E. of the Magdalena river, oc-
cupying the region from its head wat-
ers to the Sierra Nevada de Merida.
They were partially civilized. They
were ruled by women as well as men
in the line of succession, and believed
in a Supreme Being. They were con-

?uered in a war with the Spaniards in
537 and their descendants constitute
a large part of the present population
of Colombia.

Chibouque, a Turkish pipe with a
long stem.

Chica, or Chicha, the name given
in Brazil to a species of Sterculia, the
seeds of which are eaten. They are
about the size of a pigeon's egg, and
have an agreeable taste. Also a red
coloring matter used by some tribes
of North American Indians to stain
the skin. The word is also used as a
name of a dance popular among the
Spaniards and the South American
settlers descended from them.

Chicago, city, port of entry, and
county-seat of Cook Co., III. ; the sec-
ond city in population in the United
States. It is built on the S. W. shore
of Lake Michigan, about 18 miles N.
of its S. extremity. It is the center
of the Western and Lake commerce
and has a large water front of 30
miles. A portion of the shore is pro-
tected by a massive wall. The city is
one of the greatest commercial centers
in the world, and is connected by
steamship and railroad lines with all
parts. The lake shore is protected by
breakwaters, forming a splendid har-
bor at the mouth of the Chicago river.
The exterior breakwater is 5,436 feet
long, and extends in a N. B. and S.
W. direction about one mile from the
shore. Piers and breakwaters, built
as continuations of the shores of Chi-
cago river, form a harbor of about 455
acres, with an average depth of 16
feet. At the mouth of the Calumet
river, in South Chicago, is another
harbor 300 feet wide between piers.
The Erie canal, terminating at Buf-
falo, provides a means of commercial
communication with the Atlantic


ports. Area 199 square miles ; popu-
lation (1890), 1,099,850; (1900), 1,-
698,575; (1916, est.) 2,550,000.

The city was built originally on the
flat prairie, at an elevation too low
to secure proper drainage. When this
became apparent the grade of the
whole city was raised 7 feet and the
streets and buildings brought to the
new level. The Chicago river traverses
the city, and by its peculiar course
divides it into three sections, known
as the North, South and West Sides,
which are connected by many bridges.

The city owns an extensive water
works system. It was found that as
the city grew, the old water supply
became inadequate, and in order to
reach a point in tie lake where the
water would be uncontaminated by
sewage, cribs were built two to four
miles out, with a tunnel connecting
them with the shore. By 1900 there
were five of these cribs, 35 miles of
tunnel and 1,802 miles of main. On
Jan. 17, 1900, a drainage canal was
opened to carry off the city's sewage.
It consists of an open drain connect-
ing the Chicago and Des Plaines
rivers, and extending thence to the
Illinois and Mississippi rivers.

Chicago is surrounded by some of
the largest and finest parks and boule-
vards in the country. The park area
in 1916 was 4,600 acres and comprised
about 80 parks and squares, and the
boulevards had a length of about 48
miles within the city limits and large
suburban extensions. There are six
large parks, Lincoln, Humboldt, Gar-
field, Douglas, Washington, and Jack-
son, all connected by boulevards. The
Sheridan road is a superb driveway
running along the lake shore to Fort
Sheridan, 25 miles distant.

Chicago is noted for the number,
size and height of its public and busi-
ness buildings, and for their hand-
some and complete interior finishings.
Among them are : the Auditorium, ten
stories high, contains the largest thea-
ter and opera house in the world, cap-
able of seating 7,000 persons, a
great hotel with 400 guest rooms, and
also 136 offices and store rooms, cost
$2,000,000; the Art Institute, which
ranks among the first art museums in
the country ; Board of Trade Build-
ing; Chicago Stock Exchange, 13
stories high ; the Monadnock building,


16 stories high, containing 1,600 of-
fices and costing $2,500,000 ; the Ma-
sonic Temple, 21 stories high and
costing $3,500,000 ; the Public Library,
a magnificent structure costing $2,-
000,000 and containing a library of
250,000 books ; the Woman's Temple,
12 stories high, containing 300 offices
and costing $1,500,000 ; the City Hall
and County Court and Criminal Court
buildings ; the Newberry Library, and
numbers of handsome club buildings,
stores and theaters, besides many ele-
gant and costly private residences.

According to the Federal census of
1914 there were reported 10,114 manu-
facturing establishments, employing
$1,189,976,000 capital and 386,794 per-
sons ; paying $213,351,000 for wages
and $901,658,000 for materials; and
yielding products of an aggregate value
of $1,482,814,000. The principal in-
dustries were wholesale slaughtering
and meat packing, foundry and ma-
chine shop products, men's clothing,
in factories ; iron and steel, agricul-
tural implements, railroad cars, print-
ing and publishing, masonry, and malt
liquors ; bakery products, coffee and
spices, furniture, electrical supplies,
women's clothing, soap and candles,
wholesale slaughtering (without meat
packing), linseed oil, planing mill
products and confectionery. Chicago
is the greatest live stock and grain
market in the world, as well as the
greatest railroad center.

At the close of the school year 1914-
15, the children of school census age
aggregated 954,413 ; the enrollment in
public day schools was 345,512 and
in private and parochial schools (large-
ly estimated) 114,000, and the average
daily attendance in public day schools
was 291,255. For higher education
there were 23 public high schools, one
public normal school, one endowed
normal school, 27 private secondary
schools, St. Ignatius College (R. C.,
opened 1869), and the University of
Chicago (1892). The principal pri-
vate secondary schools were Lewis In-
stitute, Chicago Institute, Seminary
of the Sacred Heart, De La Salle In-
stitute, University School, Harvard
School, Kirkland School, St. Xayier's
Academy, and Kenwood Institute.
There were 30 training schools for
nurses, mostly connected with hospit-
als. Chicago has 1,183 churches, chap-

Chicago Drainage Canal

Chicago, University

els, and missions. There are 102
hospitals and dispensaries in the city.
Among the largest of the former are
the Mercy, Cook County, Michael
Reese, United States Marine, and the
Hahnemann. The benevolent institu-
tions include the Old People's Home,
Newsboys' Home, Washington Home
for the Reformation of Inebriates,
Foundlings' Home,, Home for the
Friendless, and the Protestant, St.
Joseph's and St. Mary's Orphan

Under the National Banking Act of
1913, Chicago became the central re-
serve city of the Sixth Federal Re-
serve District, and the exchanges at
the clearing-house there, in the year
ended Sept. 30, 1916, aggregated $19,-
129,452,000, a gain of $3,725,285,000
in a year.

The commercial interests of the city
were greatly affected by the World
War. In the calendar year 1916 the
imports of merchandise had a value of
$29,006,276, and the exports $3,990,-
173, a decrease in the total of 1914 of

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