George Martin Lane.

A Latin grammar for schools and colleges online

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born for such a fate ? Oftener the present subjunctive (1563), orsometimes the pres-
ent indicative (i53i)«

1624. The future is sometimes used, particularly in the second person,
to express an exhortation, a direction, a request, a command, or with n5ii
a prohibition : as,

crSs ferrfimenta TeSnum tollCtis, li. £. i, i, 86, tomorrow to Teanum
you will take your tools, bonS venifi mC audiCs, DN. i, ^, you will listen
to me with kind indulgence. tQ intereS nOn cessSbis, Fam. 5, 12, 10, mean-
time you will not be inactive, haec igitur tib! erunt cQrae, Fam. 3, 9, 4,
you will attend to this then, i. e. haec c&rSbis.

1625. It may be mentioned here, that the future is used in sentences sub-
ordinate to a future, an imperative, or a subjunctive implying a future : as,

profectO nihil accipiam iniQriae, si tQ aderis, Att. 5, 18, 3, lam sure
r shall suffer no harm, if you are with me. ut mCd esse volCs, ita erd, PI.
/'•f* 239, as you will have me be, so will I be. ut is qui audiet, c5gitet plQra,
quam videat, DO. 2, 242, so thai the hearer may imagine more than he sees.
But sometimes a present is used (1593).

The Future Perfect Tense.

1626. The future perfect indicative expresses com-
pleted future action: as,

scripserS, / shall have written, or / will have written. The future perfect
is very common in Latin, particularly in protasis with a relative, with cum,
ubi, &c., with antequam or priusquam, with ut (. . . ita), as (. . . so), or
with si, to express action anterior in time to a future ; in English, this future
perfect is usually represented by a loose present or perfect : as, quicquid
fCceris, adprobSbO, Fam. 3, 3, 2, whatever you do, I shall think right.
Examples will be given further on, in speaking of the complex sentence.

i62j^. It may be mentioned here that the future perfect in protasis and
apodosis both denotes two actions . occurring at one and the same time;
these actions are usually identical : as,

qui AntSnium oppresserit, is h5c belluxn taeterrimum cOnfCcerit,
Fam. 10, 19, 2, the man that puts doion Antony will put an end to this cruel
war, i. e. putting down Antony will be ending the war. respirSrO, si t6
viderS, Att. 2, 24, 5, 1 shall take breath again, if I set eyes on you.

Z628. The future perfect sometimes denotes a future resulting state : as,

molestus certC €1 fuerO, T. Andr. 6^1, at all events I shall have proved a
bane to him. meum rSi pQblicae atque imperStOri officium praestiterQ,
4, 25, 3, 1 will have my duty all done to country and commander too.

1629. The future ijerfect is sometimes used to express rapidity of future
action, often with the implication of assurance, promise, or threat : as,

abierO, PI. Most. 590, 77/ instantly begone, iam hQc rcvCnerS, PI. MG.
863, B. 1066, ril be back here again forthwith, primus impetus castra
cCperit, L. 25, 38, 17, the first rush will see the camp carried.


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The Verb: Tense. [1630-1635.

X630. The future perfect often denotes action postponed to a more con-
venient season, or thrown upon another person.

Often thus with post, aliSs, and particularly mox: as, v5bis post nSr-
r&verO, PI. Ps, 721, 77/ Ull you by and by, L e. I won't tell you now. ad
f ratrem mox ierO, PI. Cap, 194, / 7/ to my brother's by and by, i. e. not yet.
fixexit ista Cius dCliberfitiO, L. i, 23, 8, that is a question for him to settle,
i. e« not me. Especially viderS : as, quae fuerit causa, mox viderS, Fin.
1 , 35, what the reason was, /wofiU consider now, r€ct€ secusne alifis vide-
rixnuSy Ac, 2, 135, whether right or not, we will consider some other time, i. c.
never, vds videritis, L. i, 58, 10, thai is a question for you, i, e. not me.

163X. The future perfect sometimes denotes action which will have oc-
curred while something else takes place : as,

n5n er5 v5bls morae : tibicen vSs intereS hie dClectfiverit, PI. Ps,
573*, / will not keep ;you long ; meantime the piper will have entertained you
here, tfi invitS mulierCs, ego acciverO puer5s, Att, 5, i, 3, doyou,sir,in-
viie the ladies, and I will meantime have fetched the children,

iC^s. The future perfect is often not perceptibly different from the future,
especially in the ^rst person singular in old Latin : as,

ego mihi pr5vider5, PL Most, 526, 77/ look out for myself, erSs in
obsidiOne linquet, inimlcQm animSs auxerit, PI. As, 280, he 'II leave his
owners in a state of siege, he *ll swell the courage of the enemy. Similarly Cicero,
in the protases si potuerO, si voluerO, si licuerit, s! placuerit.

The Future Active Participle with sum.

1633. The future active participle combined with the tenses of
Btim expresses action inipending, resolved on, or destined, at the time
indicated by the tense 01 the verb : as,

cum hOc equite p(lgn3t{lri estis, L. 21, 40, 10, with this kind of cavalry
are you going to fight, bellum scripttirus sum, quod populus RSmSnus
cum lugurthS gessit, Sail. / 5, i, I purpose to write the history of the war
that the people of Rome carried on with yugurtfia, fiet illud, quod futQrum
est, Dtv. 2, 21, whatever is cUstined to be, will be. DelphSs petiit, ubi co-
lumnfis, quibus impositUri statufis rCgis Persei fuerant, suis statuis
dCstinSvit, L. 45, 27, 6, he went to Delphi, where he appropriated for his own
statues the pillars on which they Jiad intended to put statues of king Perses.


1634. In simple sentences, the tenses of the subjunctive correspond in
general to the same tenses of the indicative. But the present has a future
meaning ; the imperfect sometimes expresses past, sometimes present action;
and the perfect sometimes expresses past action, and sometimes future action.

1635. The present subjunctive is sometimes used In reference to past action, like
the indicative present of vivid narration (1590) : as, migtantis cemSs, V. 4, 401,
you can descry them swarming out (1556). comprehendl ifissit ; quis n5n
pertimCscat ? V. ^.\^,he ordered them to be arrested; who would not be thor^
oughly scared 1 (1565).


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1 6 36- 1 64 1 .] Sentences : The Coordinate Sentence.


1636. Two or more independent simple sentences
may be coordinated to form a compound sentence in
one of two ways : either without a connective, or with
a connective.

V^hat applies to the coordination of sentences, also applies to the
coordination of the parts of sentences in abridged sentences (1057).

(A.) Without a Connective.

1637. When simple sentences or parts of sentences are co-
ordinated without any connective, this mode of arrangement is
called Asyfidetic Coordination or Asyndeton,

Asyndeton, whether in unabridged or in abridged sentences, is more usual
with three or more members than with two. It occurs particularly often in
Plautus, Terence, Ennius, and Cato, also in Cicero, especially in his early
works and letters.

1638. The sentences in which asyndeton occurs are commonlv such as
might be connected by words meaning and or but ; less often oy words
meaning as^for^ &c. Asyndeton is especially common :

1639. (/I.) In animated narration of events happening at the same
moment, in description, and in climaxes. Also in mention of col-
leagues in office, and in many set phrases and formulas : as,

vCni, vidi, vici, Caesar in Suet. ////. 37, camcy saw, overcame, nostri cc-
leriter ad arma concurrunt, vSllum cdnscendunt, 5, 39, 3, our men rush
speedily to arms^ clamber up the palisade, huic s. c. intercessit C. Caelius,
C PSnsa, tribQni pi., Fam, 8, 8, 7, this decree of the settate was objected to by
Caelius and Pansa, tribunes of the commons, hi f erre agere plCbem, L. 3,
37» 7> l^^t "'Joere these people worrying and harrying the commons (1535).

1640. (^.) In contrasts or antitheses: as,

opiniOnis commenta dClet dies, nfitQrae ifidicia pSnfirmat, DN. 2,
5, the fictions of speailation are swept away by time, but the judgements of nature
are confirmed. Particularly when either member is positive, the other nega-
tive : vincere sets, Hannibal, victSriS Qti nescis, L. 22, ci, ^ you know
how to conquer, Hannibal, but not hvtv to U4e victory, says Maharbal after
Cannae, 210 B. c.

x6^i. Asyndeton is very common with two or more imperatives: as, Sgredere
ex urbe, Catilina, libera rem ptLblicam metQ, in exsilium proficiscere,
C. 1, 10^ go forth from Rome^ Caiiline^ relieve the commonwealth fpom tts fear, depart
into exile,, Particularly when the first is aee, come on, mark me, or i, ^ (1572).
Rut from Horace on, 1 nunc, go to now, is followed by et with a second unperative
in derisive orders.


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Copulative Coordination, [i 642-1647.

164a. Aspdeton is also common with parentheses. These often take the place
of a, modern foot-note: as, IC^Stus capite vClfitO filS (Unae vCiamen est)
• audi, luppiter/ inquit, L. i, 32, 6, the envoy with his head covered with a
*Ji^um » {that is to say a wrap of wool) says * bow down thine ear^ Jupiter,^ Paren-
theses however are often introduced, from Terence on by nam, and from Sallust and
Cicero on, by et, neque, autem, enim, &c.

(B.) With a Connective.


1643. Simple sentences or parts of sentences may be con-
nected by copulative, disjunctive, or adversative conjunctions.

(a.) Copulative Conjunctions.

1644. Copulative conjunctions denote union, and connect
both the sentences and their meaning. They are et, -que,
atque or ac, and^ and neque or nee, neither,

1645. (i.) o^ ^^^1 is the commonest copulative, and connects ei-
ther likes or unlikes ; with two members only, it is either used between
them, or is prefixed for emphasis to both : as,

Dumnorix apud SCquands plQrimum poterat et HelvStils erat ami-
cus. If 9f 3» Dumnorix was very influential among the Sequani and a friend
to the Helvetians, DSmocritus alba discernere et Stra n9n poterat, TD,
5, 1 14, Democritus could not tell white and black apart, et discipulus et
magister perhib€bantur inprobi, PI. B, 425, both pupil and master were
rated as kttaves.

1646. With three or more members, et is either used between the mem-
bers or, frequently, prefixed for emphasis to all. Often, however, it is
omitted throughout (1637), or a third member is appended by -que (1651):

persuldent RauricU et Tulin^s et Latovicis uti finS cum his profi-
dscantur, l, 5, 4, they induce the Rauricans^ Tiilingans^ attd Latovicans to
join them in their march, is et in custSdiam civCs RdmSn5s dedit et
8upplicSti5nem mihl decrCvit et indices mSximis praemiis adfCcit, C.
4, 10, this person voted in the first place to put Roman citizens in ward^ then
to decree a thanksgiving in my honour^ and lastly to reward the informers with
liberal gifts,

1647. Two members belonging closely together as a pair, and connected
by et, atque, or -que, are sometimes put asyndetically with another member
or members : as,

Aedui ferunt sC dCiectOs prIncipStG ; queruntur fOrtUnae commU-
tatiOnem et Caesaris indulgentiam in sC requirunt, 7, 63, 8, the Aeduans
set forth that they were cast down from the chief place ; they complain of the
change of fortuncy and say they miss Caesar* s former kindness to them. nUn-
tifitum est equitCs Ariovisti propius tumulum accCdere et ad nostrOs
adequitSre ; lapidCs in nostrOs conicere, i, 46, i, // was reported that Ario'
vistus's cavalry were moving nearer the hillock and galloping up to the Romans;
that they were throwing stones at our men,

9* 265

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1648-1654-] Sentences: The Coordinate Sentence.

1648. et has sometimes the meaning of also or of andalso^ particularly when there
is a change of speakers, or before a pronoun : as, et h5c sci5, Plin. Ep. i, 12, 11, /
know that too. Sometimes also after vCrum, nam, and simul| especially when a
pronoun follows. Not in Caesar.

1649. (^O -<1^0i ^'^^f combines members which belong together
and make a whole, though they may be different or opposed to each
other ; the second member is often a mere appendage : as,

rogat dratque t6, RA, i^^he begs and entreats you^ or he earnestly entreats
yoti, liberti servolique ndbilium, RA, 141, the freedmen and slaves of
the greaty or retainers , bond and free. oxnnSs ea, quae bona videntur,
sequuntur fugiuntque contrSria, TD. 4, 12, everybody runs after what seems
good and avoids the opposite, -que is usually put after the first word of the
new member. It is particularly pommon in old or legal style.

1650. The combination -que . . . -que, both . . . and^ is very common in poetry:
as, noctCsque diSsque, £. in CM. i, both night and day. In prose, it is used
by Sallust when the nrst word is a pronoun: as, mCque rSgnum^ue meum,
/. 10, 2, both myself and my throne; and by Livy to connect two relative sentences:
as, omnCs quique Rdmae pulque in ezercitQ erant, 22, 26, 5, everybody,
both people in Rome and people in the army.

1651. After two members without a connective, a third member is some-
times appended by -que : as,

satis habCbat host em rapinis, pfibulatiOnibus, populStiSnibusque
prohibCre, i, 15, 4, ^/ luas satisfied with keeping the eftemy from plundering^
foragingy and ravaging.

1652. (3.) atque, or before any consonant except h often ac, and,
and besides^ adds something belonging essentially to what goes before,
but more important as a supplement or extension ; as,

sS ex nfivi prSiCcit atque in hostCs aquilam ferre coepit, 4, 25, 4, he
sprang overboard and furthermore proceeded to bear the eagle upon the enemy.
mSgna dis immortSlibus habenda est atque huic lovi StatSri grStia,
C. I, iiyWe owe a great debt of gratitude to the gods immortal in general^ and to
yon Jove the Stayer in particular, atque . . . atque occurs for et . . . et
once in Vergil, and once in Silius Italicus.

1653. atque is used in comparisons, after words of likeness and nnlike-
ness: as,

pari spatiS trSnsmissus, atque ex QalliS est in Britanniam, 5, x^ 2,
thejottrney across is fust as long as it is from Gaul to Britain. Idemque itts-
sCrunt simulacrum lovis facere miiius et contrS, atque antefi fuerat,
ad orientem convertere, C. 3, 20, and they furthermore gave orders to make
a statue of Jupiter ^ a bigger one^ and to turn it round to the east^ the opposite of
the way it originally Jfaced. Sometimes et is thus used after alius, aliter.
aequS, pariter, &c. : see the dictionary.

1654. With adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree, atque sometimes
takes the place of quam than^ when the first member of comparison 'is negative
(1895) • ^\ amlcior mihi nQUus vfvit atque is est, PI. Mer, 897, 1 have no
greater friend alive than that man is. So in Plautus, Terence, Catullus, Vergil,
rarely in Cicero. Horace uses atque thus, even when the first member is positive.


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Copulative Coordination, [i 655-1661.

X655. A sentence is often introduced by ct, -que, or atque, where but
^would be used in English, particularly so when a positive sentence follows
a. negative one : as,

S5cratCs nee patrdnum quaesivit nee itldicibus supplex fuit adhi-
"brLitque liberam contumficiam, TD. i, 71, Socrates did not try to find an
a€ivocate nor bow the knee to his judges, but he was plain-spoken and defiant.
ziostr5rum militum impetum hoatCs ferre ndn potuCrunt ac terga ver-
^Crunt, 4, 35, 2, the ettemy could not stand the dam of our people^ but turned
t/teir backs, hominis nC Qraeci quidem ac My si potius, QFr. i, i, 19,
<» creature who is not even a Greeks but more of a Mysian,

1656. Two sentences, one of which would ordinarily be introduced by a subordinat-
ing temporal conjunction, are sometimes, mostly in poetry, coordinated by et or -que:
as, dixit et in silvam pennis ablSta refQgit, V. 3, 258, she spake, and on her
pinions sweepings vanished to the wood, i. e. simul atque dixit, refdgit.

1657. (4.) neque or nee, neither^ nor, and , . . not, but , . . not, is
used as a negative copulative, sometimes as a negative adversative :

opiniSnibus volgfi rapimur in errOrem ncc v5ra cemimus, Leg. 2, 43,
we are swept into error by the delusions of the world and cannot make out the
truth, n5n enim temere nee fSrtuItS crefitl sumus, TD. i, iiS, for we
were not created at adventure nor by accident. subsidiS suis iCrunt col-
lemque cSpCnint, neque nostrSram militum impetum sustin€re potu-
Srunt, 7, 62, 8, they went to aid their people and carried the hill, but they could
not^ stand the fiery onset of our soldiers, neque or ncc is often repeated : as,
nee meliSrSs nee beStiOrCs esse possumus, RP. i, 32, we can neither be
better nor wiser.

1658. nee is rarely used in the sense of nS . . . quidem, not even, not , . . ei-
ther: as, nee nunc, H. S, 2, 3, 262, not ezen now, a free quotation of n€ nunc

3uidem, T. £u. 46. nee . . . quidem, and not even, is used once or twice for
le common ac n6 . . . quidem or et n6 . . . quidem.

Z659. Instead of neque or nee, and not, the copulatives et, atque, rarely
-que, followed by a negative, nOn, nCmO, nihil, &c., are sometimes used in Cicero
and Livy, less often in old Latin, and rarely in Caesar and Sallust; as, quid tQ
fSciss€s, 81 te Tarentum et n5n Samarobrivam misissem ? Fam. 7, 12,
f, what would you have done, if I had sent you to Tarentum, and not to Samaro-
brrva ^ Particularly thus et n5n, or oftener ac n5n, in corrections. But ordinarily
neque or nee is preferred to et n5n, and nee quisquam, &c, to et nCmS,
&c. (1445).

z66o. When neque is followed by another negative, the assertion is
positive (1452) : as,

nee h5c ille ndn vidit. Fin. 4, 60, and the man did not fail to see this.
This positive use begins with Varro. In old Latin two negatives, and partic-
ularly neque . . . baud, are often used, as in old English, to strengthen the
negation (1453)-

i66x. After a general negative, a word may be emphasized by ni ...
quidem or nOn mode, or the parts of a compound sentence may be difttrib-
uted by neque . . . neque, without destroying the negation : as,


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1 662-1 668,] Sentences: The Coordinate Sentence.

nihil in locis commQnibus, nC in fSnis quidem, nihil istum neque
privfiti neque pablici t0t2 in SiciliS reliquisse, V. 4, 2, that the defendatU
has left nothing untouched in public places ^ no, not even in the temples^ nothing
either in the way 0/ private or of public froperty, in all Sicily. Similarly when
a coordinate member is appended with neque: as, nequeO satis mirSri
neque conicere, T. Eu, 547, 1 can't quite puzzle out or guess.

Combination of Different Copulatives.

1662. Different copulatives are sometimes combined, as follows.

1663. (k) The affirmative copulatives et and -que are sometimes com-
bined, particularly in abridged sentences : as, ^

et EpaminOndSs praecUrC cecinisse dicitur, ThemistodCsque est
habitus indoctior, TD, f, 4, Epaminondas in the first place is said to have
played beautifotlly, and Themistocles was not considered exactly an educated
man. This combination occurs in Ennius, is used by Cicero rarely, and by
Horace in the satires.

1664. The sequence -que . . . et is rare in old Latin, and not used by Caesar,
Vergil, or Horace, -que . . . atque is first used by Lucretius, then by Vergil, Ovid,
Livy, and Tacitus, atque . . . et, or atque . . . -que, does not occur.

1665. (2.) Affirmative and negative copulatives are sometimes combined.
Thus neque or nee combined with et, in the sequences neque . . . et and
et . . . neque, which is rare in old Latin, is common in Cicero : as, *

nee miror et gaudeO, Fam. 10, i, 4, in the first place I am not surprised^
and in the second place Ifrel glad ; neque . . . et n5n, however, is rare, pa-
tCbat via et certa neque longa, Ph. 11, 4, there lay a road open at once
plain and not long, nec^ue . . . -que begins with Cicero, but is rare (1655),
neque . . . ac begins with Tacitus.

1666. Of all the Latin writers, Tacitus aims most at varietv by combination of
asyndeton and by the use of different copulatives : as, rSeem RhamsSn Libyfi
AethiopiS MCdisque et Persis et JBactriSn5 ac ScythS potitum, 2, 60,
that king Rhamses got control 0/ Libya and Aethiopia and the Meaes and PersianSy
and the Bad r tan and Scythian,

{b.) Disjunctive Conjunctions.

1667. Disjunctive conjunctions connect the sentences, but
disconnect the meaning. They are aut, vel, sive or seu,
-ve, and an, or. Of these conjunctions, aut, vel, and sIve,
are often placed before two or more members of a sentence in
the sense of either ...or. And in poetry, -ve . . • -ve sometimes

z668. (i.) ant, or^ sometimes or even^ or at leasts is used between
two members which are to be represented as essentially different in
meaning, and of which one excludes the other: as,


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Disjunctive Coordination. [ 1 669- 1 6 7 3.

liic vincendum aut morieDdum, siilitSs, est, L. 21, 43, 5, here you
^9*ts^e coftquer, my men^ or die, hOrac mOmentO cita mors venit aut
'vfctdria laeta, H. .S. i, i, 7, wUkin mt hour' s brief turn comes speedy death or
z-'itr/ory glad, aut vivaxn aut moriar, T. Ph. 483, / shall either live or die.
sideribus dubiis aut illO tempore quO sC frigida circumagunt pigri
3errSca BoOtae, J. 5, 22, wlun stars blink faiftt, or even at the time when
rtmnd rolls slow Bootes' "frigid wain. qu2 r8 vi aut clam agendum est,
^tt. 10, 12, 5 [10, 12 b, 2\ySO we must use force, or at any rate secrecy. Some-
times aut connects kindred ideas : as, equi icti aut vulnerSti c5nstemS-
l>antur, L. 21, 33, 6, the horses kept getting frantic from being hit or wounded.

1669. ant, in the sense of otherwise^ or else^ sometimes intro-
duces a statement of what necessarily follows, if something else is not
done: as,

audendum est aliquid Qniversfs, aut omnia singulis patienda, L.
6, 18, It you must make some bold dash collectively , or else you must suffer every
thing individually, vel is also occasionally used in this sense.

1670. (2.) vel, or^ introduces an alternative as a matter of choice
or preference, and often relates merely to the selection of an expres-
sion : as,

Ciu8 modi conitinctiOnem tSctOrum oppidum vel urbem appellSvC-
runt, RP. I, 41, such a collection of dwelling-houses they called, well, a town or
a city^ whichever you please, vel imperStOre vel milite mC tktimini, S. C.
20, 1 6, use me as your generalissimo or as a private, whichever you will. Catili-
nam ex urbe vel CiCcimus vel Smisimus vel ipsum Cgredientem verbis
prOsectiti sumus, C, 2,1, we have — what shall I say ? — driven Catiline out
oftown^ or allowed him to go out, or, when he was going out of his own accord,
wished him a pleasant journey, vel is often followed by etiam, potius, or
dicam. From Tacitus on, vel is sometimes used in the sense of aut : as,
vincendum vel cadendum esse, Ta. 14, 35, they must do or die (1668).

1671. vel is sometimes used in the sense odfyou 7vill, even, ox perhaps,
especially before superlatives, or in the sense oifor instance : as,

biiius domus est vel optima MessSnae, nOtissima quidem certC,
f^ 4, 3, this gentleman^ s house is perhaps the finest in all Messana, at any rate
the best known, amant tCd omnSs mulierCs, neaue initkriS : vel illae, quae
here palliO mC reprehendSrunt, PI. MG. 58, the girls all idolize you^ well
they may ; for instance those that buttonholed me yesterday.

1672. (3.) sive or aen, or, used as a disjunctive conjunction, de-
notes a distinction which is not essential, or the speaker's' uncertainty
as to some matter of detail; when used once only, it is chiefly In
corrections, often with potiaa, rather, added ; as,

is Ascanius urbem mStri seu novercae reliquit, L. 1,3,3, s^id Asca-
nius left the city to his mother, or his stepmother, if you prefer, dixit Pom-
p€ius, sive voluit, QFr. 2, 3, 2, Pompey made a speech, or rather attempted to
make one.

1673. live is often repeated in the sense of either, or no matter
whether ...or: as,


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i674~i68o.] Sentences: The Coordinate Sentence.

ita sive cSsQ sive cOnsiliO deOrum, quae pan calamitfitem populO
R5m3n0 intnlerat, ea princeps poenSs penolvit, i, 12, 6, thus, no matter
whether from eJiance or through special providefue, the part which had done
damage to Rome was the first to pay penalty in full,

X674. (4.) -ve rarely connects main sentences, usually only the less impor-
tant parts of the sentence, or, oftener still, subordinate sentences : as,

cOr tixneam dubitemve locum d€fendere ? J. i, 103, why should I fear
or hesitate to stand my ground? Appius ad mC bis terve litterfis miserat,
Ate. 6, 1, 2, Appius had written me two or three times. With nC it forms nCvc
or neu, which is used as a continuation of n6 or ut : see 1581 ; 1586; 1947.

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