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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE

Gift of
Chancellor Ivan Hinderaker
UCR 196'( - 1979






GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND



BY GEORGE MACAULAY TREVELYAN.



GARIBALDI'S DEFENCE OF THE ROMAN
REPUBLIC. With 7 Maps and numerous
Illustrations. 8vo. 6s. 6d. net.

GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND. With
5 Maps and numerous Illustrations. 8vo.
7^. 6d. net.

GARIBALDI AND THE MAKING OF ITALY.
With 4 Maps and numerous Illustrations. Svo.
"js. 6d. ret.

ENGLISH SONGS OF ITALIAN FREEDOM.
Chosen and arranged, with an Introduction, by
G. M. Trevelyan. Crown Svo. 3^. 6d. net.

ENGLAND IN THE AGE OF WYCLIFFE.
Svo. 6j. net.



LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO.

London, New York, Bombay, and CalcutUu




GARIBALDI IX EXILE.
iFrom an engraving in the British Museum, from a photograph.)



GARIBALDI
AND THE THOUSAND



BY

GEORGE MACAULAY TREVELYAN

LATE FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

AUTHOR OF

'ENGLAND IN THE AGE OF WYCLIFFe' ' ENGLAKD UNDER THE STUARTS'

'OARIBALDI'S DEFENCE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC'



WITH FIVE MAPS AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS



FIFTH IMPRESSION



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK, BOMBAY. AND CALCUTTA

1912

All rigbti r«9»rT«d



First printed September 7th, 1900.

Jteprinted November 1909, December ItfOfl,

September 1910^ and January 1912.



TO MY FRIENDS
GEOFFREY AND HILTON YOUNG



PREFACE

The present volume, 'Garibaldi and the Thousand, with
its sequel on the Liberation of Naples which I hope to
complete ere long, will together tell the story of Gari-
baldi's part in the decisive events of 1859-60 which ' made
Italy.' His part in 1859 was entirely subordinate, and I
have not exaggerated it in the early pages of this volume ;
1859 was the year of Cavour and Napoleon III. But i860
was the year of Cavour and Garibaldi, and it is that which
forms the main theme of my work.

Of the astonishing feats of i860 I here relate the first
part, when, landing with a thousand chosen men in plain
clothes or in red shirts, armed with muskets fit for the scrap
heap, the Liberator, with the aid of the Sicilian populace,
took the capital of the island from 24,000 regular troops
armed with rifles. The story of that month during which
the little band was shut up in that strange island from the
knowledge of the expectant world — the tale of those
adventures which, though they are such stuff as schoolboys'
dreams are made of, yet involved the whole fate of Italy —
has a charm which will, I hope, justify in the eyes of the
reader the detail in which it is here told. The later part of
the campaign, after the fall of Palermo and the arrival of
the larger expeditions to join Garibaldi, though not less
interesting, is, both pohtically and militarily, of a different
and wider character, and will be better treated in a separate
volume.



viii GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND

If I were asked why I attempt to write the history of
events so recent as those of half a centmy ago, I could
answer that, although no doubt some documents of great
importance and many documents of slight importance will
become available in the course of the next generation, the
mass of material recently printed in Italy or now available
in MS. is already very considerable indeed (see Bibliography
below, pp. 348-376), and that meanwhile the unwritten
sources of information are rapidly drying up. The fact, that
Generals Canzio and Tiirr both died within a few months
of the time when I was privileged to converse with them
on the events in which they played a part, is significant of
the process to which I refer. In some respects this is the
golden moment for writing the history of i860. Fifteen
years ago there was not enough printed matter and MS.
available, and fifteen years hence there will be nothing left
except these printed sources. But oral witness has its
historical value. The conversation of veterans must, of
course, be listened to with critical vigilance as well as
with respect — I have known one contradict unwittingly
on a point of detail what he had written in his diary fifty
years back. But their impressions throw light on the spirit,
opinions, and mutual relations of the men and parties with
whom they worked. And even in matters of detail,
particularly in military affairs, they often enable the
puzzled historian to reconcile or choose between conflicting
statements in books, or to understand some incident
otherwise unintelligible. You cannot cross-examine a book
or a MS. ; that is the weakness of written evidence which
the presence of oral evidence rectifies in some degree.

There are so many persons in Italy and in England whom
I have to thank for help received in collecting the materials
for this volume, that I scarcely know where to begin or



PREFACE



IX



where to end. As before, I have had the free use of Mr.
Nelson Gay's magnificent Risorgimento Ubrary, and his
personal assistance on many points. My debt to Cav.
Alessandro Luzio of Mantua is greater than before. So is
my debt to Signor Menghini of the Vittorio Emanuele
library in Rome, and with him I must couple the Sindaco
Nathan in thanks for access to the Mazzini papers. The
names of Colonel Elia and Colonel Tedaldi may stand for
those of many other veterans, who have so kindly endured
and answered my inquiries. The Countess Martinengo
Cesaresco, whose books convey better than any others to
British readers the high spirit of the Risorgimento, has
told me many things that cannot be found in books.
I thank for their kindness to me, at Bologna, Signor
Cantoni and my friends of the Casa Zanichelli ; at
Milan, Signor G. Gallavresi and Colonel Carlo Pagani ;
at Genoa, Aw. Pier Giulio Breschi who obtained for me
the kind interest and services of his friend General Canzio,
now deceased ; at Naples, Professor E. Zaniboni, and the
members and President of the Societa Storia Patria.

Above all, in Sicily the success of my researches has been
dependent on the good will of others. Mrs. Joseph "WTiitaker
and all the house of Whitaker ; Mr. Churchill, our consul,
then at Palermo, now at Naples ; and my kind hosts at
Marsala, Mr. and Mrs. Gray, have treated me as a man
loves to be treated by his countrymen abroad. I had
even less claim on "the personal assistance of native
Sicilians, but I obtained it abundantly. I should mention
first Dott. G. Paolucci, whose work on the subject has been
so valuable a guide, even in the few matters where I have
ventured to differ from him. Professor Pitre himself was also
most kind to me. So were Signor Santostefano Marches! della
Cerda ; Cav. Agostino Rotolo ; Signor Giuseppe Campo ;
Signor Carlo Albanese ; Signor Costatini and his fellow



X GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND

citizens of Piana del Greci ; Signer Lipari of Marsala ;
Commendatore Salinas ; Senatore Guarneri ; Senatore
Beltrani Scalia ; Cav. Giuseppe Lodi, whom I thank for the
use of his valuable collection ; Cav. Uff. G. Travali, and
the authorities of the Archivio di Stato in Palermo ; and
many others.

In England, I must thank Lord Carlisle once more for the
loan and gift of books, and also Lady Mary Murray. Lady
Agatha Russell and Mr. Rollo Russell, Miss Peard, Miss
Margaret Shaen, Mr. Charles Lacaita, Mr. Arthur Elliot, Mr.
Herbert Craig, Lady Lockwood, Mrs. Osier, and Mr. Malleson
have all put family papers at my disposal. I must also
thank Sir Cecil Spring Rice, Mr. Marchetti of Halifax
(Garibaldino of 1859), ^"^^ others whose names occur in the
notes and appendices of this volume.

Four persons have been at the pains to read the volume
in MS. or in proof — Mr. Hilton Young ; my wife ; Mr.
Thayer of Harvard, one of the foremost scholars of Risor-
gimento history ; and Count Ugo Balzani, whose inex-
haustible kindness to me is one of the many reasons why
it is so pleasant to be often called to visit Italy.

G. M. TREVELYAN.

Juna 1909.



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH
IMPRESSION

No serious changes have been made in this edition, but
alterations or additions to the text or notes have been made
on pages 14, 109, 197, 325, 335 ; and the Bibhography has
been brought up to date by additions on page 376.

G. M. T.

August 1 9 10.



CONTENTS



III.
IV,



V,

VI.



INTRODUCTION • .

I, GARIBALDI IN EXILE, 1849-54 . . . .

II. CAVOUR AND THE CONVALESCENCE OF ITALY —

GARIBALDI AT CAPRERA

THE NEAPOLITAN PRISONERS

CAVOUR BRINGS THE DEMOCRATS AND NAPOLEON
III INTO HIS CAMP — PISACANE's EXPEDITION —

plombieres and the declaration of war

against austria — 1856-59

garibaldi's alpine campaign, 1859 •

villafranca and after ....

vii. naples, 1859 — march 1860 ....

viii. sicily : the revolt of april 4, 1860 — rosolino

pilo and the hope of garibaldl's coming

ix. the origins of the expedition — nice or

SICILY

X. THE VILLA AT QUARTO — THE PREPARATIONS .

XI. THE SAILING OF THE THOUSAND .

XII. TALAMONE and THE VOYAGE ....

XIII. THE landing OF THE THOUSAND AT MARSALA

XIV. THE BATTLE OF CALATAFIMI ....
XV. IN THE MOUNTAINS ROUND PALERMO .

XVI. GIBILROSSA — PALERMO ON THE EVE
XVII. THE TAKING OF PALERMO ....



EPILOGUE



APPENDICES

A CAPRERA ....

S NUMBERS AT VARESE AND COMO .
C THE DEATH-BED OF FRANCESCO KISO



I

8

26
38



63

82

no

124

143

162
179
199
211
224

245
265
283

295
328

329
329

331
332



GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND



APPENDICES — continued.

D GARIBALDI IN CAPREEA IN FEBRUARY 1860 . .

E LAURENCE OLIPHANT's STORY ....

F BERTANl'S l"WO STATEMENTS ....

G THE DECISIVE INTERVIEW AT VILLA SPINOLA, APRIL 30

H CAVOUR AND THE KING AT BOLOGNA ON MAY 2

J FAUCHlfe AND RUBATTINO .....

K THE FINANCES OF THE EXPEDITION OF THE THOUSAND

L WHY THE FRENCH EVACUATION WAS STOPPED .

M CALATAFIMI .......

N THE NIGHT MARCH TO PAKCO, MAY 21-23

O FROM PIANA DEI GRECI TO MARINEO .

P THE ROUTE FROM GIBILROSSA TO PALERMO .



333

534
335
337
338
340
340
342
342
344
345
346



bibliography: list of printed matter and mss. con-
sulted BY THE AUTHOR 348

I. PRINTED MATTER .....*. 348

II. MANUSCRIPTS ........ 370

III. NOTES OF CONVERSATION* ..... 374

POEMS ......,.- 375



INDEX



377



LIST OF PLATES



GARIBALDI IN EXILE Frontispiece

From an Engraving in British Mustum, done from a Photograph.

PAGB

CAVOUR facing 27

From a Contemporary Print in BianchCs ' Cavour. '

GARIBALDI AT CAPRERA „ 33

From an Engraving in British Museum.

THE FIGHT AT THE GANCIA CONVENT, APRIL 4, 1860 „ 155
From a Contemporary Print in the Museo Nazionale, Palermo.

CAPTURE OF RISO'S PARTY, AND SACK OF THE GANCIA

CONVENT, APRIL 4, 1860 „ I56

From a Contemporary Print in the Museo Nazionale, Palermo.



ROSOLINO PILO .

From a Contemporary Print.



NINO BIXIO

From a Photograph about i860.



159



THE ROCK AT QUARTO — I ,^ 203

From a Photocmph taken in the 'Sixties, in the po.^s*ssioK of
Lady Agatha Russell.

THE ROCKS AT QUARTO — II ,, 204

From a Photograph taken in the 'Sixties, given to the auth.^r by
General Canxio.

GARIBALDI IN HIS ' PUNCIO,' 1860 . . . . „ 20$

From a Photograph taken at Naples in the autumn of i860.



222



THE LANDING AT MARSALA ,...,, 238

From .1 Con'empcrary Oil Painting done at Marsala.



254



BATTLE-FIELD OF CALATAFIMI — THE PIANTO DEI

ROMANI

From a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young.

A 'TERRACE' OF THE PIANTO DEI ROMANI . . ,, 256

From a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young.

ANOTHER ■ TERRACE ' OF THE PIANTO DEI ROMANI . „ 256
Frotn a Phoiogmph by Mr. Hilton Young.



xiv GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND

PACB

GARIBALDI facing 260

From an Ennravini by W. Hall from »n Orititud Photocraph,
lirUtsh Muteum.

CALATAFIMI „ 264

From « Photo[raph by Mr. Hilton Young.

OUTSKIRTS OF PALERMO, CONCA D'ORO AND

MOUNTAINS , 264

From a Pholocrtpk by Mr. Hiiton Yount-

GIBILROSSA MONASTERY AS SEEN FROM THB TOP OF

THE PASS , 288

From t Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young.

GIBILROSSA MONASTERY „ 288

Nearer View. From a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young.

THE SUMMIT OF GIBILROSSA PASS . . . . „ 289

From a Photograph.

PONTE dell' AMMIRAGLIO „ 298

From a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young.

THE FIERA VECCHIA, PALERMO „ 298

From a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young.

THE QUATTRO CANTONI, PALERMO . . ' . „ 304

From a Photograph.

THE FOUNTAIN OF THE PIAZZA PRETORIO, PALERMO . „ 306

From the' Album Garibaldi,' i860.

PATRIOTS DEFENDING A BARRICADE CLOSE TO THE

CATHEDRAL ,, 308

From a ConUmporary Print in the Mtueo NationaU, Palermo.

BARRICADES OF PAVING STONES AT THE PORTA

MACQUEDA „ 3IO

From the ' Album Garibaldi,' i860.

THE ROYAL PALACE, PALERMO „ 3II

From a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young.

VIEW FROM THE ROYAL PALACE ROOF . . . „ 3II

From a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young.

PALERMO CATHEDRAL „ 31a

From an Old Engraving.

THE CASTELLAMARE, PALERMO. WITH MONTE PELLE-

GRINO IN THE DISTANCE „ 318

From a Photograph by Mr. Htlton Young.

INSIDE THE MONTALTO BASTION — MEDIEVAL WALLS

OF PALERMO , 318

From a Photograph by Mr. Htlton Veuiif.



LIST OF PLATES xv



THE ARMISTICE OF MAY 30 . . . ,

From the ' Ventisette Maggio.'

SAN GIOVANNI DEGLI EREMITI, PALERMO .
Front a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Young,

THE OBSERVATORY OVER THE PORTA NUOVA, PALERMO
From a Photograph by Mr. Hilton Youn£.





PACB


facing


321


• i»


326


) »


326



LIST OF MAPS



PACK



I. CAMPAIGN IN THE ALPS, 1859 .... facing 9I
For Chap. V.

II. MARSALA, MAY II, 1860 „ 233

For Chap. XIII.

III. WESTERN SICILY. (iNSET OF BATTLE OF

CALATAFIMl) „ 376

For Chaps. XI II- XV.

IV. (a) ENVIRONS OF PALERMO "j

For Chaps. XV-XVII. \

r . . . .

(&) PALERMO, MAY 27, 1860J
For Chap. XVII.



376



V. ITALY AT TIME OF THE SAILING OF THE

THOUSAND, MAY 1860. (iNSETS OF ITALY

IN APRIL AND AUTUMN 1859) . . . „ 376

For Chaps. I-XIII inclusive.

N.B. — Maps III, IV, V are folding maps at end oi book, p. 376.
Map V will be of assistance to the reader throughout the whole book.
Places in Italy mentioned ia text, but not marked in the other maps,
will be found there.



Seldom do we find that a whole people can be said to have
any Faith at all ; except in things that it can eat and handle.
Whensoever it gets any Faith, its history becomes spirit-stirring,
noteworthy.' — Carlyle, French Revolution.



GARIBALDI AND THE
THOUSAND



' INTRODUCTION

When, on New Year's Day 1859, the Emperor Napoleon
III startled Europe by a few polite but ominous words
spoken to the Austrian ambassador, Italy of the Italians
was still confined to the small state of Piedmont, nestling
between the Alps and the sea. Strong not in the numbers
but in the character of its citizens, it enjoyed the respect of
Europe, the sympathy of France and England, and the
wistful affection of the inhabitants of the other states of the
peninsula — sentiments inspired by the well-ordered Parlia-
mentary government of King Victor Emmanuel and his
minister Cavour. The rest of Italy, still partitioned
among half a dozen different rulers, was exposed to the
absolute power of priests, of foreigners, or of native despots,
bound together in a close triple alHance against the rights
of the laity, personal freedom, and Italian independence.
Two years went by, and the aspect of affairs had undergone
a change so complete and sudden that many would not
believe that it was indeed destined to be permanent. When,
in November i860, Garibaldi resigned the Dictatorship of
Sicily and Naples, and sailed back to his farm on Caprera
with a large bag of seed-corn and a small handful of lira
notes, he left Victor Emmanuel acknowledged as constitu-
tional monarch in all those territories that we now know as
the Kingdom of Italy — with the exception of two or three
fortresses where the Bourbon flag flew for yet a few months



2 GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND

longer, of the ancient territories of the Venetian Republic,
still guarded by the Austrian Quadrilateral, and of that
narrow ' Patrimony ' of the earher Popes, where the herds-
men and vine-dressers could descry the cupola of St. Peter's
floating above the evening mist, Uke the ark of the Church
above the tide of revolution. In the winter of 1860-61 a
patriot could have travelled from Brescia to Reggio and
Palermo by the whole central chain of the Apennines,
without let or hindrance from any anti-national force except
an occasional party of brigands in the Neapohtan provinces.
If it was not till 1866 that the Austrian colours were lowered
from the three great flag-staffs that stand in front of St. Mark's
at Venice, if it was not till after the news of Sedan that Italy
could wisely dare to enter Rome, none the less the creation
of the new State was already an accomplished fact when
Garibaldi quitted Naples for Caprera.

We may therefore say that in the years 1859 and i860
the Itahans acquired their national independence, their
civic freedom and their pohtical union. This profound and
permanent change in the European polity was effected con-
trary to the expectations and wishes of nearly all the rest
of Europe, and under the guns of France and Austria, who,
differing on so many points as regards the fate of Italy,
were at least agreed in objecting to her union under a single
ruler. To neither of these powers could she have offered
a prolonged military resistance, yet she attained her
purpose in their despite.

The rapid series of events that led to results so great,
and apparently so improbable, was brought to fruition by
the supreme political genius of one Italian, and by the
crowning achievement of another, whose name is to the
modern world the synonym of simple heroism. The story of
Italy in these two years is rich in all the elements whereby
history becomes inspiring, instructive and dramatic. In it
we read of all the quahties that make us respect or despise
mankind ; here the heroism and there the cowardice of whole
populations ; the devotion of individuals and of families,
side by side with the basest egoism ; the highest wisdom



THE MAKING OF ITALY, 1859-60 3

and the wildest folly ; the purest patriotism and the meanest
jealousy, not always found in opposite factions or even in
separate breasts. We watch the play of great personalities ;
the kaleidoscopic shifting of the diplomatic forces of Europe ;
bewildering turns of chance, messengers who would have
saved a kingdom stopped by the whim of villagers, decisions
of peace or war reached a few days too late or a few days too
soon to turn the current of destiny, hair-breadth escapes of
men and armies on whom all depended ; heroism, tragedy
and burlesque taking the stage of history together. Finally,
we witness the success of the most hazardous enterprises ;
the fall of kingdoms and principalities ; the dismember-
ment of the most ancient and terrible Theocracy of the
western world ; the realisation of those hopes for which
the martyrs of Italy had suffered and perished for two
generations, and a full share of the discontent and dis-
illusionment which follows when the dreams of the noblest
of men are carried out in actual fact by populations just
set free from the corrupting servitude of centuries.

It has sometimes been said that ' Italy was made too
fast.' It has been argued that the too rapid introduction
of modern political machinery and the too rapid unification
of such different populations as those of the north, centre
and south, are largely responsible for the shortcomings of
the Italy of to-day, though these may with more justice be
ascribed to deep-seated sociological causes stretching back
through two thousand years of Italian history. But how-
ever this may be, it appears highly probable that if Italy
had not acquired her independence when she did, and as
rapidly as she did, and in the form of complete political
union, she might never have acquired it at all. If she had
not shaken off Austrian, Pope, and Bourbon, in an age of
war and revolution, she would scarcely have done so in a
later age of nations perilously armed, but afraid of war and
impatient of all questions that might endanger peace.
Italy could never have been liberated without one European
war at least. Her liberty was not, in fact, fully completed
short of three European wars, those of 1859, 1866 and 1870,



4 GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND

In each of those three years of cataclysm she picked her
own advantage out of the clash of combatants stronger than
herself. If she had not been freed before 1871, nay, if she
had not been three parts freed before the death of Cavour
in 1861, her cause would not improbably have declined like
that of Poland. Poland's last struggle was in 1863 ; if
Italy had struggled and failed in i860, the golden moment
might never have returned. In the last thirty years of the
nineteenth century no country would have gone to war
so lightly as did France in 1859 on behalf of oppressed
Lombardy, and anything analogous to Garibaldi's attack
on the Bourbon would have been prevented by the G^ncert
of Europe, as a wanton outrage on peace and order. But,
in July i860, England broke up such partial Concert of
Europe as then existed, and refused to prevent Garibaldi
from crossing the Straits of Messina. That decision of
Lord John Russell and Lord Palmerston is one of the
causes why Italy is a free and united State to-day.

Furthermore, the Risorgimento movement in Italy
herself, after two generations of ever increasing heat, was
at boiling point in 1859-60. If the cause had failed again
in those years as hopelessly as in 1848-49, it may well be
doubted whether these ardours would not have cooled and
frozen in despair. The ' disillusionment ' and ' pessimism,*
of which we hear talk in modern Italy, would have been
more widespread and of a far more deadly kind if the hopes of
achieving the Risorgimento had perished. The Italy of the
twentieth century might have relapsed into the Italy of
the eighteenth. Again, even if the patriotic movement had
continued unabated, the social problem would have arisen
to complicate and thwart the political movement for inde-
pendence, by dividing classes which were united for the
national object in the Italy of fifty years ago.

In short, if Cavour, Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi
could not have freed their land in the days of Napoleon
III and Palmerston, and while the impulse given by Mazzini
was still fresh, it is doubtful whether anyone would have
been able to free her at a later period. She could not afford



IMPORTANCE OF GARIBALDI'S PART 5

to await the slow processes of an uncertain evolution in the
face of hostile forces really stronger than she, and determined
to crush any natural growth by brute force ; she had to
seize the opportunity created for her by Cavour before
it went by for ever. Like most other great steps that have
been made to ameliorate the human lot, the Italian revolu-
tion was not inevitable, but was the result of wisdom, of
valour, and of chance.



Only outside Italy, and by persons who have not studied
Risorgimento history in any detail, do we ever hear it denied
that Garibaldi's great expedition of i860 carried on the main
work of Italian unity, at a time when no other means could
have availed for its accomplishment. All schools of Italian
historians are, I think, agreed that the Sicilian and
Neapolitan populations had proved incapable of effecting
a revolution in the face of an army of 90,000 men, without
external help; that Cavour was unable, owing to the attitude
of Europe, and in particular of France and Austria, to give
that help with the regular forces of the North Italian king-
dom ; that nothing, therefore, could have liberated Sicily
and Naples except an irresponsible ' raid ' by volunteers
of the revolutionary party, and that no such ' raid ' could
have succeeded except one led by Garibaldi ; finally, that it
was only the Garibaldian revolution in Sicily and Naples
that put Cavour into the position from which he ventured,
in the face of Europe, to attack the Pope's possessions in
Umbria and the Marches, and so to unite the whole length
of the peninsula in one continuous state. This chain of
reasoning, which establishes the supreme historical impor-
tance of Garibaldi's expedition, has been fortified by the
patient research of Italian scholars during recent years,
when so much has been done for the scientific study of the
history of the Risorgimento.

The question still in debate among Italian historians
is the degree of credit which Cavour can claim for Garibaldi's
success. One school, of which Signor Luzio is the able



6 GARIBALDI AND THE THOUSAND

representative, maintains that the great minister aided and



Online LibraryGeorge Macaulay TrevelyanGaribaldi and the thousand → online text (page 1 of 37)