George Longfield.

An introduction to the study of the Chaldee language : comprising a grammar based upon Winer's, and an analysis of the text of the Chaldee portion of the Book of Daniel online

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CORNELL

U N^K V E R S 1 T Y




LIBRARY



Dr. Morris Tenenbaum
Judaica Fund



CORNELL UNIVERSITY .LIBRARY



3 1924 096 046 317




Cornell University
Library



The original of this book is in
the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924096046317



AN INTRODUCTION



TO IlIK



STUDY OF THE CHALDEE LANGUAGE:



COHPHlSlNn



A GRAMMAR (BASED UPON WINER'S),



AN ANALYSIS OF THE TEXT OF THE CHALDEE PORTION



C^^ g00lv 0f Janicl.



BY



THE REV. GEORGE LONGFTELD, A.M.,

FELLOW OF TKINITY COLLEOK, DUIILIH.




LONDON:

WIIITTAKER & CO., AVE-MAIUA LANE.

DUBLIN: HODGES, SMITH, & CO.

1859.



DUBLIN :

^rlnuD at i^c OniUniUB T^ttn,

BY M. I>. GILL.



O



f..



I



PREFACE.



The Cualdee Gbammab which forms the first part of this
work is mainly based upon Winer's " Gramniatik dcs Bib-
lischen und Targmnischen Chaldaismus," to which my ob-
ligations are very extensive. I have used and compared
both the first edition of Winer's Grammar, which appeared
in 1824, and the second, which, with considerable changes
and additions, was published in 1842. In some few in-
stances I have adhered rather to the views put forward in
the first edition. The present Grammar, though shorter
than Winer's, will probably be considered sufficiently ex-
tensive for the class of students for wliom it is intended, —
those who are already acquainted with the principles of
HebrCTv Grammar. Though Winer's work is the source
from which my materials have been mainly derived, I have
also availed myself of the assistance of other treatises on the
Grammar of tlie Chaldec and the cognate dialects. I may

mention among tlie works most frequently consulted

Fiirst's "Ijehrgcbiiudc der Arimiiisclien Idiome," and tlie



IV



I'KEFACE.



Chaldee part of Petermann's " Porta Linguarum Orienta-
i limn." The references that will be found to the Hebrew
i Grammar of Gesenius do not express the entire of my ob-
ligations to that work; but it seemed unnecessary to mul-
tiply references to a book which is in the hands of every
student of tlie Shemitic languages.

As the works by which I was most materially aided in
the preparation of the Analysis of the Text of Daniel, I may
specify, in addition to the Lexicons of Buxtorf, Gesenius,
and the portion of thatofFiirst which is published, the
Scholia of llosenmiiller, and Ililvcrnick's "Commentar
iil)er das Buch Daniel." As a reading-book, I thought that
the Clialdcc part of Daniel would be more acceptable to
many students than extracts from the Targums; and as
tlic differences of idiom between the Biblical Chaldee and
the language of the Targums have been generally indicated
in the Grammar, a student who has gone through the
Ciialdee portion of Daniel, with the aid of the Grammar
and Analysis, will experience no difficulty in proceeding
with the study of the Targums.

The fact that the Chaldee is the original language of a
portion of the Scriptures would alone justify an attempt
like the present to furnish a simple introduction to the
study of the language. Its importance in a philological
point of view, and as affording aid to the student in nc-
iiuii'ing the other Siiemitic dialects, and especially tlie
Syriac, to wiiith it is so intimately rcliited, will also be



I'REFACE.



It generally admitted. The value of the Targums, and par-
ticularly of those of Onkelos and Jonathan, as aids to the
interpretation of the Old Testament, aflfords another strong
motive for the study of the Chaldee. Finally, the extent
to which the later Hebrew has been modified by the adop-
tion of Chaldee forms and words, makes an acquaintance
with the language necessary for those who would extend
their studies to the Talmud and Rabbinical literature.
The language of part, at least, of the Talmud may be con-
sidered as Chaldee, and that of the Rabbinical writers ge-
nerally abounds with Chaldee forms and words.

When I commenced this work, I was not aware that
any Manual of the Chaldee Language had appeared in this
country; but when my work was ready for the press,
there appeared in New York, and simultaneously in Lon-
don, a second edition of the "Manual of the Chaldee Lan-
guage," by Dr. Elias Riggs. The Grammar in the former
edition was chiefly derived from the first edition of Winer's
Grammar. In the new edition, Dr. Riggs, as he states,
availed himself of whatever seemed to be improvements in
Winer's second edition, and incorporated numerous notes
of his own. The book contains a Chrestomathy and Vo-
cabulary, and an Appendix on the Rabbinic and Samaritan
dialects. I was not, however, discouraged from proceeding
with my work, as the plan of it differed in many respects
from that of tlie Manual of Dr. Riggs.

Injustice to myself, it maybe rigiit to mention that



VI PBEFACE.

niy time was necessarily much occupied with other duties
during the greater part of the period in which I was en-
gaged in the preparation of this work, so that I cannot
hope tliat it is altogether free from such inaccuracies as
are the almost necessary consequence of interrupted
study.



The edition of the Hebrew Orammar of Oescniua to which references
are made is the translation by Da vies from the seventeenth Gennan edition
(London : S. Bagster and Sons).

The examples in the Syntax are taken almost exclusively from the
Biblical Chaldeo, and from Onkelos, which in the case of examples from
the Pentateuch is always to be understood as the Targum referred to, un-
less the contrary is stated.



'■i



ERRATA.

Page 9, lino 19, for pB" rtad po;.

10, noUj, for ' - , i read rr~, m.

12, line 6, for half-Towd fMrf short vowel.



16,
18,
19,
21,
31,
109,
109,
116,
IIG,
153,



14, for te;j read teB-

20, for <rep_ read 'naj.

20, for ^,i£Pj or ^Bp read ^TDJ?, or Vej?.

2, for ample vocal Shcva «(wi tbe more usual

12, for Ithpokel read Ithpahol.

4 for usual — read usual -:-.

86, for p« '■Ml* rjl.

83, after 1 part, iniw* Pehal.

87, /or •rro'^'j »'Mrf 'Tiij^'riT'
10, for rffa read "nite.



CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION.
On the Ciuldee Lanquaoe and LrrsRATUBE, .



Page.
1



Pabt I.— of the elements.

CnAPTBR I. — Of THE Letteks, Vowels, and Accents.

SccUoii.

1. Of the Letters, 6

2. Of the Vowels, 7

8. Of the Tone, , 8

Chapter II. — CiiANOEa of Consonants and Vowels.

i. General View, 8

6. Changes of Consonants, ... 9

6. Changes of Vowels, 11

Part n._PARTS OF SPEECH, AND INFLEXION.
Chapter I Of the Pronoun.

7. The Personal Pronouns, 13

8. The separate Personal Pronouns, . . . . 13

9. Other Pronouns, 14

Chapter II. — Of the Verh.

10. General View, .14

11. On the Inflexion of the Regular Verb, 17

12. Romarks on the Paradigm of the Regular Verb generally, 19

13. Remarks on the several Conjugations, 20

14. Personal Inflexion of the Participles, 21

b



Socli'

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2.1.
24.

2r,.

27.
28.
20.
:)0.



;)1.
:t2.
:13.
.14.
:<5.
.36.
.•17.
.-18.
.'19.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.



45.
iC.
47.
48.



CONTENTS.

Unusual Conjugations, and Quadrilitcral Verbs, .

On tlio Suffixes of Verbs,

Tlic Verb with Suffixes,

Of Irregular Verbs in general,

Guttural Verbs, . ... • - ...

Contracted Verbs |b, Paradigm C, ....
Contracted Verbs jiy, Paradigm D, ...

Feeble Verbs <b, Paradigm E,

Contracted Verbs "s, •

Feeble Verbs KB, . • ....

Feeble Verbs y and ly. Paradigm F, .

Verbs hS, P.-iradigm G,

licmarks on the Paradigm of Verba mS, . .
Verbs rS, with Suffixes, ...
Verbs doubly Anomalous, . - •

Defective Verbs, . ...

CuAPTBK III Of TiiE Noun.



Page.

22

. 24

. 25

. 27

. 27

. 29

. 30

31

32

33

. 34

. 35

36

. 37

38

38



Primitives and Derivatives, .

On the Marks of Gender of Nouns, . . . . ...

"WTb.il Nouns, ... . .

Denominative Nouns, . .

Of the Plural of Nouns,

Stales of Nouns, . ■ ...

Of tlic Construct State, ...

Of the Emphatic or Definite State, ....

On the Suffixes of Nouns, *8

Nouns with Suffixes, ... ... .... .... 49

Inflexion of Masculine Nouns, ,60

Inflexion of Feminine Nouns, . . .66

Irregular and Defective Nouns, 68

Numerals, 69



Chapter IV Of the Particles.

In General, 63

Adverbs, 64

Prepositions, 66

Conjunctions and Interjections, 66



CONTENTS.



XI



Part III.—SYNTAX.
Chapter I.— Syntax of the Nouk.

Section. Pi««.

49. Itelation of the Substantive to the Adjective, . 67

60, Of the Plural, and the Repetition of Nouns, .... .... 68

51. Signs of the diflerent Cases, 68

52. Use of the Accusative, . '. 69

63. Modes of expressing the Comparative and Superlative, 70

64. Syntax of the Numerals, ... 71

65. Construction of Adjectives, ... 72

66. Case Absolute, 73



Chapter II.

67. Syntax of the Pronoun, ... 74

68. Use of the Relative Pronoun, 75

59. Of the Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns, . . . 76

60. Mode of expressing the Pronouns for which proper forms are wanting

in the Chaldce, 77



Chapter III Syntax of the Verb.

61. The Use of the Preterite and Future, .78

62. Use of the Imperative and Infinitive, ... .80

63. Use of the Participle, 81

64. Expression of the Optative, 82

65. Number and Person of the Verb, 82

66. Rfigimen of Verbs, . . . 83

67. Use of Prepositions with Verbs, 85

68. Verbs used for Adverbs, . . ... 85

69. Ellipsis, Coiutructio Pragnatu, ... 86



Chapter IV. — Syntax op the Particles.



70. Of Words expressing Negation,

71. Of Adverbs repeated, of Interrogative Particles, &c..



87
87



xu



CONTENTS.



PARADIGMS.

rage.

Parailigm A— Tlie Regular Verb, §§11-13, . . 88,89

raradigin B— The Regular Verb in Pehal, with BulBxca, §§ 16, 17, . . . 90

Paradigm C-Verbs i'b, § 20, . .^ 91

Paradigm D_Contractcd Verbs jij»,§ 21, . . 5)2

ParadigmE— Feeble Verbs 4, §22, 93

Paradigm F_Fecble Verbs 'j). § 25, ■ • . 94, 95

Paradigm G—Verbs iS, §§ 26, 27, .... 90, 97

Analysis of the Text of the Chaldee Portion ok the Book of
1).*N.E.., 9"

I.NI.KX, . . . ■ • 1^^



I



CHALDEE GRAMMAR.



INTRODUCTION.

ON THE CHALDEE LANGUAGE AND LITEKATUUB.

The Chaldee Language belongs to the Aramaic branch
of the great Shemitic family of languages. The Aramaic
is so designated from Aram, the ancient name of the dis-
trict in which the language was native. - Aram included
those countries which in later times were known as Syria,
Mesopotamia, and Babylonia. The name belongs to the
most remote antiquity, Aram being mentioned as one of
the sons of Shem in the table of nations in Genesis (x. 22).
The country 'Api/xa, spoken of by Homer and Hesiod
(II. ii. 783 ; Theog. 301), is by many conjectured to be
the same as Aram.

Besides the proo& derived from historical traditions,
which trace the migrations of the Shemitic tribes from the
north towards the south and west, the Aramaic dialect
itself supplies evidence, in its harsh sounds and poverty of
vowels, of greater antiquity than the other Shemitic dia-
lects. We see in it an earlier phase and a more primitive
condition of the language, which, under favourable circum-
stances as regards climate and civilization, was developed
into the Hebrew and the Arabic.



2 INTRODUCTION.

The following may be mentioned as the principal charac-
teristics of the Aramaic:—!. Its poverty of vowels, many
words which are dissyllables in the Hebrew being mono-
syllables in the Aramaic. 2. The mode of expressing the
definite article by a suffix (the emphatic or definite state).
3. The mode of expressing the genitive by a prefix ; also
h as the mark of the accusative. 4. The formation of a
proper tense from the participle. 5. The formation of all
the passives by the prefix fit*, L] .

It is a question on which philologists are not agreed,
whether the Chaldee, or, as it is otherwise designated, the
East Aramaic, should be regarded as a distinct dialect
from the Syriac, or West Aramaic. The following are
the peculiarities of the Chaldee, which are generally held
to amount to dialectical differences : — 1. The preference
in the Chaldee as compared with the Sjrriac for clear vowel
sounds, a, o, and i, being employed in the former, where
the duller sounds o, u, and e, occur in the latter. 2. The
avoiding of diphthongs in the Chaldee, the simple long
vowels and i being used where the Syriac has the diph-
thongs au and ai; the absence, also, of otiant letters. 3.
The doubling of consonants. 4. The absence of the pre-
formative D in the infinitives of the other conjugations,
except Pehal. 5. The form of the 3 pers. fut. singular
and plural, of which the preformative is "', whereas, in
the Syriac it is j (Nun). By some scholars,* however, it
is contended that these and other less striking deviations
of the Chaldee from the Syriac cannot be recognised as
dialectical distinctions; that the languages are the same,
being unlike only in the pronunciation of the vowels and

* E. g. Furst and Hupfcld.



INTRODUCTION.



3



in the mode of writing, and that any differences which may
be observed between the language of the Targums and
that of the early Syriac literature are explicable from the
difierent ideas and modes of thought of the Jewish and
Syrian Avriters ; that in fact the Chaldee is a Jewish, and
the Syriac a Christian reflex of the same Aramaic lan-
guage.

The name Chaldee, the common designation of the
language of the Aramaic writings of the Jews, is not pro-
perly used. Its application, doubtless, arose from a mis-
conception of Dan. i. 4 ; but the Chaldee language,
D'^'ntpS ptl*?, there mentioned, is a different thing, the
court language of Babylon at the time, which can be shown
to have been a Medo-Persian dialect. The language of
which we now speak is called 0^0"1X., Aramaic, Dan. ii. 4;
and this term, D^P^i^, here and where it elsewhere occurs
in the Hebrew Scriptures, is rendered avpuni in the Greek
versions. The Talmudists apply the same term, ''P'TID, to
the Aramaic as spoken in Palestine. Thus it appears
that the terms JT'P'IX and ^P"11D were regarded as inter-
changeable, and were employed without any reference to a
distinction between the East Aramaic, or Chaldee, and the
West Aramaic, or Syriac. The stress, however, which is
laid upon this circumstance by those who deny the dia-
lectical independence of the Chaldee and Syriac, is unwar-
rantable.

The progress of the displacement of the Hebrew lan-
guage by the Aramaic in Palestine cannot now be accu-
rately traced. The Babylonian captivity, no doubt, was a
principal, though not the exclusive cause of this revolution.
When the Jews returned after the captivity there was in
central Palestine a mixed Aramaic and Hebrew dialect, the



4 INTRODUCTION.

Samaritan, a result of the plantation of the country by
colonists of Syrian origin after the deportation of the Ten
Tribes (II. Kings, xvii. 24). This must have accelerated
the decline of the sacred language. When, under the
Seleucidaj, Palestine formed a part of a Syrian kingdom,
the Hebrew received its final blow, and yielded completely
to the Aramaic, which thenceforth became the language
both of conversation and writing. It is, of course, to this
Aramaic language, which was at the time the popular lan-
guage of the Jews or Hebrews, that the terms ippa'iari
and efipati iiaXeKTOf are applied in the New Testament.

The literature that we possess in the so-called Chaldee
language consists of some portions of the canonical books
of the Old Testament, namely, Ezra, ch. iv. 8, to vi. 19,
and vii. 12 to 27; Daniel, ch. ii. 4, to the end of ch. vii. ;
and Jeremiah, ch. x. 11; and of a series of translations or
paraphrases of the books of the Old Testament, composed
at different periods, and exhibiting different states of the
language. Tliey are known as the Targums, so called from
the Chaldee verb D^nn, to translate or interpret, and they
were designed as expositions of the Scriptures, which be-
came necessary when the Hebrew language ceased to be
intelligible to the people.* The Talmud can scarcely be

* There arc extant ten TorgumB on different parts of the Old Testa-
ment, three of which are on the Pentateuch, namely, the three first in the
following enumeration : — 1. The Targum of Onkclos. 2. The Targum of
tho Pseudo-Jonathan. 3, The Jerusalem Targum. 4. The Targum of
Jonathan Ben Uzzicl on the Prophets, in which, according to tho Jewish
classification, arc included Joshua, Judges, I. and II. Samuel, and I. and
II. Kings. 5. The Targum of Ilabbi Joseph tho Blind on the Hagiographa.
G. An anonymous Targum on the Books of Buth, Esther, Ecclesiastcs, the
Song of Solomon, and the lamentations of Jeremiah. 7, 8, 9. Three Tiir-
pums on the Book of Esther, two of which, however, arc not really diK-



INTRODUCTION. O

spoken of as belonging to Chaldee literature. Tlie language
of the Gemaras may indeed be regarded as a very degene-
rate species of Chaldee ; but that of the Mishna is rather
a Hebrew dialect with some Chaldee forms.

Winer thus classifies the extant literature in refer-
ence to the purity of the language : — In the first class he
places the Targum of Onkelos, the language of which b
most free from Hebraisms ; in the second class he places
the Biblical Chaldee ; in the third, the other Targums, ex-
cept that of Onkelos. In these last we meet mth many
words introduced from other languages, with contractions,
and new forms resembling those found in the Syriac and
in Rabbinical Hebrew.



tinct. 10. A Targum on the tvvo Books of Chronicles. These Targums
together comprise the whole of tho Old Testament, with the exception of
the Books of Daniel, Ezra, and Nehcmiah. The general opinion as to tho
ago of Onkelos, tho author of the most valuable of the paraphrases, is that
he lived about the time of our Saviour. Winer, however, places him in
tho second century. The Targum next in value to that of Onkelos is that
of Jonathan the son of Uzziel, who is placed by some in the age preceding
our Saviour, but by others as late as the fourth century. There is little
doubt but that the former opinion is ncaicr the truth. The Turgum of tho
Pseudo-Jonathan, so called because it was for a long time ascribed to Jona-
than Ben Uzziel, is perhaps only another recension of that which also forms
the basis of the Jerusalem Targum.



PART I.

THE ELEMENTS.



CHAPTER I.

OF THE LETTERS, VOWELS, AND ACCENTS.



S 1 OF THE LETTERS.

( 1.) The Chaldee letters are identical with the Hebrew both in
form and as regards their sounds. In fact, the common
square character which is used in all Hebrew manuscripts
and printed books is properly Aramaic, and not Hebrew,
as is proved by the earliest written monuments in both
languages. At what time it superseded the older Hebrew
character cannot be accurately defined. The Jewish tra-
dition is, that the change was made by Ezra after the Cap-
tivity, and this tradition has been to a certain extent ad-
mitted by many eminent scholars. There are, however,
strong reasons for concluding that the change was not
sudden, but progressive, and that the use of the square
character by the Jews was not completely established be-
fore the end of the first century of our era.*

* The qucetion relating to the application of the square character to
Hebrew writing belongs rather to Hebrew than to Chaldee grammar. A
summary of the various opinions held by modem scholars on the subject
will be found in Chap. m. of Davidson's " Treatise on Biblical Criti-
cism."






Chap. I.] OF THE LETTERS, VOWELS, AND ACCENTS. 7

$ 2 OF THE VOWELS.

The vowel-points also, as well as the various diacritical (2)
signs, are the same in Chaldee as in Hebrew, The vocal-
ization by the points is, however, less consistent and regu-
lar in the Chaldee than in the Hebrew ; and for this, differ-
ent reasons may be assigned. In the first place, the system
of vowel-points having been contrived in reference to the
Hebrew language, was not probably in all respects appli-
cable to the Chaldee, so that no care on the part of the
punctators could have prevented apparent irregularities.
Secondly, the punctators were unquestionably misled in
many instances by the analogy of the Hebrew : thus, when
they pointed the words K03in, t£'3'^{t, they were inisled by
the analogy of the corresponding Hebrew words np?n,
tt'iJJ*, and adopted this irregular mode of pointing instead
of ND^in, fJ^l*, which would rightly represent the Chaldee
pronunciation of the words. Again, the Masoretic vocal-
ization was applied to the Chaldee before it had attained
its jiltimate perfection ; and as, subsequently, less attention
was paid to the text of the Chaldee parts of Scripture, and
to the Targums, than to the Hebrew text, it is natural that
we should discover many imperfections and irregularities
in the vowel system as applied to the Chaldee. In Chaldee,
contrary to the rule in Hebrew, we find long vowels in un-
accented close syllables, and short vowels in open syllables.
It is a result of this that the rules wliich hold in Hebrew
as to the distinction between Qametz and Qametz-Chatuph
are not applicable in Chaldee, and the true value of the
sign - is only to be known from the nature of the word.
The employment of Qametz-Chatuph, however, is rare in
the Chaldee.



THE ELEMENTS.



§ 8— OF THE TONE.



[Pakt I.



(3.) In Chaldee, as in Hebrew, the general law of accentua-
tion is, that the tone rests on the last syllable. The excep-
tions, where it is on the penultima, are few, and are, for the
most part, as follows : — 1. In nouns whose form is the same
as that of the Hebrew segholates, e.g., "^7.1^, m?£?, with
respect to which it is to be observed, that this scgholate
form is found only in Biblical Chaldee. 2. In verbal forms
ending in f), W, ''r, 1, and in some of those ending in K-;-,

e-g-, J?i???, ^)^?, ■''7^!?, l"?^!?- 3. In nouns and verbal
forms with certain pronominal suffixes, that is, with the

suffixes ';-, >:, sn- w- n;>-, v-, V\ V.

(4.) Rem. — Infinitives ending in H — have tho accent on the final syllable.
The drawing back of tho tone from the final syllable to the penultima takes
pl.icc frequently, as in Hebrew, when a monosyllabic word, or one with
tho tone on tlio penult, follows, and in pause. The accentuation, as well
as the vocalization, it should be observed, is less systematic in tho Chaldco
than in the Hebrew.



CHAPTER II.

CHANGES OF CONSONANTS AND VOWELS.



§ 4.— GENERAL VIEW.



(5) In Chaldee, as in other languages, the formation and in-
flexion of words are effected partly by changes of the conso-
nants, partly by changes of the vowels of the root-word.
Thus from the root "^I'jO, to rule, come "iSp, a king,- y^^D,



Chap. II.] CHANGES OF CONSONANTS AND VOWELS. i>

kings; ID"??, a kingdom; I^PP, to rule. We cannot in all
cases explain why a particular modification of the ground
form should express a particular modification of its mean-
ing; but we can ascertain certain analogies as to the for-
mation of derivatives, and certain types of inflexion, so that
we can tell beforehand by what form of word a particular
modification of the meaning of the ground form would be
expressed. Besides the changes of consonants and vowels
of this kind, which are, in fact, the essential characteristics
of the language, there are certain changes, and deviations
from the normal type, depending on principles of euphony,
and connected with the laws of accentuation, syllabication,
&c., and with the properties of certain letters. Of changes
of this latter kind we are now treating.



§ 6.— CHANGES OF CONSONANTS.

The changes of consonants connected with euphony are,
1. Assimilation. 2. Transposition. 3. Commutation. 4.
Rejection. 5. Addition.

Assimilation takes place — (a) when 3 closing a syllable (6.)
immediately precedes a consonant. Thus we have pb^ for
j?5J\ (6) When the Ty of the preformative syllable of the
passive in verbs precedes D or 1, as ISi?^ for IDDflN ;
l?"!^ for nS'nJll*. The same also takes place sometimes in
the case of other letters ; thus, Tfl^i* for 'j'^rii^J^l?.

Bcm. — Sometimes in Chaldee tho contrary to assimilation occurs, as (7.)
when, in place of a consonant being-doubled, 3, or less frequently "l, is in-
troduced. Thus wo have Ha:H for «3M; -I3M for naa ; tD-13 for ND3.
Somewhat similarly in the later Targums > b employed. Thus we find
^yn for ^bn. This last only happens when tho vowel of the syllable pre-


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Online LibraryGeorge LongfieldAn introduction to the study of the Chaldee language : comprising a grammar based upon Winer's, and an analysis of the text of the Chaldee portion of the Book of Daniel → online text (page 1 of 15)