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also the Green Flags and the Five
Camps five being the unit of sub-di-
vision. The elite of the army is the
Shen-Che-Yeng (Black Flags), the for-
eign-drilled Tientsin Army corps, about
35,000 strong, and the Pa-ki or Eight
Banners containing about 300.000
Manchu warrior-descendants. Since
the Chino- Japanese War (1894^95),
there is no effective Chinese fleet, al-
though a few swift cruisers have been
added to the Chen-Hai and the Kang-
Chi which alone remained of the Pei-
Yang squadron. The national revenue
is derived" from land and property tax-
es, customs, and excise, and in 1916
the budget for ordinary and extraor-
dinary revenue and expenditure was
$325,000,000. Prior to the Boxer
troubles (1900-1901), the external
debt amounted to about $270,000,000 ;
to this was added in 1901 the in-
demnity of $375,000,000; estimated
debt in 1914 $960,000,000.

China's authentic history begins i
with the Chow dynasty founded by !
Woo-wang, which lasted from 1100 ,
B. c. to 258 B. c. Confucius was born
under Ling-wang of this dynasty about
550 B. c. Chow-siang, the founder of
the Tsin dynasty, from which China
takes its name, overcame all rivals,
and died in 251 B. o. Che-Hoang-ti,
his great-grandson, was the first to
assume the title of "Hoang" (em-
peror) ; during his reign, in 214 B.
c., the great wall was begun as a
protection against marauding Tar-
tars.

The Mongols under Genghis Khan
and his son Ogdai conquered China in
the 13th century, and in 1259 Kublai
Khan, a nephew, ascended the throne
and founded the Mongol dynasty. In
the 13th century Marco Polo, the
Venetian traveler, visited China, and
published in Europe the earliest au-



China

thentic account of the country. In
1368 the native Ming dynasty in the
person of Hungwu gained the ascend-
ency, which it retained until replaced
in 1618 by the present Manchu dynas-
ty, in the person of Tungchi. Diplo-
matic connections with Occidental na-
tions did not commence until the Brit-
ish embassy of Lord Macartney ar-
rived at Peking in 1792, and it was
not until after the war with Great
Britain in 1840, occasioned by the de-
plorable imposition of the opium traf-
fic on China, that commercial treaties
opened the country to foreign trade.
The first treaty with the United States
was negotiated by Caleb Gushing in
1844. .War with Great Britain again
occurred in 1856 over the Chinese seiz-
ure of a Hongkong vessel, France
joining in, to secure better protection
for missionaries and trade. From 1850
to 1865 southern China was disturbed
by the Taiping Rebellion. In 1894-95
occurred the war with Japan over
Korea, which resulted in a series of
brilliant land and naval victories for
Japan, and the payment of a large in-
demnity by China. In 1898 Russia
and Germany acquired Chinese con-
cessions of land. In 1900 occurred
the Boxer troubles, when a belligerent
section of the natives exasperated by
the continued encroachments of the
" foreign devils " and " barbarians,"
murdered the German ambassador,
and besieged the foreign legations in
Peking for two months until relieved
by the allied forces of Russia, Ger-
many, Great Britain, the United
States, and Japan.

The Emperor Kuang-Hsu died Nov.
9, 1908 ; his two-year old nephew,
P'u-yi, succeeded nominally, but the
Empress Dowager was the actual ruler
till her death, Nov. 15, 1908. On
Feb. 12, 1912, the oldest of monarchies
became a republic, the young Emperor
abdicating the same day. In 1915 an
attempt was made to restore the mon-
archy, but the act of eight provinces
declaring their independence checked
the movement. On July 2, 1917, the
monarchy was restored tinder the boy
Emperor; and on Aug. 10 following
all the foreign ministers in Pekin rec-
ognized the restoration of the repub-
lic under President Feng-Kwo-Chang.
China severed diplomatic relations
with Germany, March 22, 1917, and



Chinchilla

declared war on Germany and Aus-
tria-Hungary, Aug. 14 following.

Chinchilla, a genus of South Amer-
ica herbivorous rodents very closely
allied to the rabbit, which they resem-
ble in the general shape of the body,




CHINCHHXA.

in the limbs being longer behind than
before, and by the nature of the fur,
which is more woolly than silky.

Chinchon, a town of Spain, 25
miles S. E. of Madrid, named for the
Countess of Chinchon, wife of the
Governor of Peru in 1638. Peruvian
bark was named " Chinchona," now
habitually misspelled " Cinchona."

Chinese -fire, a pyrotechnic compo-
sition, consisting of gunpowder, 16 ;
niter, 8 ; charcoal, 3 ; sulphur, 3 ; cast-
iron borings (small), 10.

Chinese Lantern, a lantern made
of thin paper, usually variously col-
ored and much used in illuminations.

Chinese Swallows' Nests, curi-
ous productions, which sell at a high
price in China, though they have no
special points of recommendation be-
yond many other gelatinous ingredients
in soups. They are formed of a secre-
tion from the mouth of the bird itself.

Chinese Tartary, an old name of
Turkestan.

Ching, a Chinese prince ; born in
Peking about 1840. He was related to
the Chinese imperial family. He was
at the head of the Tsung-li-Yamen, but
was deposed in 1900 for his efforts to
protect the legations in Peking, during
which he attacked the Boxers.

Ching-hai, or Chin-hai, a sea-
port of China, in the province of Cheh-
Chiang (Cheh-Kiang), 9 miles from
the treaty port of Ning-Po.

Chin-Kiang, or Chin-Chiang, a
city of China in the province of Kiang-



Chippeways

Su (or Chiang-Su), about 490 miles
S. of Tieu-Tsin. Chin-Kiang became
a treaty port in 1861. Pop. (1914)
86,120.

Chinon, an antique town in the
French department of Indre-et-Loire.
Crowning a lofty rock are the ruins of
its vast old castle, the " French Wind-
sor " of the Plantagenets, the death-
place of Henry II. ; and later the resi-
dence of several French sovereigns,
where, in 1429, Joan of Arc revealed
her mission to the Dauphin.

Chinooks, a tribe of Indians, now
nearly extinct, on the Columbia river,
or in Oregon.

Chinook Wind, a strong, dry west
or south wind in Wyoming and Mon-
tana, which descends from the moun-
tains, like the hot winds of Kansas,
and the Fohn winds of Switzerland.

Chintz, a cotton cloth gaily printed
with designs of flowers, etc., in five
or six different colors. It was a favor-
ite in the time of Queen Anne, long
before cotton prints became cheap. The
name has since been applied to goods
lacking the graceful and artistic char-
acter of the genuine article.

Chios, (now called by the natives
Chio, Italianized into Scio), one of the
most beautiful and fertile islands in
the -33gean sea, belonging to Greece, 7
miles off the coast of Asia Minor, at
the entrance to the Gulf of Smyrna.
It has an area of 320 square miles, and
a population (1913) of 73,830, almost
all Greeks. Earthquakes are, however,
not rare, and one in 1881 caused the
death of 3,558 persons, and the de-
struction of property to the value of
over $15,000,000.

Chipmunk, a small animal much
like a squirrel, known as the striped
squirrel.

Chippendale, Thomas, an Eng-
lish cabinet-maker ; went to London
from Worcestershire before 1750. The
style of furniture named from him was
less heavy and severe than that of his
successors, and was rather elaborate,
delicate and baroque, with classical
tendencies.

Chippeways, or Ojibways, a
tribe of North American Indians in
the United States and Canada. They
are distributed in bands round both
sides of the basin of Lake Superior,



Chiquimula

where they once owned vast tracts.
They are of the Algonquin stock, tall,
active and well formed, subsist chiefly
by hunting and fishing and number
about 18,000.

Chiqnimnla, a small town in the
E. of Guatemala, which gives name to
a province and to the Isthmus of Chi-
quimula.

Cliiquinquira, the largest town in
the department of Boyaca, Colombia,
was an Indian place of pilgrimage be-
fore the conquest, and the Spaniards
having found here a miraculous image
of the Virgin, the church where this is
preserved is now visited by some
60,000 pilgrims annually.

Cliiquitos, or Naquinoneis
("men"), an Indian tribe of Bolivia,
dwelling between the Paraguay and
the Madeira.

Cliiriqui, the westernmost admin-
istrative division of the Republic of
Panama, adjoining Costa Rica; area,
6,500 square miles ; pop. 43,000. It is
well wooded, and has rich pasturage,
especially on the Atlantic coast, where
the climate is very moist.

Chiron, a centaur, half man and
half horse, son of Philyra and Saturn,
was famous for his knowledge of mu-
sic, medicine and shooting. He taught
mankind the use of plants and medic-
inal herbs, and be instructed in all the
polite arts, the greatest heroes of his
age, Achilles, .ZEsculapius, Hercules, etc.

Chisholm, William Wallace,
Republican politician and Unionist,
born in Morgan County, Ga., 1830;
was fatally shot by a mob in 1877.

CLisleu, the ninth month of the
Jewish year, commencing with the new
moon in December or the latter part of
November. The modern Jews fast on
the sixth day of this month.

Chitral, a small mountain State in
the upper basin of the Kashkar or
Kunar, a tributary of the Kabul river,
and bordering on Kashmir and Kafiris-
tan, is 5.200 feet above sea-level.
The people are Moslems, but mostly
speak a language close akin to that
of their pagan neighbors in Kafiristan.

Chittenden, Rnssel Henry, an
American educator; born in New
Haven, Conn., Feb. 18, 1856. He be-
came Professor of Physiological Chem-
istry at Yale in 1882, and since 1896



Chlopicki

has been director of the Sheffield Scien-
tific School.

Chittenden, Thomas, an Ameri-
can colonial and State governor; born
in East Guilford, Conn., Jan. 6, 1730.
He was one of the pioneers of Ver-
mont, and acquired a fortune from bis
lands. In 1778 he became governor of
Vermont, before its formal separation
from New York was recognized. Dur-
ing the Revolutionary War the British
and the Continental Congress received"
overtures from him, his terms being
recognition of Vermont's statehood. He
retired from public life in 1796 and
died in Williston, Vt., Aug. 24, 1797.

Chittim, or Kittim, in the Old
Testament, is usually identified with
Cyprus.

Chitty, Joseph, an English law-
yer and legal writer ; born in 1776. He
achieved eminence as a barrister in
London, but his celebrity rests mainly
upon his legal works. He died in
London, Feb. 17, 1843.

Chinsi, a town of Central Italy,
102 miles N. N. W. of R9me. It is
in connection with the discovery of
Etruscan antiquities that the place
is chiefly heard of. During the 19th
century immense quantities of these
remains were found in the neighbor-
hood in the grottoes that served the
ancient Etruscans as tombs.

Chivalry, the uses and customs
pertaining to the order of knighthood.
Chivalry declined and fell with the feu-
dal system, of which it was a normal
growth. The institution of the mili-
tary orders, the Knights Templar, the
Knights of St. John and the Teutonic
Knights was an interesting develop-
ment of chivalry.

Chladni, Ernst Flprens Freid-
rich, a German physicist; born in
Wittenberg, Nov. 30. 1756. Died in
Breslau, April 4, 1827.

Chlopicki, Joseph, a Polish gen-
eral ; born in Galicia, March 24, 1772.
He served under Kosciuszko during the
first revolt of the Poles (1794), and
then engaged in Napoleon's service, un-
der whom he took part in the battles
of Eylau, Friedland, Smolensk and
Moskowa. On the outbreak of the
Polish revolution of 1830 he was elect-
ed Dictator, but soon resigned that
office, fought at Grochow and Wavre,
and after the cessation of hostilities



Chloral



Chocolate



retired into private life. He died in
Cracow, Sept. 30, 1854.

Chloral, produced by the action of
chlorine on alcohol, since the discov-
ery of its anaesthetic effects by Dr.
O. Liebrich in 1869, is extensively
employed medicinally in the form of
chloral hydrate.

Chlorine, a gas. From its wide
affinities and great activity in the free
state, chlorine is one of the most use-
ful and powerful instruments with
which the chemist deals. By it such
metals as platinum and gold are at-
tacked and made soluble in water,
while its power over organic sub-
stances is very great.

Chlorine is largely consumed in the
arts. Thus it is used in the manufac-
ture of potassic chlorate for making
lucifer matches; in the conversion of
the yellow to the red prussiate of pot-
ash, in the preparation of chloride of
sulphur for the vulcanizing process,
and above all as a bleaching and dis-
infecting agent.

Chloroform, is formed by the ac-
tion of the sun's rays on a mixture of
chlorine and marsh gas; also by the
action of caustic potash on chloral or
chloracetic acid, or by the action of
nascent hydrogen on tetrachloride of
carbon. It is prepared on a large scale
by distilling water and alcohol with
bleaching powder. Chloroform is a
colorless, mobile, heavy, ethereal liquid.

The vapor of chloroform, when in-
haled for some time, produces a tem-
porary insensibility to pain. Inhaled
in small doses it produces pleasurable
inebriation, followed by drowsiness ; in
larger doses it causes loss of voluntary
motion, suspension of mental faculties,
with slight contraction of the muscles
and rigidity of the limbs ; then if the
inhalation is continued a complete re- 1
laxation of the voluntary muscles
takes place, but if carried too far it '
causes dangerous symptoms of apnoea
or of syncope, and the patient must be
restored by artificial respiration.

Chlorosis, one of the most formid-
able diseases to which plants are liable,
and often admitting of no remedy.
Many forms of the disease exist, of
which those of clover, onions, cucum-
bers and melons are best known.

In medical practice an affection in
which the skin of the body, and es-



pecially that of the face, assumes a
peculiar greenish cast, and hence is
popularly known as green-sickness.

Choate, Joseph Hodges, an Amer-
ican diplomatist; born in Salem,
Mass., Jan. 24, 1832. He is a descen-
dant of John Choate, who came from
England in 1640. He was graduated
at Harvard College in 1852 ; admitted
to the bar in Boston in 1855 ; removed
in 1856 to New York, where he be-
came a partner in the law firm of
Evarts, Choate & Beaman. His abil-
ity as a lawyer and public speaker
gave him a reputation seldom equaled
among leaders of the New York bar.
In 1899-1905 he was Ambassador to
Great Britain. He died May 14,
1917.

Choate, Ruf us, an American law-
yer ; born in Essex, Mass., Oct. 1,
1799; was graduated at Dartmouth
College in 1819; taught there for one
year ; was admitted to the bar and
began practice in Danvers in 1823 ;
removed to Salem in 1828; was a
member of Congress in 1830-1834, re-
signing in the latter year; removed to
Boston ; was successor of Daniel Web-
ster in the United States Senate in
1841-1845; returned to Boston in the
latter year and resumed practice. He
traveled in Europe in 1850 ; was a
delegate to the Whig National Con-
vention in Baltimore in 1852. After
Webster's death Mr. Choate was ac-
knowledged the leader of the Massa-
chusetts bar. He made many political
speeches, the most brilliant, while a
United States Senator, including those
on the Oregon Boundary, the Tariff,
the Fiscal Bank Bill, the Smithsonian
Institution, and the Annexation of
Texas. He gave much attention to lit-
erary studies. He died in Halifax,
N. S., Julv 13, 1858.

Chocolate, a preparation of the
seeds of Tneobroma Cacao, made by
grinding the seeds mixed with water
to a very fine paste. It was intro-
duced from America to Europe by the
Spaniards. It is highly nutritious,
containing a large proportion of nitro-
genous flesh-forming material. On this
account it is used as portable food by
many mountaineers. In the solid
form, mixed with much sugar, cream,
and various confections, Chocolate is
largely used as a sweetmeat, and is
introduced in pastry.



Choctaw*



Chorazln



Choctaws, an Indian tribe that
now occupies a reservation in the S.
E. portion of Oklahoma; area, 10,450
square miles. The chief and legisla-
ture are chosen by popular vote.
Grain, cotton and fruit are raised bv
the tribe, which maintains schools
and orphan homes. They number
aboiit 18,456. A number of denom-
inations maintain mission schools.
The tribe's trust funds aggregate
over $549,500. There are numerous
Choctaw physicians, lawyers and
clergymen, but the tribe is not as
civilized as some others.

Choir, an organized body of singers
in church services. In ecclesiastical
architecture the choir is the part of
the building in a cathedral or colle-
giate chapel set apart for the per-
formance of the ordinary daily ser-
vice.

Choke-cherry, a species of cherry,
so called from the astringent nature of
the fruit ; it is indigenous to North
America, the true choke-cherry being
the Prunus Virginiana ; the fruit is
smfll and hangs in racemes.

Choke-damp, the name given by
miners to the fire-damp resulting from
an explosion of gas in mines.

Choking, the effect caused by a
morsel of food, liquid, or other obstruc-
tion, passing into the larnyx or up-
per opening of the windpipe, instead
of the gullett. It results generally
from a breath being suddenly drawn in
coughing or laughing, while food or
fluid is in the mouth ; and a violent fit
of coughing follows till the offending
substance is expelled from the wind-
pipe. Sometimes, however, a larger
mass is drawn into the opening of the
windpipe, completely blocking it and
arresting respiration altogether. This
condition is one of extreme danger and
the sufferer, if not at once relieved,
will certainly and quickly die of suffo-
cation.

Cholera, a Greek term now univer-
sally employed in medicine as indicat-
ing one of two or three forms of dis-
ease, characterized by vomiting and
purging, followed by great prostration
of strength, amounting in severe cases
to fatal collapse. The milder forms of
Cholera occur almost every summer
and autumn, even in temperate lati-
tudes, while the more devastating and



fatal forms of the disease are general-
ly supposed to originate only in tropi-
cal countries. The very fatal forms of
the disease are commonly called Asia-
tic, Oriental, or Epidemic Cholera.

What is called Cholera morbus is a
bilious disease, long known in most
countries, and is characterized by co-
pious vomiting and purging, with vio-
lent griping, cramps of the muscles of
the abdomen and lower extremities,
and great depression of strength. It
is the most prevalent at the end of
summer or the beginning of autumn.
Cholera infantum (infants' cholera)
is the name sometimes given to a se-
vere and dangerous diarrhoea to which
infants are liable in hot climates or
in the hot season.

Cliolos, in Peru, the name for those
who are partly of white, partly of
Indian parentage, the most numerous
class of the community.

Cholnla, a decayed town of the
Mexican State of Puebla. Cortes
found in it 40,000 houses and 400
temples, including the great Teocalli.
Now the place only contains 9,000 in-
habitants. It was a great center of
the Aztec religion.

Chonos Archipelago, a group of
islands lying off the W. coast of Pata-
gonia. Two are large, but they are all
barren and scantily inhabited.

Chopin, Frederic Francois, a
Russian pianist and musical composer,
of French extraction ; born in Warsaw,
March 1, 1809; died Oct. 17, 1894 in
Paris, where the best part of his life
was spent. His characteristic piano-
forte compositions include Nocturnes,
Polonaises, Valses, and Preludes.

Chop-sticks, the Chinese substi-
tute for a knife, fork, and spoon at
meals, consisting of two smooth sticks
of bamboo, wood, or ivory.

Chorale, or Choral, the psalm or
hymn tune of the German Protestant
churches.

Choral Music, vocal music in
parts ; music written or arranged for
a choir or chorus, and including ora-
torios, cantatas, masses, anthems, etc.

Choral Service, a service with in-
toned responses, and the use of music
throughout wherever it is authorized.

Chorazin, one of the cities in which
Christ's mighty works were done, but



Chord

named only in his denunciation (Matt
xi: 21; Luke x: 13). It was known
to St. Jerome, who describes it as on
the shore of the lake, 2 miles from
Capernaum.

Chord, in music, the simultaneous
and harmonious union of different
sounds, at first intuitively recognized
by the ear, and afterwards reduced to
a science by the invention of the laws
or rules of harmony.

Chorea, St. Vitus' dance, a dis-
order of the nervous system character-
ized by a peculiar convulsive and ir-
regular action of the voluntary mus-
cles. The name is derived from St.
Vitus, who is said to have had the
power of curing persons afflicted with
that disease.

Chorus, originally an ancient Greek
term for a troop of singers and dan-
cers, intended to heighten the pomp
and solemnity of festivals.

Chosen, new name given by Japan
to Korea on annexation of the latter
in 1910.

Chosroes I., or Khosron the
Great, King of Persia, succeeded
Cabades, A. i>. 551. He was fierce and
cruel, but possessed many good quali-
fies, and encouraged the arts and sci-
ences. He concluded a peace with
the Romans, but afterward invaded
their territories, but was defeated by
Tiberius. He died in 579.

Chonans, the name popularly given
during the Vendean civil war in
France, to the peasants of Brittany
and Lower Maine.

Chontean, Auguste, an American
pioneer ; born in New Orleans, La.,
in 1739. He was from his early youth
a fur trader, and with his brother
Pierre he founded the city of St. Louis
in 1764. He died in St. Louis, Feb.
24, 1829.

Chontean, Pierre, an American
pioneer; born in New Orleans, in
1749. With his brother Auguste he
set out in 1763, joining a government
expedition. He stopped in the heart
of an unsettled country and founded,
with his brother, the city of St. Louis.
He died in St. Louis, July 9, 1849.

Chontean, Pierre, Jr., an Ameri-
can capitalist, son of the preceding;
born in St. Louis, Jan. 19, 1789. He
worked for his father and began trad-



Christ

ing in fur early in life. After estab-
lishing posts for the sale of skins
throughout the trans-Mississippi re-
gion he purchased the fur-trading in-
terests of John Jacob Astor. He died
in St. Louis, Sept. 8, 1865.

Chrism, the name given to the oil
consecrated on Holy Thursday, in the
Roman Catholic and Greek Churches,
and used in baptism, confirmation, or-
dination, and extreme unction.

Christ, the name given as a title of
eminence to Jesus our Saviour, whom,
in the words of St. Peter (Acts x:
38), "God anointed," as king, priest,
and prophet, " with the Holy Ghost
and with power." The two names,
Jesus Christ, are not analogous to a
modern Christian name and surname;
in reality the great Being so desig-
nated had but one personal appella-
tion Jesus ; Christ being added by
Jesus himself (John 4: 26) to desig-
nate His office, function, or mission.

Christ, Disciples of, a denomina-
tion of Christians in the United States
from which has sprung since 1900
a body known as the CHURCHES OF
CHBIST. In September, 1809, Thomas
Campbell, a Scotch minister of the
seceders' branch of the Presbyterian
Church, then living in Western Penn-
sylvania, issued a " Declaration and
Address " deploring the divided state
of the Church, and urging as the only
remedy a complete restoration of
apostolic Christianity and the rejec-
tion of all human creeds and confes-
sions of faith. The Christian Asso-
ciation of Washington, Pa., was
formed for the purpose of promoting
the principles set forth in this " dec-
laration." It was not the intention
of the Campbellites to form a dis-
tinct religious body, but to effect the
proposed reforms in the churches.
The Disciples maintained that having
accepted the Bible as their only rule
of faith and practice, and the only
divine basis for the union of all
Christians, they were led to reject in-
fant baptism and adopt believers' im-
mersion only. They observe the Lord's
Supper each-first day of the week, and
heartily and practically accept and
exalt the doctrine of the divinity of
Christ. The two denominations have
8,621 ministers, 11,143 churches, and
1,522,821 communicants, besides sev



Oh.ristadelpL.ians



Christian Church



eral universities and colleges of high
rank, and a number of religious pub-
lications.

Cliristadelphians, a religious
body who believe that God will raise
all who love Him to an endless life in
this world (but that those who do not



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