George Jotham Hagar.

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returned in 1898, and succeeded in rais-
ing a revolt against Spain. He or-
ganized a provisional government in
June 1898, of which he became presi-
dent later. During the next year he
attacked the American troops, and aft- |
er many conflicts was captured by a
stratagem, and in 1901 took the oath
of allegiance to the United States and
ceased to be a troublesome factor in
the Philippine problem. He proved
himself to be a man of great cunning,
of marked ability, and of extraordi-
nary personal magnetism.

Aliasuerns, a King of Persia, the
husband of Esther, to whom the
Scriptures ascribe a singula^ deliver-
ance of the Jews from extirpation,
which they commemorate to this day
by the annual feast of Purim.

Ahmedabad, (better Ahmadabad) ,
chief town of a district in Guzerat,
India, second among the cities of the
Province of Bombay. Pop. 148,412.

Aliriman, a Persian deity, the de-
mon or principle of evil, the principle
of good being Oromasdes or Ormuzd.


Al, a species of sloth, with three
toes, on each foot, in this respect dif-
fering from the unau, which has but
two. It extends from Brazil to Mexico.

Ailantlius, Aliantus, or Alian-
thus, a tree introduced into the Uni-
ted States in 1784. During the first
half-dozen years it outstrips almost
any other deciduous tree, the leading
stems grow 12 or 15 feet in a single
season. In four or five years, there-
fore, it forms a bulky head, but after
that period it advances more slowly.
The odor of ailanthus trees is disgust-
ing to many persons, and for this rea-
son they are not so much in favor as
when first introduced.

Ainu, or Aino, the name of an un-
civilized race of people inhabitating the
Japanese island of Yezo, as also Sag-
halien, and the Kurile Islands, and be-
lieved to be the aboriginal inhabitants
of Japan. They do not average over 5
feet in height, but are strong and ac-
tive. They have matted beards 5 or 6
inches in length, and black hair which
they allow to grow till it falls over
their shoulders. Their complexion is
dark brown, approaching to black.
They worship the sun and moon, and
pay reverence to the bear. They sup-
port themselves by hunting and fishing,

Air, the gaseous substance of which
our atmosphere consists, being a me-
chanical mixture of 79.19 per cent, by
measure of nitrogen and 20.81 per
cent, of oxygen. The latter is abso-
lutely essential to animal life, while
the purpose chiefly served by the nitro-
gen appears to be to dilute the oxygen.
Oxygen is more soluble in water than
nitrogen, and hence the air dissolved
in water contains about 10 per cent,
more oxygen than atmospheric air. The
oxygen therefore available for those
animals which breathe by gills, is very
much diluted with water.

Air-brake. See BRAKE.

Air-engine, an engine in which air
heated, and so expanded, or compressed
air is used as the motive power. They
may be said to be essentially similar in
construction to the steam-engine,
though the expansibility of air by heat
is small compared with the expansion
that takes place when water is con-
verted into steam. Engines working
by compressed air have been found
very useful in mining, tunneling, &C^


and the compressed air may be con-
veyed to its destination by means of
pipes. In such cases .the waste air
serves for ventilation and for reducing
the oppressive heat.

Air-gun, an instrument for the
projection of bullets by means of con-
densed air, generally in the form of
an ordinary gun.

Air-pump, an apparatus by means
of which air or other gas may be re-
moved from an inclosed space ; or for
compressing air within an inclosed
space. An ordinary suction-pump for
water is on the same principle as the
air-pump ; indeed, before water reaches
the top of the pipe the air has been
pumped out by the same machinery
which pumps the water.

Airships. See AERONAUTICS ;

Aisne, a river of France in the de-
partment of the same name ; an af-
fluent of the Oise ; scene of a French
defeat in 1915. See APPENDIX : World

Aix-la-Chapelle (Ger. Aachen),
the capital of a district in Rhenish
Prussia, situated in a fertile hollow,
surrounded by heights, and watered by
the Wurm, 39 miles W. by S. of
Cologne. Pop. (1905) 144,095.

Ajaccio, the chief town of the
Island of Corsica, which forms a De-
partment of France. It is the hand-
somest city of Corsica, and the birth-
place of Napoleon I., whose house is
still to be seen. Pop. 18,846.

Ajax, the name of two heroes of
the Trojan War. Ajax, son of Tela-
mon, King of Salamis, was next in
warlike prowess of Achilles.

Aked, Charles F., Baptist min-
ister, born in Nottingham, England, in
1864. He visited the U. S. several
times, and in 1907-11 was pastor of
the Fifth Ave. Baptist Church, N.
Y. C.

Akron, city and capital of Sum-
mit county, Ohio ; on the Ohio canal
and the Baltimore & Ohio and other
railroads ; 40 miles S. E. of Cleve-
land. It is the trade center of a
large farming and manufacturing
section ; has one of the largest pri-
vate printing offices in the world and
extensive manufactories of rubber


goods ; is the seat of Buchtel College
(Universalist) ; and has a property
valuation exceeding $27,500,000.
Pop. (1910) 69,067.

Akers, Benjamin Paul, an
American sculptor, born in 1825.
Studied in Florence and was espe-
cially noted for the rapidity of his
work. He died in May, 1861.

Alabama, a State in the East
South Central Division of the North
American Union ; bounded by Ten-
nessee, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi,
and the Gulf of Mexico ; area, 52,250
square miles ; admitted into the Union,
Dec. 14, 1819 ; seceded, Jan. 11, 1861 ;
readmitted, June 25, 1868 ; number of
counties, 67; pop. (1900) 1,828,697;
(1916) 2,332,608; capital, Mont-

The State has large wealth in its
mineral resources, which include coal,
iron, asbestos, asphalt, pottery and
porcelain clays, marble, granite, phos-
phates, natural gas, gold, silver, and
copper. The most valuable of these
at present are coal and iron. The
coal is all bituminous, and the iron is
red and b,rown hematite. The value
of all mineral products in 1915 was
$29,457,407; coal, $8,545,555; iron,

In the S. part of the State the soil
is a light alluvial and diluvial ; in the
central, the cotton belt, limestone and
chalk lands predominate ; and in the
N. part, which contains the Tennessee
valley, there are very rich mineral
lands. Besides the agricultural, min-
eral, and grazing lands, there are large
tracts of valuable yellow pine forests.
The most valuable productions are cot-
ton and corn. In 1916 the cotton out-
put was valued at $48,956,000; the
corn at $47,622,000; and all farm
crops at $118,687,000.

In 1914 there were reported 3,242
manufacturing establishments, em-
ploying $227,505,000 capital and
78,717 wage earners, paying $33,897,-
000 for wages and $107,412,000 for
materials for use in manufacturing,
and yielding products valued at $178,-

Under the Federal Reserve banking
system of 1913, Alabama is in the
Sixth district, of which Atlanta, Ga.,
is the reserve city. Official reports
for the year ended June 30, 1916,

Alabama Claims


excluding Federal Reserve banks,
showed a total of 361 reporting banks,
with $21,704,000 capital, $86,792,000
in deposits, $10,555,000 in surplus,
and total liabilities and assets balanc-
ing at $142,292,000.

Commercial activities at the Port
of Mobile were seriously affected by
the World War, the imports of mer-
chandise during the calendar year
1916 being reduced to $3,990,389, and
the exports to $32,660,338.

The school population was reported
in 1916 at 774,976, of whom 473,150
were enrolled in the public schools,
and 292,540 were in average daily
attendance. There were over 7,000
public schools, white and colored
pupils being taught separately ; 10,212
teachers ; public school property
valued at $2,127,054,930. For higher
instruction, there were 174 public
high schools ; 52 private secondary
schools ; 9 public normal schools ; 9
universities and colleges for men and
for both sexes ; and a State Agricul-
tural and Mechanical College at

The strongest denominations numer-
ically in the State are the Baptist,
Methodist, and Presbyterian bodies,
and all church property has a value
exceeding $15,000,000.

The railroad mileage, exclusive of
switching and terminal lines, exceeds
5,500, having been greatly increased
by the demands of industrial activ-

The governor is elected for
four years ; legislature meets quadren-
nially ; Senate has 35 members,
House 106 ; Representatives in Con-
gress, 9 ; State Democratic.

Alabama Claims, a series of
claims made in 1871, by the United
States against the English Govern-
ment for damages done to shipping
during the Civil War, after a formal
discussion between the two govern-
ments in 1865, and fruitless conven-
tions for their settlement in 1868 and
1869. These damages were inflicted
chiefly by the "Alabama," an armed
vessel of the Confederate States,
which was fitted out in a British port
and permitted to sail in violation of
existing international law. A tribunal,
created in 1871 to pass upon these
claims, held its sessions in Geneva,

Switzerland, during the year 1872,
and awarded the Unted States the
sum of $15,500,000 in gold, in satis-
faction of all claims at issue. The
Geneva tribunal was important as es-
tablishing an example of arbitration
in place of war in the settlement of
international differences, which, in
this case, barely averted a war, and in
defining the attitude of neutrals
toward nations at war.

Alabama, The, a Confederate
cruiser which devastated American
shipping during the Civil War. She
was a bark-rigged steamer of 1,040
tons, built under secret instructions
at Birkehhead, England. Her desti-
nation was suspected by the United
States minister, but when orders for
her detention were finally obtained,
she had departed (July 31, 1862).
She made for the Azores, where she
was equipped and manned by an Eng-
lish crew, under the command of Capt.
Raphael Semmes, of Maryland. She
then proceeded to capture and burn
vessels bearing the American flag, and
the destruction wrought in less than
two years amounted to 65 vessels, and
about $4,000,000 in property. . In
June, 1864, she put into Cherbourg,
France, for repairs. Here she was in-
tercepted by the Federal corvette
"Kearsarge," Captain Winslow, and,
after an hour's severe battle, the Ala-
bama was sunk. The vessel was vir-
tually a British privateer, and the
course of the British authorities in
permitting her to leave on her mission
of piracy showed connivance and sym-
pathy with the Confederacy (see ALA-
BAMA CLAIMS preceding). ^yhen
the Alabama was sinking, a private
British yacht, in rescuing survivors
(including Captain Semmes), also
saved them from capture by the Fed-

Alabaster, in mineralogy, mas-
sive gypsum, white, delicately shaded
or banded.

Aladdin, the hero of an Arabian
Nights' tale. A poor boy in China, he
secures possession of a lamp and ring
possessing magical powers. Rubbing
the lamp brings to the service of the
owner the powers of the slave of the
lamp, who gratifies every desire. The
lamp is lost, but the slave of the ring
enables Aladdin to recover it, and he


lives happily ever afterwards, enjoying
wealth and health.

Alamo, The, a mission church at
San Antonio, in what is now Bexar
co., Tex., converted into a fort. In
1836 it was occupied by about 150 of
the revolutionists in the Texan War
of Independence. Though attacked
by 4,000 Mexicans under Santa Ana,
the Texans held it from Feb. 23 to
March 6, when Santa Ana took it by
storm. All but seven of the garrison
perished, six of these being murdered
after their surrender, and one man
escaping to report the affair. In this
garrison were the celebrated David
Crockett and Col. James Bowie,
inventor of the bowie-knife. The
memory of this massacre became an
incitement to the Texans in subse-
quent encounters, and "Remember the
Alamo !" became a war-cry in their
struggle for freedom.

Alaska, a Territory in the West-
ern Division of the North American
Union, comprising the extreme north-
western part of the American conti-
nent; bounded by the Arctic and
Pacific Oceans, Bering Sea, British
Columbia, and the Northwest Terri-
tories of Canada ; gross area, as far
as determined, 590,884 square miles ;
purchased from Russia, in 1867,
for $7,200,000; seat of government,
Juneau; pop. (1915) 64,751.

When the United States acquired
this region, and till gold mining
set in, fur sealing was the only
industry. Oats, wheat, rye, barley,
and buckwheat, among cereals ; pota-
toes, turnips, peas, onions, and many
minor vegetables ; a variety of fruit
and excellent hay are grown to ad-
vantage. Large tracts for farming
have been reclaimed from wild areas,
and agricultural experiment stations
have been established at Sitka, Ram-
part, Fairbanks, Kadiak, and Matan-

The waters of Alaska contain over
100 species of food fish, but the
principal fisheries are those confined
to salmon, cod and herring. In con-
nection with the Alaska coast there
are at least 125,000 square miles
of cod fishing banks, the greater
part of which still awaits develop-
ment. Whales and halibut also


abound, but as yet they do not sup-
port distinct industries.

Alaska's greatest wealth is found in
its vast mineral resources, which are
still subject to systematic exploitation.
Lignite coal, native copper, cinnabar,
graphite, iron ore, white marble, sul-
phur, mica, kaolin, manganese, as-
phalt, petroleum, and mineral springs
are found in various sections. Until
recently the quest of gold was the
leading mineral industry, but this has
been supplanted, largely through
government promotion, by profitable
operations in coal, copper, silver, pe-
troleum, gypsum, marble, and tin.

Gold was discovered here, on the
Kenai peninsula, in 1848, but mining
did not set in systematically till about
1880. It is interesting to note here
that while the territory cost the
United States in 1867 the sum of
$7,200,000, the production of gold
alone up to 1916 amounted in value to
$260,488,175. And all minerals, with
the output of fur sealing and the
fisheries, brought the total to $612,-
614,004 a striking result of "Se-
ward's folly."

Means of communication greatly
retarded the economic development of
the territory. Now, the old trails and
wagon roads are giving way to the
modern railroad. In 1898 an aerial
railway was completed over Chilkoot
Pass, which greatly reduced the time
between tidewater and the headwaters
of the Yukon, and in 1914, after a
prolonged agitation, Congress appro-
priated $35.000,000 for the construc-
tion of a government railroad.

The territory is well provided with
banking, educational, religious, and
manufacturing activities, and has a
considerable trade with the United
States and foreign countries through
the port of Juneau. During 1915 the
exports of merchandise, precious
metals, and copper had a value of
$55,000,000. and the imports, $28,000,-
000. The World War greatly reduced
these figures in 1916.

When first occupied Alaska was
constituted a military district; in
1884 it was given a district govern-
ment ; and in 1912, a civil government
with a legislature, consisting of a
Senate of 15 members and a House of
30. It is represented in Congress by
one delegate.


Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Exposi-
tion, an international exhibition held
at Seattle, Wash., from June 1 to
Oct. 16, 1909, to exploit the re-
sources of Alaska and Yukon terri-

Albani, Marie Emma (Lajeu-
nesse), a dramatic soprano and opera
Binger, born in 1852, at Chambly,
near Montreal, Canada. After study-
ing with Lamperti, at Milan, she made
her debut at Messina (1870), in "La
Sonnambula," under the name Albani,
in compliment to the city of Albany,
where her public career began. In
1878 she married Ernest Gye, of the
Covent Garden Theater.

Albania, the name given to a re-
gion of West European Turkey be-
tween the Adriatic Sea, Greece, Mace-
donia, and Montenegro. The inhab-
itants form a peculiar people, the
Albanians, called by the Turks Ar-
nauts, and by themselves Skipetar.
The Albanians are half civilized
mountaineers, frank to a friend,
vindictive to an enemy. They are
constantly under arms, and are more
devoted to robbery than to cattle
rearing and agriculture. They live
in perpetual anarchy, every village
being at war with its neighbor.
Many of them serve as mercenaries
in other countries, and they form the
best soldiers of the Turkish army. At
one time the Albanians were all Chris-
tians ; but after the death of their last
chief, the hero Skanderbeg, in 1467,
and their subjugation by the Turks, a
large part became Mohammedans.
The Albanians took a conspicuous
part in the massacres in Macedonia
in 1903. In the early part of the
World War Prince William of Wied
became emperor, but was forced to
retire by Essad Pasha. The Italians
occupied Avlona, Dec. 25, 1914, and
Allied warships scattered an Austrian
squadron bombarding Durazzo, Dec.
29, 1915. See APPENDIX: World

Albany, a city of the United
States, capital of the State of New
York, with a population (1910) of
100,253. Settled by the Dutch in 1610-
14. The State capitol is one of the
grandest buildings in America. Al-
bany has a university, an observatory,


and a State Library with over 90,000

Albany Congress, an assembly of
representatives of the most important
British North American colonies,
which was called together in 1754 by
the British Government to consult in
regard to the threatening French war.
Two plans were proposed : First, a
league with the Indians, which was
carried out, and, second, a proposal
offered by Franklin for a political
union. In this a common president
was proposed and a great council, rep-
resenting the different colonies. This
plan was rejected by the British
crown, because it gave too much power
to the colonies, and by the colonies
because it gave top much power to the
crown. The significance of this con-
gress lies in the fact that it stimulated
the union of the colonies.

Albert I., King of the Belgians,
was born April 8, 1875, son of Prince
Philippe of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
and Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-
Sigmaringen ; succeeded his uncle,
King Leopold II., on Dec. 17,
1909 ; married Princess Elizabeth of
Bavaria, Oct. 2, 1900; offspring,
Prince Leopold, born Nov. 3, 1901,
Prince Charles, born Oct. 10, 1903,
Princess Marie-Jose', born Aug. 4,
1906. At the outbreak of the World
War (1914), the Germans violated
the guaranteed neutrality of Belgium
by invading it in order to get into
France for a dash on Paris. A reign
of terror was immediately inaug-
urated, and*the King and government
were forced into flight. ^ France
promptly offered protection and
asylum, resulting in the temporary
establishment of the capital at Havre.
See APPENDIX: World War.

Albert, Prince (Albert Francis
Augustus Charles Emmanuel),

Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, hus-
band of the late Queen Victoria,
of England ; the second son of Er-
nest I., Duke of Saxe-Coburg, and
of his first wife Louise, only
daughter of the Duke of Saxe-
Gotha ; born Aug. 26, 1819. He died
Dec. 14, 1861, after a short illness,
and was buried in St. George's Chapel,
Windsor, whence his remains were
afterward removed to the mausoleum
built by the queen at Frogmore.


Alberta, a N. W. Province of Can-
ada (the former Territory of Alberta
with parts of Athabaska and Assini-
boia, organized 1881), admitted to the
Federation, Sept. 1, 1905. It lies N.
of the State of Montana and E. of
British Columbia, with the Rocky
Mountains on the W. Area, 255,285
square miles; pop. (1911) 374,663.
From the peaks 11,000 to 13,000 ft.
high, with abundant forests, coal and
other minerals in the foothills, the
land slopes N., E., and S., to well-
watered rolling prairies, containing the
great cattle ranges of Canada, of
which the chief centres are McLeod
and Calgary, the capital. Sheep are
raised in the south and cattle and
horses in the north. Around the grow-
ing towns of Lethbridge and Raymond,
Mormons from Utah and Idaho, with
irrigation works, have placed large
tracts under wheat and beet cultiva-
tion, and facilitated by neighboring
coal fields work flour and sugar mills,
exporting the products. The Cana-
dian Pacific R. R. Co. is placing 1,500,-
000 acres of land under irrigation be-
tween Calgary and Medicine Hat, and
is offering advantageous inducements
for practical farmers to settle in the
province. The revenue of the Province
in 1915 was $5.628,763; expenditure,
$5,402.195 ; and the public debt (1913)
was $22,733,533. Taxation is almost
wholly confined to land values.

Albertus Magnus, or Albert
the Great, Count of Bollstadt, Bish-
op of Ratisbon, a distinguished scholar
of the 13th century ; born in Lauin-
gen, Suabia, in 1193, or according to
some authorities in 1205. Among the
sciences studied or illustrated by him
were chemistry, botany, mechanics,
optics, geometry, and astronomy. He
fell into dotage some time previous to
his death, in 1280. Albertus was
probably the most learned man of his
age, and of course did not escape the
imputation of using magical arts and
trafficking with the Evil One.

Albigenses, a religious sect op-
posed to the Church of Rome, coming
first into prominence in the 12th cen-
tury, and taking its name from Albiga,
the old form of Albi, a city of South-
ern France, now capital of the de-
partment of Tarn. What their doc-
trines were has not been determined,
as no formal statement of them was


ever drawn up. They inveighed against
the vices and worldliness of the clergy,
and there was sufficient truth in their
censures to dispose their hearers to be-
lieve what they advanced, and reject
what they decried. They had increased
very much toward the close of the
12th century in the S. of France,
about Toulouse and Albi, and in Ray-
mond, Count of Toulouse, they found
a patron and protector. As the con-
demnation of their doctrines by the
Church produced no effect, ecclesias-
tical officials were specially sent by
the Pope to endeavor to extirpate the
heresy. The assassination of the
papal legate and inquisitor, Peter of
Castelnau, in 1208, led to the procla-
mation of a crusade against them by
Pope Innocent III., and after a strug-
gle of many years, in which hundreds
of thousands perished, they were vir-
tually extirpated by the sword and the

Albinos, the name given to those
persons from whose skin, hair, and
eyes the dark coloring matter is ab-
sent. The skin of albinos, therefore,
no matter to what race they belong, is
of a pale milky hue, their hair is
white, while the iris of their eyes is
pale rose color. Their eyes are not
well suited to endure the bright light
of day, and they see best in shade or
by moonlight. The peculiarity of al-
binism or leucopathy is not confined to
the human race, having been observed
in horses, rabbits, rats, birds, and fishes.

Albion, the oldest name by which
the island of Great Britain was known
to the Greeks and Romans.

Alboni, Marietta, an Italian
contralto, born in Romagna, 1823.
She made her debut as Orsini in " Lu-
crezia Borgia." After singing in Eu-
rope for some years, she made a suc-
cessful tour of the United States. On
the death of her husband, Count Pe-
poli, in 1866, she left the stage, and
in 1877 she married M. Ziegir, a
French officer. She died in France
in 1894.

Albret, Jeanne d', daughter of
Margaret, Queen of Navarre, born in
1528. She married Antoine de Bour-
bon in 1548; gave birth in 1553 to a
son, who was afterward Henry IV. of
France; and on the death of her
father, in 1555, became Queen of Na-


varre. She lost her husband in 1562,
and eagerly began to establish the
Reformation in her kingdom. Being
invited to the French court to assist
at the nuptials of her son with Mar-
garet of Valois, she suddenly expired,
not without suspicion of having been
poisoned. Died in 1572.

Albright, Jacob, an American
minister of the Methodist Church,
born in 1759. His work lay among
the Germans of Pennsylvania. Be-
coming impressed with the decline of
religious life and of the doctrines and
morals of the surrounding churches,
he began a work of reform in 1790.
He traveled about the country at his

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